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Joe Manchin III's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Office: U.S. Senate (WV) - Sr, Democratic Minority Vice Chair of Policy & Communications Committee
Joe Manchin III has refused to provide voters with positions on key issues covered by the 2018 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests from Vote Smart and voters like you.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

For Presidential and Congressional candidates who refuse to provide voters with their positions, Vote Smart has researched their public records to determine their likely responses. These issue positions are from 2018.

Pro-life Inferred Answer Abortion: Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted in favor of H.R. 36 "Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/votes/54058#.Wh3S42e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% byDemocrats for Life of America https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/7547/joe-manchin-iii#.Wnod5We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 36 "Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/votes/54058#.Wh3S42e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I am pro-life, and always have been. I have also always been committed to helping women get vital health services, like cancer screenings and preventive care. I believe these two principles are not mutually exclusive" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/602899/manchin-statements-on-spending-cuts-health-care-and-title-x#.Wh3StGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As a lifelong abortion opponent, I want to ensure that all West Virginians and all Americans can easily access and independently verify information that not one single federal taxpayer dollar is used to fund abortions in this country" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/602901/manchin-introduces-title-x-transparency-and-verification-act#.Wh3SmWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% byDemocrats for Life of America https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/7547/joe-manchin-iii#.Wnod5We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As a lifelong abortion opponent, I want to ensure that all West Virginians and all Americans can easily access and independently verify information that not one single federal taxpayer dollar is used to fund abortions in this country" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/602901/manchin-introduces-title-x-transparency-and-verification-act#.Wh3SmWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I am pro-life, and always have been. I have also always been committed to helping women get vital health services, like cancer screenings and preventive care. I believe these two principles are not mutually exclusive" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/602899/manchin-statements-on-spending-cuts-health-care-and-title-x#.Wh3StGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "As your Governor, I was so proud that we were able to cut tax rates […]" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/699934/manchins-message-from-the-hill-to-the-mountains-keeping-our-promises-to-west-virginias-seniors/?search=cut%20tax#.Wn4SHWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As your Governor, I was so proud that we were able to cut tax rates […]" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/699934/manchins-message-from-the-hill-to-the-mountains-keeping-our-promises-to-west-virginias-seniors/?search=cut%20tax#.Wn4SHWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I do believe that this bill will provide temporary relief to some working class families, and I will work with the President to make those permanent, so that hard-working Americans can plan for their future like the corporations and very wealthy individuals that are receiving extremely large and permanent tax cuts will do." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1217899/manchin-disappointed-to-vote-no-on-short-sided-and-rushed-tax-bill/?search=tax%20cuts#.Wn4SWWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I do believe that this bill will provide temporary relief to some working class families, and I will work with the President to make those permanent, so that hard-working Americans can plan for their future like the corporations and very wealthy individuals that are receiving extremely large and permanent tax cuts will do." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1217899/manchin-disappointed-to-vote-no-on-short-sided-and-rushed-tax-bill/?search=tax%20cuts#.Wn4SWWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support reducing defense spending? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Forty percent of all the military spending is by our country. I promise you, we are going to make sure that America keeps the strongest defense in the world." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/744648/honoring-our-armed-forces/?search=military%20spending#.Wn4UBme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Forty percent of all the military spending is by our country. I promise you, we are going to make sure that America keeps the strongest defense in the world." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/744648/honoring-our-armed-forces/?search=military%20spending#.Wn4UBme3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Campaign Finance: Do you support the regulation of indirect campaign contributions from corporations and unions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted in favor of S. 3369 "DISCLOSE Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/15597/41152/7547/disclose-act#.Wn4TTWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Ever since the Supreme Court decision on the Citizens United campaign finance case, we have seen outside groups unleash an unprecedented flood of money to sway elections, and we have seen it time and again in West Virginia over the past several years. […] The people of this country have a right to know who is spending large amounts of money to influence elections." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/726552/disclose-act-of-2012-motion-to-proceed-continued/?search=citizens%20united#.Wn3UuWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Since the Supreme Court's decision on the Citizens United campaign finance case, we have seen outside groups unleash an unprecedented flood of money to sway elections -- without telling us who their donors are […] The people of West Virginia believe -- as I believe -- that we need openness, fairness and transparency to stay informed and keep our democracy strong, and the DISCLOSE Act would do just that." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/722489/manchin-supports-disclose-act-to-increase-transparency-fairness-in-campaign-finance/?search=citizens%20united#.Wn3VeWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Ever since the Supreme Court decision on the Citizens United campaign finance case, we have seen outside groups unleash an unprecedented flood of money to sway elections, and we have seen it time and again in West Virginia over the past several years. […] The people of this country have a right to know who is spending large amounts of money to influence elections." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/726552/disclose-act-of-2012-motion-to-proceed-continued/?search=citizens%20united#.Wn3UuWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Since the Supreme Court's decision on the Citizens United campaign finance case, we have seen outside groups unleash an unprecedented flood of money to sway elections -- without telling us who their donors are […] The people of West Virginia believe -- as I believe -- that we need openness, fairness and transparency to stay informed and keep our democracy strong, and the DISCLOSE Act would do just that." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/722489/manchin-supports-disclose-act-to-increase-transparency-fairness-in-campaign-finance/?search=citizens%20united#.Wn3VeWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of S. 3369 "DISCLOSE Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/15597/41152/7547/disclose-act#.Wn4TTWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "As your U.S. Senator, I will continue to focus on supporting West Virginia's continued economic development, and this fair will serve as an invaluable opportunity to connect our hardworking citizens with employers and resources. The better we build these bridges and foster these connections, the more positive the economic outlook of southern West Virginia will be for decades to come." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1062689/i-remain-committed-to-bringing-jobs-to-the-region-beckely-register-herald/?search=bridges#.Wn4U72e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "When Secretary Chao and I met she pledged to work with me to begin investing in important infrastructure projects like the King Coal Highway, Coalfields Expressway, Corridor H, upgrades of our roads and bridges, and improvements to airport infrastructure and rural airport service. We also discussed the importance of investing in our digital infrastructure by supporting broadband deployment in hard-to-serve places like West Virginia." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1161389/manchin-votes-to-confirm-secretary-chao/?search=bridges#.Wn4UvGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As your U.S. Senator, I will continue to focus on supporting West Virginia's continued economic development, and this fair will serve as an invaluable opportunity to connect our hardworking citizens with employers and resources. The better we build these bridges and foster these connections, the more positive the economic outlook of southern West Virginia will be for decades to come." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1062689/i-remain-committed-to-bringing-jobs-to-the-region-beckely-register-herald/?search=bridges#.Wn4U72e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "[...] by investing in our highways, railroads, bridges, as well as water and sewer systems, ARC funding in West Virginia has helped lay the foundation for economic growth in the region." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/963723/appalachian-regional-commission-50th-anniversary/?search=roads#.Wn4VMWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "When Secretary Chao and I met she pledged to work with me to begin investing in important infrastructure projects like the King Coal Highway, Coalfields Expressway, Corridor H, upgrades of our roads and bridges, and improvements to airport infrastructure and rural airport service. We also discussed the importance of investing in our digital infrastructure by supporting broadband deployment in hard-to-serve places like West Virginia." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1161389/manchin-votes-to-confirm-secretary-chao/?search=bridges#.Wn4UvGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "[...] by investing in our highways, railroads, bridges, as well as water and sewer systems, ARC funding in West Virginia has helped lay the foundation for economic growth in the region." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/963723/appalachian-regional-commission-50th-anniversary/?search=roads#.Wn4VMWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support lowering corporate taxes as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted against H.R. 1 "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act". https://votesmart.org/bill/24168/62173/7547/tax-cuts-and-jobs-act (votesmart.org)
  • Voted against H.R. 1 "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/24168/62173/7547/tax-cuts-and-jobs-act (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Education: Do you support requiring states to adopt federal education standards? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "I support these Common Core State Standards because they provide clear, consistent guidelines for children across our nation. It is time that we ensure all students -- no matter where they live -- are learning the essential skills they need to succeed and that they are reaching the appropriate benchmarks for their grade. I am pleased to see this major state-led effort come into fruition." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/489799/statement-from-the-governor-regarding-common-core-state-standard-initiative/?search=Common%20Core#.Wh3nNme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I support these Common Core State Standards because they provide clear, consistent guidelines for children across our nation. It is time that we ensure all students -- no matter where they live -- are learning the essential skills they need to succeed and that they are reaching the appropriate benchmarks for their grade. I am pleased to see this major state-led effort come into fruition." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/489799/statement-from-the-governor-regarding-common-core-state-standard-initiative/?search=Common%20Core#.Wh3nNme3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Energy & Environment: Do you support government funding for the development of renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, thermal)? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Moving forward, achieving true energy independence demands that we not only start realizing the importance that coal has in achieving this goal, it means we must also stop demonizing one resource and start developing a comprehensive plan that utilizes all of our domestic resources -- coal, natural gas, biomass, nuclear, wind and solar - so that we can, once and for all, end our dependence on foreign oil within this generation." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848335/issue-position-achieving-energy-independence/?search=solar#.Wn4Rame3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Moving forward, achieving true energy independence demands that we not only start realizing the importance that coal has in achieving this goal, it means we must also stop demonizing one resource and start developing a comprehensive plan that utilizes all of our domestic resources -- coal, natural gas, biomass, nuclear, wind and solar - so that we can, once and for all, end our dependence on foreign oil within this generation." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848335/issue-position-achieving-energy-independence/?search=solar#.Wn4Rame3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "To truly achieve an all-of-the-above energy policy, we must use everything we have -- coal, natural gas, nuclear, solar, hydro, and wind -- while also making sure that we are not adversely hurting our economy and taking away people's livelihoods." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1211178/manchin-statement-on-clean-power-plan-public-hearing-in-west-virginia/?search=solar#.Wn4QZGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "To truly achieve an all-of-the-above energy policy, we must use everything we have -- coal, natural gas, nuclear, solar, hydro, and wind -- while also making sure that we are not adversely hurting our economy and taking away people's livelihoods." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1211178/manchin-statement-on-clean-power-plan-public-hearing-in-west-virginia/?search=solar#.Wn4QZGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Energy & Environment: Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "As West Virginians know, I will stand up against anyone whose policies will hurt our state, our families and our future. It is why I am proud to have stopped the cap-and-trade bill, which would have hurt so many families and businesses in our state." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/696246/#.Wnokvme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "While I believe that the United States and the world should continue to pursue a cleaner energy future, I do not believe that the Paris Agreement ensures a balance between our environment and the economy." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1166399/manchin-statement-on-presidents-decision-to-leave-the-paris-climate-agreement/?search=paris#.Wnolsme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The Clean Power Plan never worked and I commend President Trump for doing away with this harmful regulation and preventing further job losses, increases to consumer energy bills, and more damage to our economy." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1211178/manchin-statement-on-clean-power-plan-public-hearing-in-west-virginia/?search=solar#.Wn4QZGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As West Virginians know, I will stand up against anyone whose policies will hurt our state, our families and our future. It is why I am proud to have stopped the cap-and-trade bill, which would have hurt so many families and businesses in our state." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/696246/#.Wnokvme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "While I believe that the United States and the world should continue to pursue a cleaner energy future, I do not believe that the Paris Agreement ensures a balance between our environment and the economy." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1166399/manchin-statement-on-presidents-decision-to-leave-the-paris-climate-agreement/?search=paris#.Wnolsme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The Clean Power Plan never worked and I commend President Trump for doing away with this harmful regulation and preventing further job losses, increases to consumer energy bills, and more damage to our economy." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1211178/manchin-statement-on-clean-power-plan-public-hearing-in-west-virginia/?search=solar#.Wn4QZGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Guns: Do you generally support gun-control legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted in favor of S. Amdt 715 "Public Safety and Second Amendment Rights Protection Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/16582/43803/7547/public-safety-and-second-amendment-rights-protection-act#.WnojUme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 0% by Gun Owners of America https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/7547/joe-manchin-iii#.Wnoi3We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As a life-time hunter, sportsman, NRA member, and law-abiding gun owner, I will always fight to protect our Second Amendment and due process rights and against any government overreach and infringement, but I will also fight to prevent radical Islamic terrorists from obtaining weapons." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1101136/manchin-supports-only-bipartisan-compromise-bill#.Wnohp2e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of S. Amdt 4720 "Prohibits the Transfer of Firearms to Suspected Terrorists" https://votesmart.org/bill/21641/56956/7547/prohibits-the-transfer-of-firearms-to-suspected-terrorists#.WnojuGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of S. Amdt 715 "Public Safety and Second Amendment Rights Protection Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/16582/43803/7547/public-safety-and-second-amendment-rights-protection-act#.WnojUme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 0% by Gun Owners of America https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/7547/joe-manchin-iii#.Wnoi3We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As a life-time hunter, sportsman, NRA member, and law-abiding gun owner, I will always fight to protect our Second Amendment and due process rights and against any government overreach and infringement, but I will also fight to prevent radical Islamic terrorists from obtaining weapons." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1101136/manchin-supports-only-bipartisan-compromise-bill#.Wnohp2e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of S. Amdt 4720 "Prohibits the Transfer of Firearms to Suspected Terrorists" https://votesmart.org/bill/21641/56956/7547/prohibits-the-transfer-of-firearms-to-suspected-terrorists#.WnojuGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Health Care: Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare")? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "I look forward to reviewing the bill in greater detail and working with my Democratic and Republican colleagues to fix the problems with ACA and improve the healthcare system in our country." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1201101/manchin-statement-on-bipartisan-healthcare-deal/?search=affordable%20care%20act#.WnogjWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I look forward to reviewing the bill in greater detail and working with my Democratic and Republican colleagues to fix the problems with ACA and improve the healthcare system in our country." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1201101/manchin-statement-on-bipartisan-healthcare-deal/?search=affordable%20care%20act#.WnogjWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The Affordable Care Act does some things well, including expanding access to preventative care, protecting those with pre-existing conditions […] Now that the Supreme Court has ruled to uphold the Affordable Care Act, my sincere hope is that we can put the political divisiveness behind us and start working on the necessary improvements to make this law work better for all Americans." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1006162/manchin-statement-on-king-v-burwell-ruling/?search=affordable%20care%20act#.WnohBWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The Affordable Care Act does some things well, including expanding access to preventative care, protecting those with pre-existing conditions […] Now that the Supreme Court has ruled to uphold the Affordable Care Act, my sincere hope is that we can put the political divisiveness behind us and start working on the necessary improvements to make this law work better for all Americans." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1006162/manchin-statement-on-king-v-burwell-ruling/?search=affordable%20care%20act#.WnohBWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support the construction of a wall along the Mexican border? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • The Hill "We have the wall. We need to repair the wall. We'll need to build more wall. We need to do whatever we can to secure the border — the borders" http://thehill.com/homenews/sunday-talk-shows/371104-manchin-we-dont-need-pelosis-type-of-rhetoric (thehill.com)
  • The Hill "We have the wall. We need to repair the wall. We'll need to build more wall. We need to do whatever we can to secure the border — the borders" http://thehill.com/homenews/sunday-talk-shows/371104-manchin-we-dont-need-pelosis-type-of-rhetoric (thehill.com)
No Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support requiring immigrants who are unlawfully present to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Rated 25% by Federation for American Immigration Reform https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/7547/joe-manchin-iii/40#.Wn361Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 0% by NumbersUSA https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/7547/joe-manchin-iii/40#.Wn361Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 25% by Federation for American Immigration Reform https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/7547/joe-manchin-iii/40#.Wn361Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of S. 744 "Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/16819/44567/7547/border-security-economic-opportunity-and-immigration-modernization-act#.Wn370Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 0% by NumbersUSA https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/7547/joe-manchin-iii/40#.Wn361Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of S. 744 "Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/16819/44567/7547/border-security-economic-opportunity-and-immigration-modernization-act#.Wn370Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Marijuana: Do you support the legalization of marijuana for recreational purposes? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Rated 17% by theNational Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/7547/joe-manchin-iii#.Wn4WBGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 17% by theNational Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/7547/joe-manchin-iii#.Wn4WBGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer National Security: Should the United States use military force in order to prevent governments hostile to the U.S. from possessing a nuclear weapon? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Despite exhaustive research, Vote Smart was unable to find information about this candidate's position.
No Inferred Answer National Security: Do you support increased American intervention in Middle Eastern conflicts beyond air support? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Putting more troops on there, kind of rile them all up and ginning them up to go out and recruit and get more people fighting America -- that doesn`t seem to win that war over there." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1110230/msnbc-hardball-with-chris-matthews-transcript-military-engagement-with-isis/?search=isil#.Wn34xWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "After a decade of war in the Middle East, I continue to believe we must carefully consider the implications of any escalation and should only commit American military might if there is a direct threat to our national security […]" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1160955/manchin-statement-on-airstrikes-in-syria/?search=middle%20east#.Wn35ome3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Putting more troops on there, kind of rile them all up and ginning them up to go out and recruit and get more people fighting America -- that doesn`t seem to win that war over there." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1110230/msnbc-hardball-with-chris-matthews-transcript-military-engagement-with-isis/?search=isil#.Wn34xWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "We must learn from our past mistakes and we must not repeat them […] Let me make it clear, I believe ISIS is a grave threat to the region and could become a direct threat to the United States. We must confront and defeat them. I just do not believe that arming the Syrian opposition forces is the correct approach, because I can foresee a Senate debate a few years from now--not that far off--I can see this coming about how to defeat the next group of Islamist terrorists we helped to train and install." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/924163/the-middle-east-and-isis/?search=paris#.WnomPme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "After a decade of war in the Middle East, I continue to believe we must carefully consider the implications of any escalation and should only commit American military might if there is a direct threat to our national security […]" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1160955/manchin-statement-on-airstrikes-in-syria/?search=middle%20east#.Wn35ome3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "We must learn from our past mistakes and we must not repeat them […] Let me make it clear, I believe ISIS is a grave threat to the region and could become a direct threat to the United States. We must confront and defeat them. I just do not believe that arming the Syrian opposition forces is the correct approach, because I can foresee a Senate debate a few years from now--not that far off--I can see this coming about how to defeat the next group of Islamist terrorists we helped to train and install." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/924163/the-middle-east-and-isis/?search=paris#.WnomPme3wfI (votesmart.org)

Key

Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

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