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Lois Frankel's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Office: U.S. House (FL) - District 21, Democratic
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Lois Frankel has refused to provide voters with positions on key issues covered by the 2016 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests. Historically, candidates have failed to complete our test due to the advice they receive from their parties and advisors and out of fear of negative attack ads.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These issue positions, from the year 2016, are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Pro-choice Inferred Answer Abortion: Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Lois has never wavered in her belief that a woman must have the right to make choices about her body without the involvement of government officials. She is a life-long supporter of women’s reproductive rights. Lois is a committed supporter of Roe v. Wade and believes that access to effective birth control and emergency contraception should be guaranteed for all women." (
  • "Lois will stand strong against anyone who attacks these basic rights and essencial programs. That’s why Lois is endorsed by Emily’s List, the National Organization for Women, the Women’s Campaign Fund, as well as other organizations dedicated to women’s rights." (
  • "Congresswoman Frankel understands that a woman's health care decisions should be made by herself, with the guidance of her doctor – not by politicians." (
Yes Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Palm Beach Post "The two Democrats are similar on the issues. Both support maintaining Medicare and Social Security and doing away with the Bush tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans. And both say they identify with middle-class voters worried about health care, jobs and how to pay for college for their children." (
  • "RNC has proven that the Tea Party is living in a fantasy world where cutting taxes for the wealthiest and raising taxes for the middle class is sharing the burden." (
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Crime: Do you support mandatory minimum sentences for non-violent drug offenders? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Despite exhaustive research, Vote Smart was unable to find information about this candidate's position.
Yes Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • " 'Lois' Priorities for Creating Jobs: -Investing in infrastructure and technology to modernize the economy and create jobs. We should not accept a second rate infrastructure in the United States." (
  • "Investing in infrastructure and technology to modernize the economy and create jobs. We should not accept a second rate infrastructure in the United States." (
  • ""I will work to grow our economy by investing in infrastructure, encouraging innovation in education, and promoting research and development." (
Yes Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support lowering taxes as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "She supports tax cuts for middle class families and small businesses." (
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Education: Do you generally support requiring states to adopt federal education standards? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "As a mother and Congresswoman, Frankel understands that children are our most precious resource and that we must invest in their futures. Research continues to demonstrate that a child’s first few years of life are critical to his or her ability to succeed in school and beyond. Furthermore, for every dollar invested in early childhood programs there is a return of more than eight dollars in the long-term. That is why Frankel co-sponsored the Strong Start for America's Children Act of 2013, a bipartisan bill that would create a 10-year federal-state partnership to improve and expand access to quality early education programs." (
No Inferred Answer Energy: Do you support building the Keystone XL pipeline? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted against H.R.3 "Keystone XL Pipeline Act" (
  • "There are better, less risky ways to deliver bigger paychecks to hardworking families. Along its route from Canada to Texas, a ruptured pipeline of tar sands could pollute drinking water and destroy ecosystems. To make matters worse, current law exempts TransCanada, the owner of the proposed pipeline, from paying into the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund, which is used for cleanup efforts and to pay claims of those who suffer damages. This would leave American taxpayers on the hook, and, as we learned from the BP catastrophe in Florida, that figure could run into the billions of dollars." (
  • Voted against S.1 "A Bill to Approve the Keystone XL Pipeline" (
Yes Inferred Answer Energy: Do you support government funding for the development of renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, thermal)? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "As Mayor of West Palm Beach, Frankel helped revitalize a city that advanced Florida's clean energy economy and protected clean air and clean water." (
Yes Inferred Answer Environment: Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Rated 100% by Environment America (
  • Voted in favor of H.Amdt.507 "Specifies the Authority of the Secretary of Interior on the Regulation of Methane Emissions" (
  • Signed a letter stating "Thank you for your leadership in responding to the serious challenge of climate change. We applaud and support your Climate Action Plan, the joint announcement with China establishing ambitious carbon pollution reduction targets, and the national commitment to the Green Climate Fund. These actions are critical to protect Americans from the most dangerous effects of climate change." (
Yes Inferred Answer Guns: Do you generally support gun-control legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Frankel applauded President Obama for his proposals that call for requiring background checks for all gun sales, reinstating and strengthening the assault weapons ban, restoring the ban on high-capacity magazines and increasing access to mental health services." (
  • Rated 100% by Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence (
No Inferred Answer Health Care: Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare")? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted against HR 596 "Repeal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Health Care-Related Provisions in the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010" (
  • "I welcome the President's announcement and look forward to the healthcare website being fixed. We should not go back to the days when insurance companies denied coverage for pre-existing conditions and dropped coverage for folks when they got sick." (
  • "Like most Americans, Frankel believes we should work out the kinks instead of going back to a system where the insurance companies are in charge. When it comes to the ACA, we need to mend it, not end it. In Florida, approximately 1.6 million people signed up for health care through the new insurance markets -- more than any other state. It is vital that we safeguard these important reforms as we move forward in improving our health care system." (
No Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support requiring immigrants who are unlawfully present to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "We need to create a new immigration process with a roadmap to citizenship and where aspiring Americans pay taxes, families stay together, students who go to school here can contribute to our economy and there is orderly movement across borders." (
  • "I believe that we should have a fair and humane way for undocumented immigrants and especially for children to either get at least a legal status and in many cases get citizenship. I approve the Dream Act." (
Yes Inferred Answer Marriage: Do you support same-sex marriage? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "If we are truly a nation where the pursuit of happiness is for one and for all, then any person regardless of gender should be allowed to live in a committed relationship with the one they love. This ruling is a victory in the fight for full equality – and it brings Florida closer to the right side of history and the right side of the law." (
  • "Gratified to see our President come out in support of marriage equality." (
  • Rated 100% by Human Rights Campaign (
Yes Inferred Answer National Security: Do you support increased American intervention in Iraq and Syria beyond air support? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "ISIL represents a clear threat to the security of Iraq and Syria, to the broader Middle East, and ultimately to the U.S. home front. The President has put together a comprehensive strategy to address this growing threat that includes strong engagement from moderate Muslim allies, increased technical assistance and air support for indigenous forces fighting ISIL on the ground in Iraq and Syria, tighter border controls to prevent the free flow of terrorists, and coordinated efforts to disrupt ISIL's financial lifelines." (
No Inferred Answer Social Security: Do you support allowing individuals to divert a portion of their Social Security taxes into personal retirement accounts? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Here in South Florida, many of our neighbors and relatives rely on Social Security and Medicare. Our seniors have spent their entire lives contributing to these programs and they deserve to know that Social Security and Medicare will be there for them when they retire. Lois will fight to protect these programs for current and future generations and will resist any efforts to cut benefits." (
  • Rated 100% by Alliance for Retired Americans (
  • Signed a letter stating "Given the state of popular opinion and the impending retirement savings crisis facing this nation, we respectfully urge you to include proposals to expand Social Security benefits for millions of Americans to your policy brief at the upcoming Conference." (


Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

Florida State Legislative Election 1998 National Political Awareness Test

This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.

The Political Courage Test asks candidates which items they will support if elected. It does not ask them to indicate which items they will oppose. Through extensive research of public polling data, we discovered that voters are more concerned with what candidates would support when elected to office, not what they oppose. If a candidate does not select a response to any part or all of any question, it does not necessarily indicate that the candidate is opposed to that particular item.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning abortion.
Xa) Abortions should always be legally available.
b) Abortions should be legal only within the first trimester of pregnancy.
c) Abortions should be legal only when pregnancy resulted from incest, rape, or when the life of the woman is endangered.
d) Abortions should be legal only when the life of the woman is endangered.
e) Abortions should always be illegal.
f) Abortions should be limited by waiting periods and parental notification requirements.
g) Prohibit the late-term abortion procedure known as "partial-birth" abortion.
h) Support "buffer zones" by requiring demonstrators to stay at least 15 feet away from abortion clinic doorways and driveways.
i) Other
Yesj) Should Florida government funding be provided to clinics and medical facilities that provide abortion services?
Indicate the principles you support (if any) concerning affirmative action. State government agencies should take race and sex into account in the following sectors:
Yesa) College and university admissions
Undecidedb) Public employment
Yesc) State contracting
d) Other
Indicate which principles you support (if any) to address crime.
a) Increase state funds for construction of state prisons and for hiring of additional prison staff.
b) Support contracting with private sector firms to build and/or manage state prisons.
c) End parole for repeat violent felons.
Xd) Support the use of the death penalty.
e) Oppose the death penalty.
Xf) Implement penalties other than incarceration for certain non-violent offenders.
g) Inform communities when a convicted sex offender moves into the community.
h) Increase state funds for programs which rehabilitate and educate inmates during and after their prison sentences.
i) Decriminalize the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes.
j) Strengthen penalties and sentences for drug-related crimes.
k) Strengthen penalties and sentences for sex offenders.
l) Lower the blood-alcohol-content limit defining drunk driving.
m) Prosecute juveniles who commit murder or other serious violent crimes as adults.
n) Allow recording devices in execution observation rooms.
o) Support chemical castration for convicted sexual offenders.
p) Maintain electrocution as Florida's method of execution.
q) Adopt lethal injection as Florida's method of execution.
r) Other
s) Should violent sexual offenders eligible for parole, be committed to mental hospitals until they are deemed safe to return to society?
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning the economy and employment.
a) Provide low interest loans and tax credits for starting, expanding, or relocating businesses.
b) Reduce state government regulations on the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion.
c) Support limits on cash damages in lawsuits against businesses and professionals for product liability or malpractice.
Xd) Increase funding for state job-training programs that retrain displaced workers or teach skills needed in today's job market.
e) Allow Native American tribes to operate gambling casinos on tribal land in Florida.
f) Other
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding education.
a) Increase state funds for professional development of public school teachers and administrators.
Xb) Encourage private or corporate investment in public school programs.
c) Provide parents with state-funded vouchers to send their children to any participating school (public, private, religious).
d) Favor charter schools where independent groups receive state authorization and funding to establish new schools.
Xe) Support sex education programs which stress abstinence.
Xf) Support sex education programs which stress safe sexual practices.
Xg) Increase state funds for school construction and facility maintenance.
Xh) Increase state funds for hiring of additional teachers.
i) Endorse teacher-led voluntary prayer in public schools.
Xj) Grant merit pay raises each year to teachers who excel.
k) Other
Yesl) Should Florida require that all new state school buses be equipped with passenger seat belts?
Nom) Do you support adding the Bible to high school literature or history curriculums in Florida public schools?
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the environment and energy.
a) Require the use of cleaner burning fuels in order to prevent pollution.
b) Support "self-audit" legislation which creates incentives for industries to audit themselves and clean up pollution.
c) Require a cost/benefit analysis to determine the economic impact of proposed environmental regulations before they are implemented.
Xd) Require the state to fully compensate citizens when environmental regulations limit uses on privately owned land.
Xe) Provide funding for recycling programs in Florida.
f) Request added flexibility from the federal government in enforcing and funding federal environmental regulations.
g) Suspend participation in unfunded, federally mandated environmental protection legislation.
h) Restructure the electric utility industry to allow consumers to choose their power company.
i) Other
Noj) State environmental regulations should not be stricter than federal law.
Yesk) Do you support extending the Preservation 2000 program in Florida?
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding government reform.
a) Do you support limits on the number of terms of the following Florida officials?
No1) State Senators and Representatives
Yes2) Governor
Yes3) Members of the Cabinet
b) Do you support limiting the following types of contributions to state legislative candidates?
Yes1) Individual
No2) PAC
No3) Corporate
Yesc) Do you support requiring full and timely disclosure of campaign finance information?
Yesd) Do you support imposing spending limits on state level political campaigns?
Yese) Do you support partial funding from state taxes for state level political campaigns?
Nof) Would you vote to ratify an amendment to the U.S. Constitution requiring an annual balanced federal budget?
Yesg) Do you support providing immunity from civil liability to persons who are participating in the process of government?
Yesh) Should using payroll deductions for political contributions from union members be illegal?
i) Other
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning gun issues.
Xa) Ban the sale or transfer of all forms of semi-automatic weapons.
Xb) Increase state restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms.
c) Maintain state restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms.
d) Ease state restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms.
e) Repeal state restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms by law-abiding citizens.
f) Favor allowing citizens to carry concealed firearms.
g) Require manufacturers to provide child-safety locks with firearms.
Xh) Require a waiting period and criminal records check for weapons bought at gun shows.
i) Other
Noj) Should Florida visitors be permitted to carry concealed weapons if they have permits from other states?
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding health issues.
a) Provide tax incentives to small businesses that provide health care to their employees.
b) Ensure that citizens have access to basic health care, through managed care, insurance reforms, or state funded care where necessary.
Xc) Provide health care to uninsured children by designing a children's health insurance program.
d) Transfer more existing Medicaid recipients into managed care programs.
e) Use state funds to continue some Medicaid coverage for legal immigrants.
f) Limit the amount of damages that can be awarded in medical malpractice lawsuits.
g) Guaranteeing medical care to all citizens is not a responsibility of state government.
Xh) Require HMOs to provide access to mental health care.
i) Other
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding social issues.
Xa) Increase state funding for programs to prevent teen pregnancy.
b) Provide tax credits for businesses that provide child care for their employees.
Xc) Increase state funds to provide child care to children in low-income working families.
d) Deny or suspend state-issued permits and licenses to parents who are delinquent in paying court-ordered child support.
Xe) Favor banning smoking in public places.
Xf) Allow local municipalities in Florida to ban smoking in public places.
Xg) Increase state funding for Head Start in order to serve additional children and/or increase services from a half to a full day.
h) Increase state funding for community centers and other social agencies in areas with at-risk youth.
Xi) Support state funding of programs for at-risk youth such as guaranteed college loans and job training and placement.
j) Require a waiting period between the time a mother consents to adoption and the time the adoption is finalized.
k) Other
l) Do you believe that the Florida government should include sexual orientation in Florida's anti-discrimination laws?
m) Do you believe that the Florida government should recognize same-sex marriages?
n) Should physician-assisted suicide for the terminally ill be legal in Florida?
Indicate the funding levels you will support for the following general categories. Select one level only.
a) Agriculture
b) Economic Development
Greatly Increasec) Education (K-12)
Slightly Increased) Education (Higher)
e) Environment
f) Health care
g) Law enforcement
h) Tourism
i) Transportation infrastructure (highways, roads, bridges)
j) Welfare
k) Other

Birth to three.-- Greatly Increase

l) Do you support using state money to fund a proposed bullet train between Miami, Orlando and Tampa?
Indicate the tax levels you will support. Select one level only.
a) Alcohol taxes
b) Capital gains taxes
c) Cigarette taxes
d) Corporate taxes
e) Gas taxes
f) Property taxes
g) Sales taxes
h) Other
Noi) Do you support implementing a state income tax?
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding welfare.
a) Maintain the four-year limit on welfare benefits.
Xb) Require that able-bodied recipients participate in work-related activities in order to receive benefits.
Xc) Increase employment and job training programs for welfare recipients.
d) Provide tax incentives to businesses that hire welfare recipients.
Xe) Provide child care for welfare recipients who work.
Xf) Increase access to public transportation for welfare recipients who work.
Xg) Allow welfare recipients to remain eligible for benefits while saving money for education, starting a business, or buying a home.
h) Limit benefits given to recipients if they have additional children while on welfare.
i) Eliminate government-funded welfare programs.
j) Other
Yesk) Do you support establishing a relocation assistance program for WAGES participants that relocate within the state as long as the relocation contributes to them attaining self-sufficiency?
Please explain what your two main legislative priorities will be if elected. Please explain how you would obtain any additional government funding needed to implement these priorities.
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