This candidate has demonstrated 0% courage during the test.
*Note: This percentage is calculated based on the number of issue areas addressed by the candidate on the Political Courage Test at the conclusion of the testing period. It does not indicate support or lack of support by Project Vote Smart.
In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These are provided below as a courtesy to voters.
Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.
Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.
Candidate refused to address this issue.
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This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning abortion.
|a) Abortions should always be illegal.|
|b) Abortions should be illegal when the fetus is viable, with or without life support.|
|c) Abortions should always be legally available.|
|d) Abortions should be legal only within the first trimester of pregnancy.|
|X||e) Abortions should be legal when the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape.|
|X||f) Abortions should be legal when the life of the woman is endangered.|
|X||g) Abortions should be limited by waiting periods and notification requirements as decided by each state government.|
|X||h) Prohibit the dilation and extraction procedure, also known as "partial birth" abortion.|
|X||i) Prohibit public funding of abortions and public funding of organizations that advocate or perform abortions.|
|j) Support funding for research on the drug RU-486.|
|k) Support "buffer-zones" by requiring demonstrators to stay at least five feet from abortion clinic doorways and driveways.|
|X||l) Provide funding for family planning programs as a means to decrease the number of abortions.|
|2) Will your Supreme Court nominees share your principles on abortion?|
Using the key below, indicate what levels of federal funding you support for the following general categories. Select one number only.
|Slightly Increase Funding||a) Agricultural programs|
|Maintain Funding Status||b) Arts funding|
|Greatly Increase Funding||c) Defense|
|Slightly Increase Funding||d) Education|
|Maintain Funding Status||e) Environmental programs|
|Maintain Funding Status||f) International aid|
|Slightly Increase Funding||g) Law enforcement|
|Greatly Increase Funding||h) Medical research|
|Maintain Funding Status||i) National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA)|
|Maintain Funding Status||j) National Parks|
|Slightly Increase Funding||k) Scientific research|
|Maintain Funding Status||l) Transportation and Highway Infrastructure|
|Maintain Funding Status||m) Welfare|
|Yes||2) Would you support enforcing the spending limits agreed to in 1997 by the President and Congress to balance the budget?|
Using the key below, indicate what levels of federal funding you support for the following categories. Select one number only.
|Greatly Increase Funding||a) Armed Forces personnel training|
|Maintain Funding Status||b) Covert intelligence operations|
|Greatly Decrease Funding||c) Defense plant conversion|
|Slightly Increase Funding||d) Military hardware|
|Maintain Funding Status||e) Military space shuttle missions|
|Greatly Increase Funding||f) Pay for active duty personnel|
|Greatly Increase Funding||g) National Missile Defense Program|
|Greatly Increase Funding||h) Modernization of weaponry and equipment|
|Greatly Increase Funding||i) Programs to improve military retention rates|
|Greatly Increase Funding||j) Research and development of new weapons|
|Greatly Increase Funding||k) Troop and equipment readiness|
Using the key below, indicate your priorities for spending any anticipated federal budget surplus. Select one number only.
|High Priority||a) Defense|
|High Priority||b) Education|
|High Priority||c) Federal debt reduction|
|Highest Priority||d) Medicare|
|Highest Priority||e) Social Security|
|High Priority||f) Tax cuts|
|Highest Priority||g) Other|
The social security surplus should not be used.
Using the key below, indicate what levels you support concerning taxes, deductions, and tax credits in the following categories. Select one number only.
Income Taxes: Family Income
|Eliminate||a) Less than $25,000|
|Greatly Decrease||b) $25,000 - $75,000|
|Greatly Decrease||c) $75,000 - $150,000|
|Greatly Decrease||d) Over $150,000|
Income Taxes: Retiree Income
|Greatly Decrease||h) Over $40, 000|
|Maintain Status||a) Alcohol taxes|
|Eliminate||b) Capital gains taxes|
|Maintain Status||c) Cigarette taxes|
|Slightly Decrease||d) Corporate taxes|
|Eliminate||e) Estate taxes|
|Maintain Status||f) Gasoline taxes|
|Slightly Increase||a) Charitable deductions|
|Greatly Increase||b) Medical expense deductions|
|Maintain Status||c) Mortgage deductions|
|Slightly Increase||d) Child tax credit|
|Slightly Increase||e) Earned income tax credit|
|Greatly Increase||f) Student loan tax credit|
|Undecided||2) Do you support replacing the current U.S. income tax structure with a flat income tax?|
|Undecided||3) Do you support instituting a national sales tax?|
|Yes||4) Should a married couple filing jointly pay the same taxes as if they were an unmarried couple filing separately?|
|Yes||5) Do you support requiring at least a 2/3 majority (super-majority) vote in both houses of Congress to raise taxes?|
|Yes||6) Would you cut taxes if there were an operating surplus?|
|No||7) Would you cut taxes and use Social Security surpluses to supplement the difference?|
Repeal the estate tax; lower capital gains rates, institute a permanent R and D tax credit; simplify the tax code.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding campaign finance issues.
|a) Support public taxpayer funding for congressional candidates who comply with campaign spending limits.|
|b) Eliminate publicly financed matching funds for presidential campaigns.|
|X||c) Increase the amount individuals are permitted to contribute to federal campaigns.|
|X||d) Strengthen and enforce legislation that encourages full and timely disclosure of campaign finance information.|
|e) Prohibit Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions to candidates for federal office.|
|f) Provide free or low-cost television advertising to candidates who agree to voluntary campaign spending limits.|
|g) Ban unregulated soft money campaign contributions to political parties or committees.|
|X||h) Prohibit non-U.S. citizens from making soft money contributions to national parties or party committees.|
|i) Require full disclosure of funding sources of issue advocacy commercials which appear within 60 days of an election.|
|j) Make campaign spending limits mandatory for all federal candidates.|
|X||k) Require unions to get members' permission before using union dues for political advocacy.|
|l) Remove all contribution limits on federal candidates and parties, but require complete and immediate disclosure via the Internet.|
|m) Require Congressional candidates to raise over half of their campaign money from their home state.|
Require continuous updating of contributions and expenditures via the Internet.
1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) to address crime.
|a) Broaden the use of the death penalty for federal crimes.|
|b) Eliminate the use of the death penalty for federal crimes.|
|X||c) Impose stricter penalties for violent felons.|
|X||d) Increase spending to build more federal prisons.|
|X||e) Impose "truth in sentencing" for violent criminals so they serve full sentences with no chance of parole.|
|X||f) Support programs to provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related skills and job-placement assistance when released.|
|X||g) Support programs to provide prison inmates with drug and alcohol addiction treatment.|
|X||h) Increase penalties for crimes committed on school grounds.|
|i) Increase funding for community policing programs.|
|j) Reduce prison sentences for those who commit non-violent crimes.|
|k) Require that crimes based on gender, sexual orientation, and disability be prosecuted as federal hate crimes.|
|X||l) Enforcement of civil rights should primarily be the responsibility of the federal government.|
Maintain and increase funds for law enforcement block grants.
2) Indicate which principles you support (if any) to address juvenile crime.
|X||a) Prosecute as adults, youths accused of a felony.|
|X||b) Increase funding for local Boys & Girls Clubs and other independent organizations in communities with at-risk youth.|
|X||c) Provide block grants to states for implementation of programs to combat juvenile crime.|
|X||d) Impose harsher penalties for youths convicted of violent offenses.|
|X||e) Support the use of "boot camps" as alternative sentencing for juvenile offenders.|
|X||f) Support programs that provide job training and placement services for at-risk youth.|
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning illegal drugs.
|X||a) Increase penalties for selling illegal drugs.|
|X||b) Support mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.|
|X||c) Support capital punishment for convicted international drug traffickers.|
|X||d) Expand federally sponsored drug education and drug treatment programs.|
|e) Decriminalize the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes.|
|f) Decriminalize the production and use of industrial hemp for agricultural purposes.|
|X||g) Increase border security to stop the flow of illegal drugs into the U.S.|
|h) Eliminate federal funding for programs associated with the "war on drugs."|
1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning education (K-12).
|a) Support national standards and testing of public school students.|
|X||b) Allow parents to use vouchers (equal opportunity scholarships) to send their children to any publicly-funded school.|
|X||c) Allow parents to use vouchers (equal opportunity scholarships) to send their children to any participating school: public, private or religious.|
|X||d) Allow parents to use tax-free savings accounts to send their children to any publicly-funded school.|
|X||e) Allow parents to use tax-free savings accounts to send their children to any participating school: public, private or religious.|
|X||f) Support creation of more charter schools where teachers and professionals receive authorization and funding to establish new schools.|
|g) Give all federal education funding to states in the form of block grants and allow the states to spend it as they see fit.|
|X||h) Increase funding for block grants to states to help them hire additional teachers.|
|X||i) Support voluntary teacher testing and reward teachers with merit pay.|
|j) Support mandatory teacher testing and reward teachers with merit pay.|
|X||k) Increase funding to reduce class sizes.|
|X||l) Increase funding for computers and computer training in public schools.|
|X||m) Increase funding for school capital improvements (e.g. buildings and infrastructure).|
|X||n) Eliminate restrictions on federal education funding, giving educators or local school districts more flexibility to design and implement their programs.|
2) Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning higher education.
|a) Support affirmative action in public college admissions.|
|b) Eliminate federal financial aid for individuals convicted of drug offenses.|
|X||c) Increase funding of programs such as Pell grants and Stafford loans to help students pay for college.|
|X||d) Support federal tax incentives to help families save for college.|
3) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding religion and public schools.
|X||a) Religious expression on public school property should be allowed.|
|b) Student religious groups should not be allowed to meet on public school property.|
1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding employment.
|X||a) Provide tax credits for companies that move job-creating industries into areas with high unemployment.|
|b) Increase funding for national job-training programs that re-train displaced workers or teach skills needed in today's job market.|
|X||c) Reduce government regulation of the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion.|
|X||d) Establish empowerment zones in areas with large numbers of unemployed people.|
|e) Eliminate any federal programs designed to reduce unemployment.|
|f) Increase the federal minimum wage.|
|X||g) Encourage employers to offer flex-time scheduling, comp-time, and unpaid leave for family emergencies.|
|X||h) Provide tax credits for businesses that offer on-site child care.|
|i) Increase support for the AmeriCorps program.|
2) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding affirmative action.
|a) The federal government should consider race and sex in making government contracting decisions.|
|b) The federal government should continue affirmative action programs.|
|c) The federal government should discontinue affirmative action programs.|
|X||d) The federal government should only utilize merits and qualifications in making government contracting decisions.|
Support outreach to minority communities and assistance to economically disadvantaged persons.
1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding America's environment and natural resources.
|a) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Water Act.|
|b) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Air Act.|
|X||c) Waive environmental review requirements for grazing permits.|
|X||d) Revise the 1872 mining law to increase the fees charged to mining companies using federal lands.|
|X||e) Require states to fully compensate citizens when environmental regulations limit uses of privately-owned land.|
|X||f) Encourage further development and use of alternative fuels to reduce pollution.|
|g) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles.|
|X||h) Promote the selling of pollution credits between nations to encourage industries to decrease pollution levels.|
|i) Strengthen logging restrictions on federal lands.|
|X||j) Strengthen regulations governing the security, safety, transportation, and storage of spent nuclear fuel and waste.|
|X||k) Support the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel.|
|l) Reduce current federal regulations on the environment.|
Greater inclusion of state and local officials in determining how to meet federal environmental standards.
|No||2) Do you support the United Nations (Kyoto Conference) treaty, in its current form, regarding global climate change?|
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning gun issues.
|a) Ban the sale or transfer of semi-automatic guns, except those used for hunting.|
|b) Maintain federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.|
|X||c) Ease federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.|
|X||d) Repeal federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns by law-abiding citizens.|
|X||e) Allow citizens to carry concealed guns.|
|X||f) Require manufacturers to provide child-safety locks on guns.|
|X||g) Increase penalties for the possession of any illegal guns.|
|h) Hold gun owners responsible for crimes committed with their guns by children age 16 and under.|
|i) Raise the minimum age for ownership of handguns from 18 to 21.|
|j) Require three business days for background checks of gun buyers at gun shows.|
|X||k) Strengthen enforcement of current regulations on guns.|
|l) Require a license for gun possession.|
Mandatory "10-20-life" for crimes committed with guns. Tougher enforcement for laws already on the books.
1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding health issues.
|a) Providing health care is not a responsibility of the federal government.|
|b) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income.|
|X||c) Support health care strategies focused on prevention, including health education, and natural medicines and remedies.|
|X||d) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights to define and enforce the rights of insured patients, including greater access to specialists and emergency rooms, wider choice of health care providers, and appeal mechanisms when claims are denied.|
|X||e) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights which includes the right to sue when claims are denied.|
|X||f) Allow small business owners, the self-employed and workers whose employers do not provide health insurance to have the same deductibility for health costs as corporations and large employers.|
|X||g) Expand eligibility for tax-free medical savings accounts, which would be taxed if used for purposes other than medical costs.|
|X||h) Establish limits on the amount of damages awarded in medical malpractice lawsuits.|
|i) Allow states and local communities to use federal funds for needle-exchange programs to combat the spread of HIV.|
|j) Provide citizens age 55-65 the option of purchasing Medicare health coverage.|
|X||k) Support legislation to provide prescription drug coverage under Medicare.|
|X||l) Increase funding for AIDS programs.|
|No||2) Do you support increasing taxes on alcohol and cigarettes to help defer costs of Medicare and Medicaid?|
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding immigration.
|a) Decrease the number of immigrants allowed into the country.|
|b) Increase the eligibility of legal immigrants for certain social programs (e.g. public housing, food stamps).|
|c) Require the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to reduce the time between applying for citizenship and taking the oath of allegiance to six months.|
|d) Provide extra federal aid to states with higher numbers of immigrants for necessary medical and social services.|
|e) Prohibit states from passing laws that deny human services (medical care, education) to illegal immigrants or their children.|
|f) Children of illegal immigrants, born in the U. S., should not automatically receive U.S. citizenship.|
|X||g) Increase the immigration quota for computer scientists and other information technology workers.|
|h) Establish English as the official national language.|
|i) Support the separation of the INS into two bureaus: one administering naturalization and one administering border patrol.|
|j) Increase state autonomy to deal with immigration.|
|k) Reimburse states for providing services to illegal aliens.|
Increase training and resources for the border patrol; "English Plus" Reorganize the INS to separate enforcement and benefit functions.
1) Indicate which principles (if any) you support regarding U. S. economic assistance.
|X||a) Aid should be granted to countries when extraordinary circumstances cause disaster and threaten civilian lives.|
|X||b) Aid should be granted to countries when it is in the security interests of the U. S.|
|X||c) Aid should be granted to countries that are close allies of the U. S. and in need of financial/military assistance.|
|X||d) Aid should be eliminated for any nation with documented human rights abuses.|
|X||e) Aid programs should be scaled back and eventually eliminated except for extraordinary circumstances.|
Promotion of democracy programs such as the "National Endowment for Democracy."
|Yes||2) Should the International Monetary Fund (IMF) be restructured so that it can respond to international financial crises more effectively?|
3) From the key below, indicate what levels of economic assistance you support (if any) for the following countries and/or agencies. Select one number only.
|Slightly Increase Funding||a) Colombia|
|Maintain Funding Status||b) Egypt|
|Maintain Funding Status||c) Israel|
|Slightly Increase Funding||d) Kosovo province|
|Maintain Funding Status||e) Mexico|
|Greatly Decrease Funding||f) North Korea|
|Slightly Decrease Funding||g) Russia|
|Slightly Increase Funding||h) Turkey|
|Maintain Funding Status||l) African Development Fund|
|Maintain Funding Status||m) Agency for International Development(AID)|
|Maintain Funding Status||n) International Monetary Fund (IMF)|
|Maintain Funding Status||o) NATO Peace Keeping Missions|
|Maintain Funding Status||p) UN Crisis and Humanitarian Aid|
|Slightly Decrease Funding||q) UN Peace Keeping Missions|
|Slightly Decrease Funding||r) World Bank|
1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the Kosovo province.
|a) The U.S. should maintain ground troops in the Kosovo province with a specific deadline for withdrawal.|
|X||b) The U.S. should maintain ground troops in the Kosovo province without a specific deadline for withdrawal.|
|c) The U.S. should not maintain ground troops in the Kosovo province.|
The US should not indicate to our enemies when it will withdraw.
2) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the Middle East.
|a) The U.S. should resolve future disputes with Iraq only through diplomatic means.|
|X||b) The U.S. should take unilateral military action if Iraq does not comply with all accepted United Nations resolutions.|
|c) The U.S. should take military action against Iraq only as part of an international effort.|
|d) The U.S. should end the economic embargo against Iraq.|
|e) The U.S. should not continue to play a prominent leadership role in the peace process between Israel and the Palestine Authority.|
|X||f) The U.S. should continue to play a prominent leadership role in the peace process between Israel and the Palestine Authority.|
3) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the United States-United Nations relationship.
|a) The U.S. should participate in United Nations peacekeeping missions only when vital U.S. interests are involved.|
|b) The U.S. should not commit military troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions.|
|c) The U.S. should withdraw completely from the United Nations.|
|X||d) The U.S. should pay its debt to the United Nations.|
The US should use the United Nations to advance US international goals, not the other way around.
|No||4) Should the U.S. have full diplomatic relations with Cuba?|
|Yes||5) Should the U.S. have full diplomatic relations with China?|
|Undecided||6) Should the U.S. recognize and extend full diplomatic relations to Taiwan?|
|Yes||7) Should the U.S. have full diplomatic relations with nations with documented human rights abuses?|
|Yes||8) Do you support the cooperative threat reduction programs with Russia to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to unfriendly nations?|
|Yes||9) Do you support modifying the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty in order to deploy the National Missile Defense System?|
|Yes||1) Do you support the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?|
|Yes||2) Do you support broadening NAFTA to include other countries in the western hemisphere?|
|Yes||3) Do you support the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)?|
|Yes||4) Do you support continued U.S. membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO)?|
|Yes||5) Do you support China becoming a member of the World Trade Organization?|
|Yes||6) Do you support imposing tariffs on products imported from nations that maintain restrictive trade barriers on American products?|
|Yes||7) Should a nation's human rights record affect its normal trade relations (most favored nation) trading status with the United States?|
|8) Do you support normal trade relation (most favored nation) status with Vietnam?|
|Yes||9) Do you support granting the President "fast-track" authority in trade negotiations?|
|Yes||10) Do you support the trade embargo against Cuba?|
|Yes||11) Do you support strengthening the American anti-dumping laws which give the Commerce Department additional power to fight imports priced below the manufacturing cost?|
|12) Do you support an open trade policy for the United States?|
|Yes||Do you believe there has been a decline in moral and ethical standards in America over the last four decades?|
|In one hundred words or less please explain what you would do as President to address this concern.|
For eight years, we have had a President who has flaunted the moral values of our nation. He has lied and abused the White House for political gain. He has argued that a solemn oath can be violated on technicalities. I do not believe that America needs to agree with the president all of the time on matters of policy, but they need a president they can trust all of the time. They need a president whose personal conduct is worthy of the people he or she represents and a president whose policies are predicated on principles, not on polls.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding Social Security.
|X||a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts which they manage themselves.|
|b) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts managed by private firms contracted by the government.|
|c) Invest a portion of Social Security's assets collectively in stocks and bonds instead of U.S. Treasury securities.|
|d) Increase the payroll tax to better finance Social Security in its current form.|
|e) Invest a portion of the budget surplus into the Social Security trust fund.|
|f) Increase the minimum age that determines when retirees are eligible to receive full Social Security benefits.|
|g) Lower Social Security's annual cost-of-living increases.|
|h) Limit Social Security benefits based on recipients' other income and assets.|
|i) Require individuals to pay the Social Security tax on incomes above $68,400 (which is currently exempt).|
|X||j) Support a lock box measure, limiting Congress's ability to spend Social Security and Medicare surpluses on any other federal programs except Social Security and Medicare, until each program's long-term solvency is guaranteed.|
Maintain survivors and disability benefits; repeal earnings limit; repeal the 1993 increased tax on benefits.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding technology.
|a) Implement taxes on commercial Internet transactions.|
|b) Implement regulation of Internet content by the federal government.|
|c) Allow voter registration on-line.|
|d) Allow voting on-line.|
|e) Support government mandates to curtail violent and sexual content on television.|
|X||f) Support strict penalties for Internet crimes such as hacking and Internet violence.|
|X||g) Support strong Internet privacy laws.|
|h) Regulation of the Internet should not in any way controlled by the federal government.|
Support extending a moratorium on internet taxation.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding poverty and the welfare system.
|X||a) Support housing assistance for welfare recipients.|
|X||b) Provide homeless families with apartment vouchers they can use to supplement the cost of an apartment.|
|X||c) Continue to give states and local governments responsibility for welfare programs through block grants.|
|X||d) Maintain current welfare-to-work requirements in order for states to qualify for block grants.|
|X||e) Require that unwed teenage mothers live with a parent or guardian (if possible) and attend school to receive benefits.|
|f) Restore food stamp programs to legal immigrants.|
|X||g) Transfer homeless housing programs to states through block grants.|
|X||h) Provide continued Medicaid benefits for those welfare recipients who have moved from welfare to work.|
|i) Provide federal assistance to low-income job applicants for transportation to jobs at some distance.|
|j) Require states to return any unused welfare block grant funding to the federal government.|
|X||k) Direct federal poverty aid through religious, community-based or other non-profit organizations.|
Increased funds for child care block grants.
|Please explain what your top two or three priorities will be if elected President of the United States. If they require additional funding for implementation please explain how you would obtain this funding.|
As President, I will fight to reduce our tax burden so that we can continue to expand our economy and create high quality, high paying jobs. I will simplify our tax code, lower tax rates, and eliminate the marriage penelty and death tax. I will defend the 2nd Amendment. I will continue the fight to protect the right to life and the sanctity of life. I will rebuild our military. And, I will restore principles of integrity, honesty and candor to the White House, where respect of the law must be the rule not the exception.