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Debbie Stabenow's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Office: U.S. Senate (MI) - Sr, Democratic Minority Policy Committee Chair
Debbie Stabenow has refused to provide voters with positions on key issues covered by the 2018 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests from Vote Smart and voters like you.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

For Presidential and Congressional candidates who refuse to provide voters with their positions, Vote Smart has researched their public records to determine their likely responses. These issue positions are from 2018.

Pro-choice Inferred Answer Abortion: Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed letter stating "Thank you for your courage and determination in defeating S.B. 5, a bill that would have severely limited women's reproductive choices in Texas. Your steadfastness sets an example that one person's voice and commitment can make a difference. As Senators, we were awestruck as we watched you stand on the Senate floor of the Texas Legislature for hours in the face of ideologically based attempts to pass legislation that would threaten women's health. Thanks to your dedication, Texas and the rest of the country will rethink efforts to enact similar laws. We are proud to call you an ally and a friend." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/794890/letter-to-wendy-davis-senator-anti-abortion-filibuster#.Wxryp63SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by Planned Parenthood Action Fund https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/515/debbie-stabenow#.W46XlHX5gfJ (votesmart.org)
  • Signed a letter statng, "Third, as we process the annual appropriations bills, it is essential that they not include poison pill riders, such as those that roll back protections for our veterans, the environment, consumers, and workers; or prohibit funds for critical healthcare services for women through Planned Parenthood. We strongly oppose the inclusion of such riders in any of the must-pass appropriations bills that fund the government." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1179488/letter-to-the-hon-mitch-mcconnell-majority-leader-the-hon-thad-cochran-chairman-of-the-senate-appropriations-committee-defense-spending-and-trumps-misguided-southern-border-wall/?search=military#.W6pInHX5gfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed Letter stating "'Defunding' Planned Parenthood: Even though you have acknowledged the critical role of Planned Parenthood health centers in providing access to basic health care, your administration has caved to the most extreme anti-women's health special interests by supporting 'defunding' Planned Parenthood. While your Administration's recent efforts to defund Planned Parenthood within the disastrous Trumpcare legislation failed, should you succeed, countless women who rely on Medicaid will be blocked from seeking health care from the provider of their choice, which is often the only safety net provider available where they live." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1158554/letter-to-the-hon-donald-j-trump-president-reverse-course-on-anti-womens-agenda/?search=Affordable%20care%20Act#.Wx6Cta3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed letter stating "Thank you for your courage and determination in defeating S.B. 5, a bill that would have severely limited women's reproductive choices in Texas. Your steadfastness sets an example that one person's voice and commitment can make a difference. As Senators, we were awestruck as we watched you stand on the Senate floor of the Texas Legislature for hours in the face of ideologically based attempts to pass legislation that would threaten women's health. Thanks to your dedication, Texas and the rest of the country will rethink efforts to enact similar laws. We are proud to call you an ally and a friend." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/794890/letter-to-wendy-davis-senator-anti-abortion-filibuster#.Wxryp63SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed Letter stating "'Defunding' Planned Parenthood: Even though you have acknowledged the critical role of Planned Parenthood health centers in providing access to basic health care, your administration has caved to the most extreme anti-women's health special interests by supporting 'defunding' Planned Parenthood. While your Administration's recent efforts to defund Planned Parenthood within the disastrous Trumpcare legislation failed, should you succeed, countless women who rely on Medicaid will be blocked from seeking health care from the provider of their choice, which is often the only safety net provider available where they live." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1158554/letter-to-the-hon-donald-j-trump-president-reverse-course-on-anti-womens-agenda/?search=Affordable%20care%20Act#.Wx6Cta3SQfI (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "As U.S. Senator, Debbie has cut red tape and taxes for small businesses and passed legislation to help them access the capital they need to expand and create new jobs." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1268467/issue-position-standing-up-for-small-business/?search=taxes#.W6pA7HX5gfI (votesmart.org)
  • "We need tax reform that puts more money in the pockets of the middle class, closes tax loopholes that send jobs overseas and supports small businesses and farms across Michigan--unfortunately, this bill does none on these things. This bill actually raises taxes on middle-class families and seniors and leaves Michigan families without health insurance to pay for huge tax giveaways for the wealthiest one percent of Americans. This was a missed opportunity to work together in a bipartisan way on real tax reform." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1212740/stabenow-statement-following-vote-on-republican-tax-bill-conference-report/?search=tax#.W6pD3nX5gfI (votesmart.org)
  • ""We need reform that simplifies the tax system, puts money in your pocket, and closes tax loopholes that send jobs overseas. This bill will hurt MI families by raising taxes on the middle class to pay for huge tax giveaways to the wealthiest one percent." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1209268/tweet-we-need-reform-that-simplifies-the-tax-system-puts-money-in-your-pocket-and-closes-tax-loopholes-that-send-jobs-overseas-this-bill-will-hurt-mi-families-by-raising-taxes-on-the-middle-class-to-pay-for-huge-tax-giveaways-to-the-wealthiest-one-percent/?search=tax#.W6pFZnX5gfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support reducing defense spending? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Stabenow, Levin Hail Senate Passage of Millions in Veterans and Military Construction Funding for Michigan" https://twitter.com/SenStabenow/status/5812598472 (twitter.com)
  • "More big wins for Michigan! Today, we passed the defense funding bill securing an additional $10 mil for @CDCgov study & assessment of PFAS contamination & added $91 mil for Army combat vehicle research that will support the important work done by TARDEC at the Detroit Arsenal." https://twitter.com/SenStabenow/status/1042100410243264512 (twitter.com)
Yes Inferred Answer Campaign Finance: Do you support the regulation of indirect campaign contributions from corporations and unions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed a letter stating, "The lack of proper disclosure undermines the very campaign finance system envisioned by the Court. For seven long years, companies have had free rein to solidify their influence in politics and maximize their impact on elections. As the magnitude of the problem and the potential for abuse has skyrocketed, investor demand for this information has greatly intensified. To date, more than 1.2 million securities experts, institutional and individual investors, and members of the public have pressed the SEC to promulgate a rule to require public companies to disclose their political spending. Notably, the 1.2 million members of the public are joined in their support of the rulemaking by former SEC Chairs Arthur Levitt (D) and William Donaldson (R) and former Commissioner Bevis Longstreth (D), who emphasized in a May 2015 letter to former SEC Chair Mary Jo White that the Court's expectation of disclosure would only be met by compelling companies to inform shareholders of their political activities." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1171225/letter-to-chair-and-ranking-member-of-the-senate-financial-services-appropriations-subcommittee-reject-efforts-to-block-corporate-political-spending-disclosure/?search=campaign%20finance#.W6pUdnX5gfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed a letter stating, "Although it is technically illegal for a campaign to receive a contribution from a foreign national, the current campaign finance disclosure and enforcement regime makes it all too possible for contributions from foreign nationals to go undetected. Increased transparency around political spending and robust enforcement are necessary to reveal the true source of election spending in this country. The Supreme Court's 2010 decision in Citizens United v. FEC fundamentally changed our nation's campaign finance laws by allowing unlimited and unchecked corporate spending on campaign ads and various other political communications--a decision with which we fervently disagree. However, notwithstanding our disagreement with the Court's holding, the decision clearly recognized shareholder and public interest in the disclosure of political spending." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1215446/letter-to-the-hon-mitch-mcconnell-senate-majority-leader-and-the-hon-charles-schumer-senate-minority-leader-transparency-in-corporate-political-spending/?search=campaign%20finance#.W6pT5XX5gfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed a letter stating, "We believe the SEC should require companies to disclose to their shareholders how they use corporate resources for political activities. This disclosure would not only bring much needed accountability to shareholders and transparency to corporate political spending, but it is both clearly consistent with the SEC's requirement for public companies to disclose meaningful financial information to the public and squarely within the SEC's primary mission of investor protection. Moreover, disclosure of corporate political spending has obvious value for our democracy--it adds transparency to campaign finance, and it keeps the elections process free and fair of super-funded influences here in the U.S. or from elsewhere." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1215446/letter-to-the-hon-mitch-mcconnell-senate-majority-leader-and-the-hon-charles-schumer-senate-minority-leader-transparency-in-corporate-political-spending/?search=campaign%20finance#.W6pT5XX5gfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "This bipartisan budget bill includes new investments in our small towns and rural communities in Michigan and across the country. These investments will expand high-speed internet access for rural households, hospitals, schools and small businesses, and rebuild rural water infrastructure so our small towns have access to clean drinking water." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1235388/ranking-member-stabenow-applauds-rural-investments-forestry-package-in-omnibus&speechType=4#.WxrzVq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Senator Stabenow pushed to include major investments for rural communities in the budget deal. In a letter to Senate Appropriations leaders last month, Senator Stabenow urged new investments in high-speed internet and rural infrastructure. The Fiscal Year 2018 budget bill includes over $1 billion for rural water infrastructure and over $600 million for rural broadband, which represents the largest investment in broadband expansion since the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1235388/ranking-member-stabenow-applauds-rural-investments-forestry-package-in-omnibus&speechType=4#.WxrzVq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Senator Stabenow pushed to include major investments for rural communities in the budget deal. In a letter to Senate Appropriations leaders last month, Senator Stabenow urged new investments in high-speed internet and rural infrastructure. The Fiscal Year 2018 budget bill includes over $1 billion for rural water infrastructure and over $600 million for rural broadband, which represents the largest investment in broadband expansion since the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1235388/ranking-member-stabenow-applauds-rural-investments-forestry-package-in-omnibus&speechType=4#.WxrzVq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "This bipartisan budget bill includes new investments in our small towns and rural communities in Michigan and across the country. These investments will expand high-speed internet access for rural households, hospitals, schools and small businesses, and rebuild rural water infrastructure so our small towns have access to clean drinking water." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1235388/ranking-member-stabenow-applauds-rural-investments-forestry-package-in-omnibus&speechType=4#.WxrzVq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support lowering corporate taxes as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "She has authored legislation to eliminate $22 billion in tax breaks for the five largest oil companies in the world." https://debbiestabenow.com/issue/taking-special-interests/ (debbiestabenow.com)
  • "Today's bipartisan vote is an important first step," Stabenow said. "It's outrageous that, right now, American workers are paying through the tax code to ship their own jobs overseas. We need to close this indefensible loophole and instead start rewarding the companies that are doing the right thing and bringing jobs back to America. Now that the Senate has voted on a bipartisan basis to move forward on this vital legislation, it should not be dragged down by partisan distractions and extraneous items, something that has happened all too often in recent months. We should debate and pass the Bring Jobs Home Act without delay." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/903083/senate-moves-forward-on-legislation-to-bring-jobs-back-to-america-end-tax-giveaway-to-corporations-shipping-jobs-overseas&speechType=4#.Wxr0Ja3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Ends a tax loophole that pays the moving expenses of companies that send jobs overseas. Right now, the cost of moving personnel and components of a company to a new location is defined as a business expense that qualifies for a tax deduction. Senator Stabenow's legislation would keep this deduction in place for companies that bring jobs and business activity back home but businesses would no longer be able to get a tax benefit for shipping jobs overseas." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/903083/senate-moves-forward-on-legislation-to-bring-jobs-back-to-america-end-tax-giveaway-to-corporations-shipping-jobs-overseas&speechType=4#.Wxr0Ja3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Just filled up my tank in Lansing on the way to Memorial Day parades. Despite billions in tax breaks and a new tax loophole for Big Oil, we get higher and higher gas prices! Such a deal!" https://twitter.com/stabenow/status/1000767560982433803 (twitter.com)
  • "She has authored legislation to eliminate $22 billion in tax breaks for the five largest oil companies in the world." https://debbiestabenow.com/issue/taking-special-interests/ (debbiestabenow.com)
  • "Big Pharma spent millions last year to keep drug prices high. Thanks to huge GOP tax giveaways to the rich, they'll spend even more this year. Lowering the price of these drugs is a matter of life and death. We need action to keep these prices down." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1242132/tweet-big-pharma-spent-millions-last-year-to-keep-drug-prices-high-thanks-to-huge-gop-tax-giveaways-to-the-rich-theyll-spend-even-more-this-year-lowering-the-price-of-these-drugs-is-a-matter-of-life-and-death-we-need-action-to-keep-these-prices-down/?search=tax#.W6pCnXX5gfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Just filled up my tank in Lansing on the way to Memorial Day parades. Despite billions in tax breaks and a new tax loophole for Big Oil, we get higher and higher gas prices! Such a deal!" https://twitter.com/stabenow/status/1000767560982433803 (twitter.com)
  • "Today's bipartisan vote is an important first step," Stabenow said. "It's outrageous that, right now, American workers are paying through the tax code to ship their own jobs overseas. We need to close this indefensible loophole and instead start rewarding the companies that are doing the right thing and bringing jobs back to America. Now that the Senate has voted on a bipartisan basis to move forward on this vital legislation, it should not be dragged down by partisan distractions and extraneous items, something that has happened all too often in recent months. We should debate and pass the Bring Jobs Home Act without delay." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/903083/senate-moves-forward-on-legislation-to-bring-jobs-back-to-america-end-tax-giveaway-to-corporations-shipping-jobs-overseas&speechType=4#.Wxr0Ja3SQfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Education: Do you support requiring states to adopt federal education standards? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "I am committed to supporting the 257,000 students in Michigan who rely on Pell Grants to afford a college education," said Senator Stabenow. "This bill will provide more students with a fair shot to go to college and get ahead, regardless of their financial situation." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1158431/federal-funding-bill-includes-stabenows-legislation-to-reinstate-year-round-pell-grants&speechType=4#.Wxr62a3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I am committed to supporting the 257,000 students in Michigan who rely on Pell Grants to afford a college education," said Senator Stabenow. "This bill will provide more students with a fair shot to go to college and get ahead, regardless of their financial situation." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1158431/federal-funding-bill-includes-stabenows-legislation-to-reinstate-year-round-pell-grants&speechType=4#.Wxr62a3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The New Skills for New Jobs Act provides a federal match equal to the state training reimbursement from programs like the Michigan New Jobs Training program. The federal government will provide reimbursement to the community college every quarter. By matching the state contribution generated from the new worker's income tax payments, the federal initiative will repay the community college more quickly and dramatically increase the number of eligible companies and workers that can participate." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848307/issue-position-new-skills-for-new-jobs-act&speechType=7#.Wxr7Nq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The New Skills for New Jobs Act provides a federal match equal to the state training reimbursement from programs like the Michigan New Jobs Training program. The federal government will provide reimbursement to the community college every quarter. By matching the state contribution generated from the new worker's income tax payments, the federal initiative will repay the community college more quickly and dramatically increase the number of eligible companies and workers that can participate." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848307/issue-position-new-skills-for-new-jobs-act&speechType=7#.Wxr7Nq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Energy & Environment: Do you support government funding for the development of renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, thermal)? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Senator Stabenow is a longtime supporter of investing in renewable fuel infrastructure and helped the state, ethanol producers, and Corn Marketing Program of Michigan in their efforts to secure this funding." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1053617/senator-stabenow-applauds-3-million-usda-investment-in-michigan-biofuels/?search=Renewable%20Energy#.Wx592a3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Senator Stabenow is a longtime supporter of investing in renewable fuel infrastructure and helped the state, ethanol producers, and Corn Marketing Program of Michigan in their efforts to secure this funding." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1053617/senator-stabenow-applauds-3-million-usda-investment-in-michigan-biofuels/?search=Renewable%20Energy#.Wx592a3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Investing in renewable energy helps create jobs and grow rural economies" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1053617/senator-stabenow-applauds-3-million-usda-investment-in-michigan-biofuels/?search=Renewable%20Energy#.Wx592a3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Investing in renewable energy helps create jobs and grow rural economies" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1053617/senator-stabenow-applauds-3-million-usda-investment-in-michigan-biofuels/?search=Renewable%20Energy#.Wx592a3SQfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Energy & Environment: Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed letter stating "While American communities and businesses grapple with the impacts of climate change, we know that this is a global challenge--and it demands a global response. That is why the Paris Climate Agreement is so vital. For the first time, the Paris Agreement provides a platform in which all countries acknowledge that they have a responsibility to do their fair share to curb the carbon pollution that is driving climate change--including other major emitters like China and India" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1162251/letter-to-the-president-donald-trump-paris-climate-agreement/?search=Syria#.Wx6Gc63SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As a firm believer in the science that underpins the urgent imperative to address climate change, the content of these emails is of great concern to me. USDA ought to be unequivocal in pursuing polices that uphold scientific integrity, yet these emails from senior USDA staff appear to run directly counter to such a pursuit. USDA should be open and transparent regarding the findings of agency research and the components of agency program activities that involve the topic of climate change. Thoroughly peer-reviewed science has routinely chronicled the significant risks that unchecked climate change poses to our producers and the broader domestic agricultural and forest products industry. While the impacts of climate change can and often do result in "weather extremes," and a focus on "building soil organic matter" and "increasing nutrient use efficiency" are important goals for producers, it is also important that producers understand the science behind why these changes are occurring and why adaptation to climate change is necessary." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1189552/letter-to-the-honorable-sonny-perdue-secretary-of-agriculture-removal-of-climate-change-related-phrases/?search=greenhouse%20gas#.Wx5_eK3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The first bill she passed into law as a U.S. Senator was a ban on oil and gas drilling in the Great Lakes." https://debbiestabenow.com/issue/protecting-great-lakes/ (debbiestabenow.com)
  • Signed letter stating "We write to express our strong support for the Paris Climate Agreement, and to urge you to keep the United States party to the agreement." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1162251/letter-to-the-president-donald-trump-paris-climate-agreement/?search=Syria#.Wx6Gc63SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed letter stating "While American communities and businesses grapple with the impacts of climate change, we know that this is a global challenge--and it demands a global response. That is why the Paris Climate Agreement is so vital. For the first time, the Paris Agreement provides a platform in which all countries acknowledge that they have a responsibility to do their fair share to curb the carbon pollution that is driving climate change--including other major emitters like China and India" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1162251/letter-to-the-president-donald-trump-paris-climate-agreement/?search=Syria#.Wx6Gc63SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As a firm believer in the science that underpins the urgent imperative to address climate change, the content of these emails is of great concern to me. USDA ought to be unequivocal in pursuing polices that uphold scientific integrity, yet these emails from senior USDA staff appear to run directly counter to such a pursuit. USDA should be open and transparent regarding the findings of agency research and the components of agency program activities that involve the topic of climate change. Thoroughly peer-reviewed science has routinely chronicled the significant risks that unchecked climate change poses to our producers and the broader domestic agricultural and forest products industry. While the impacts of climate change can and often do result in "weather extremes," and a focus on "building soil organic matter" and "increasing nutrient use efficiency" are important goals for producers, it is also important that producers understand the science behind why these changes are occurring and why adaptation to climate change is necessary." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1189552/letter-to-the-honorable-sonny-perdue-secretary-of-agriculture-removal-of-climate-change-related-phrases/?search=greenhouse%20gas#.Wx5_eK3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The first bill she passed into law as a U.S. Senator was a ban on oil and gas drilling in the Great Lakes." https://debbiestabenow.com/issue/protecting-great-lakes/ (debbiestabenow.com)
  • Signed letter stating "We write to express our strong support for the Paris Climate Agreement, and to urge you to keep the United States party to the agreement." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1162251/letter-to-the-president-donald-trump-paris-climate-agreement/?search=Syria#.Wx6Gc63SQfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Guns: Do you generally support gun-control legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Simply inspiring to see so many people marching on the Detroit Riverfront and all across Michigan today taking a stand to end gun violence. Together we will make sure that #EnoughisEnough, and enact common-sense gun reform." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1232743/tweet-simply-inspiring-to-see-so-many-people-marching-on-the-detroit-riverfront-and-all-across-michigan-today-taking-a-stand-to-end-gun-violence-together-we-will-make-sure-that-enoughisenough-and-enact-common-sense-gun-reform#.Wx6CJ63SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I stand with Michigan students walking out to remember the tragedy at Columbine. These students are demanding action and we must listen. It's time to enact common sense gun-reform and end the epidemic of gun violence once and for all. #NeverAgain" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1238467/tweet-i-stand-with-michigan-students-walking-out-to-remember-the-tragedy-at-columbine-these-students-are-demanding-action-and-we-must-listen-its-time-to-enact-common-sense-gun-reform-and-end-the-epidemic-of-gun-violence-once-and-for-all-neveragain#.Wx6B-63SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Simply inspiring to see so many people marching on the Detroit Riverfront and all across Michigan today taking a stand to end gun violence. Together we will make sure that #EnoughisEnough, and enact common-sense gun reform." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1232743/tweet-simply-inspiring-to-see-so-many-people-marching-on-the-detroit-riverfront-and-all-across-michigan-today-taking-a-stand-to-end-gun-violence-together-we-will-make-sure-that-enoughisenough-and-enact-common-sense-gun-reform#.Wx6CJ63SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Today on National Gun Violence Awareness Day I'm standing with people in Michigan who are calling for action to reduce gun violence #WearOrange" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1248244/tweet-today-on-national-gun-violence-awareness-day-im-standing-with-people-in-michigan-who-are-calling-for-action-to-reduce-gun-violence-wearorange#.Wx6B1K3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I stand with Michigan students walking out to remember the tragedy at Columbine. These students are demanding action and we must listen. It's time to enact common sense gun-reform and end the epidemic of gun violence once and for all. #NeverAgain" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1238467/tweet-i-stand-with-michigan-students-walking-out-to-remember-the-tragedy-at-columbine-these-students-are-demanding-action-and-we-must-listen-its-time-to-enact-common-sense-gun-reform-and-end-the-epidemic-of-gun-violence-once-and-for-all-neveragain#.Wx6B-63SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Today on National Gun Violence Awareness Day I'm standing with people in Michigan who are calling for action to reduce gun violence #WearOrange" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1248244/tweet-today-on-national-gun-violence-awareness-day-im-standing-with-people-in-michigan-who-are-calling-for-action-to-reduce-gun-violence-wearorange#.Wx6B1K3SQfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Health Care: Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare")? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed letter stating "We respectfully request that you abandon your efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and undermine the U.S. health care system so that we can work together to improve the law and lower the cost of health care for all Americans." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1153022/letter-to-the-honorable-donald-j-trump-president-of-the-united-states-abandon-aca-repeal-efforts/?search=Affordable%20care%20Act#.Wx6ESK3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed letter stating "Repealing the Affordable Care Act: Your administration continues to support repeated attempts to advance the Trumpcare bill, or the American Health Care Act (AHCA). This legislation would devastate our health system and rip coverage away from 24 million people. Those lucky enough to maintain coverage would be forced to pay more for less, as premiums and deductibles climb while benefits decline. The most recent version of AHCA includes provisions that would harm women and their families by gutting maternity care and allowing insurers to charge more for plans that include services women rely on." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1158554/letter-to-the-hon-donald-j-trump-president-reverse-course-on-anti-womens-agenda/?search=Affordable%20care%20Act#.Wx6Cta3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed letter stating "We respectfully request that you abandon your efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and undermine the U.S. health care system so that we can work together to improve the law and lower the cost of health care for all Americans." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1153022/letter-to-the-honorable-donald-j-trump-president-of-the-united-states-abandon-aca-repeal-efforts/?search=Affordable%20care%20Act#.Wx6ESK3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed letter stating "Repealing the Affordable Care Act: Your administration continues to support repeated attempts to advance the Trumpcare bill, or the American Health Care Act (AHCA). This legislation would devastate our health system and rip coverage away from 24 million people. Those lucky enough to maintain coverage would be forced to pay more for less, as premiums and deductibles climb while benefits decline. The most recent version of AHCA includes provisions that would harm women and their families by gutting maternity care and allowing insurers to charge more for plans that include services women rely on." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1158554/letter-to-the-hon-donald-j-trump-president-reverse-course-on-anti-womens-agenda/?search=Affordable%20care%20Act#.Wx6Cta3SQfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support the construction of a wall along the Mexican border? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed a letter stating, "Finally, we are once again concerned with the President's Fiscal Year 2018 request for a very expensive, ineffective new wall along the southern border with Mexico and new funding for the Department of Homeland Security to hire a "deportation force" and increase detention beds. In addition to the concerns about the border wall we outlined in our March 13, 2017, letter, we are troubled by a new funding request for the Department of Justice to hire an eminent domain strike team, which we understand to be litigators whose sole job will be to assert eminent domain and take private lands from American taxpayers to build a border wall." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1179488/letter-to-the-hon-mitch-mcconnell-majority-leader-the-hon-thad-cochran-chairman-of-the-senate-appropriations-committee-defense-spending-and-trumps-misguided-southern-border-wall/?search=military#.W6pInHX5gfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support requiring immigrants who are unlawfully present to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed letter stating "We urge you to respond to this threat to your executive authority by directing the Attorney General to use all legal options to defend the DACA program and thereby allow a generation of young immigrants with great potential to continue contributing to our society and economy." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1178857/letter-to-president-donald-trump-protect-dreamers#.Wx6FUa3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "This is absolutely heartbreaking. It's time for Republicans and Democrats to come together and pass DACA and comprehensive immigration reform." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1217083/tweet-this-is-absolutely-heartbreaking-its-time-for-republicans-and-democrats-to-come-together-and-pass-daca-and-comprehensive-immigration-reform#.Wx6Euq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed letter stating "We urge you to respond to this threat to your executive authority by directing the Attorney General to use all legal options to defend the DACA program and thereby allow a generation of young immigrants with great potential to continue contributing to our society and economy." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1178857/letter-to-president-donald-trump-protect-dreamers#.Wx6FUa3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "This is absolutely heartbreaking. It's time for Republicans and Democrats to come together and pass DACA and comprehensive immigration reform." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1217083/tweet-this-is-absolutely-heartbreaking-its-time-for-republicans-and-democrats-to-come-together-and-pass-daca-and-comprehensive-immigration-reform#.Wx6Euq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Right now, though, until we can get comprehensive immigration reform, we need to pass the bipartisan Dream Act to protect the young people who have been hurt by this administration's actions. I know we have colleagues on both sides of the aisle who want to work together to do something, to prove that America does keep its promises. These Dreamers have done nothing wrong. They have done everything right. We need to show them we do care about them and make sure our country keeps its promises to them." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1202138/daca/?search=military#.W6pIIHX5gfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Marijuana: Do you support the legalization of marijuana for recreational purposes? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • .@SenStabenow on decriminalizing marijuana: "If people in Michigan and around the country are voting at the state level to do this, at some point the federal government is going to have to act in order to make it uniform across the country" @nbc25fox66 #C2C https://twitter.com/SBGC2C/status/989231503174455302 (twitter.com)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer National Security: Should the United States use military force in order to prevent governments hostile to the U.S. from possessing a nuclear weapon? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed a letter stating, "For this reason, we believe there is no national security challenge that is more urgent and essential to resolve during your second term than Iran's pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability. We share your commitment to preventing Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon and strongly agree with your statement that, "[t]he clock is ticking. If [the Iranians] do not meet the demands of the international community, then we are going to take all options necessary toensure they don't have a nuclear weapon." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/758433/letter-to-barack-obama-president-of-the-united-states-iran/?search=nuclear#.W6pXS3X5gfI (votesmart.org)
  • Signed a letter stating, "Third, as you begin your second term as President, we ask you to reiterate your readiness to take military action against Iran if it continues its efforts to acquire a nuclear weapon. In addition we urge you to work with our European and Middle Eastern allies to demonstrate to the Iranians that a credible and capable multilateral coalition exists that would support a military strike if, in the end, this is unfortunately necessary." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/758433/letter-to-barack-obama-president-of-the-united-states-iran/?search=nuclear#.W6pXS3X5gfI (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer National Security: Do you support increased American intervention in Middle Eastern conflicts beyond air support? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed letter stating "In the absence of a UN Security Council commitment to enforcing UNSCR 1929, we request that you take action unilaterally, or in coordination with our European allies. Such action is essential to make clear to Iran's leaders that there will be consequences for future violations of UN Security Council Resolutions and that the United States reserves the right under the JCPOA to take unilateral action in response to this and other significant actions by Iran in the areas of ballistic missile development, terrorism and human rights." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1050505/letter-to-barack-obama-president-of-the-united-states-concern-over-irans-second-ballistic-missile-test#.Wx6GH63SQfJ (votesmart.org)
  • Signed letter stating "In the absence of a UN Security Council commitment to enforcing UNSCR 1929, we request that you take action unilaterally, or in coordination with our European allies. Such action is essential to make clear to Iran's leaders that there will be consequences for future violations of UN Security Council Resolutions and that the United States reserves the right under the JCPOA to take unilateral action in response to this and other significant actions by Iran in the areas of ballistic missile development, terrorism and human rights." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1050505/letter-to-barack-obama-president-of-the-united-states-concern-over-irans-second-ballistic-missile-test#.Wx6GH63SQfJ (votesmart.org)

Key

Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

Congressional Election 1998 National Political Awareness Test

This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.

The Political Courage Test asks candidates which items they will support if elected. It does not ask them to indicate which items they will oppose. Through extensive research of public polling data, we discovered that voters are more concerned with what candidates would support when elected to office, not what they oppose. If a candidate does not select a response to any part or all of any question, it does not necessarily indicate that the candidate is opposed to that particular item.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning abortion.
a) Abortions should always be legally available.
b) Abortions should be legal only within the first trimester of pregnancy.
c) Abortions should be legal only when the pregnancy resulted from incest, rape, or when the life of the woman is endangered.
d) Abortions should be legal only when the life of the woman is endangered.
e) Abortions should always be illegal.
f) Abortions should be limited by waiting periods and notification requirements as decided by each state government.
g) Prohibit the late-term abortion procedure known as "partial-birth" abortion.
h) Prohibit public funding of abortions and public funding of organizations that advocate or perform abortions.
Xi) Other

Personal decision between a woman, her doctor, family & clergy

1) Indicate what levels of federal funding you support for the following categories. Select one number (level) only.
Maintain Statusa) AIDS programs
Maintain Statusb) Arts funding
Greatly Increasec) Education (K-12)
Maintain Statusd) Environmental programs
Maintain Statuse) Foreign aid
Maintain Statusf) Housing projects
Maintain Statusg) Job training programs
Maintain Statush) Law enforcement
Maintain Statusi) Medicaid
Maintain Statusj) Medicare
Maintain Statusk) NASA
Greatly Increasel) Student loan programs
Maintain Statusm) Welfare
n) Other
o) Other
p) Other
2) Indicate what levels of federal funding you support for the following defense-related categories. Select one number (level) only.
Maintain Statusa) Armed Forces personnel training
Maintain Statusb) CIA appropriations
Maintain Statusc) Defense plant conversion
Maintain Statusd) Development of new weapons
Maintain Statuse) Military hardware
Maintain Statusf) Military space shuttle missions
Maintain Statusg) National Missile Defense Program
Slightly Increaseh) Pay for active duty personnel
i) Other

New B-1 bombers -- Eliminate

No3) Do you support amending the U.S. Constitution to require an annual balanced federal budget?
4) Indicate how you would apply the expected federal budget surplus.
a) Social Security
b) Medicare
c) Tax cuts
d) Federal debt reduction
Xe) Other

Middle class tax cuts after repayment of the Social Security Trust Fund

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding campaign finance reform.
a) Remove all legislative limits on campaign financing.
Xb) Establish spending limits on congressional campaigns.
Xc) Provide public funding for federal candidates who comply with campaign spending limits.
d) Support legislation that would increase the federal limits on individual contributions.
Xe) Strengthen and enforce legislation that encourages full and timely disclosure of campaign finance information.
f) Prohibit Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions to candidates for federal office.
Xg) Provide free or low-cost television advertising to candidates who agree to voluntary campaign spending limits.
Xh) Ban the unregulated campaign contributions known as soft money.
Xi) Pass legislation banning issue advocacy commercials by outside groups within 60 days of an election.
Xj) Prohibit non-U.S. citizens from making contributions to federal campaigns.
Xk) Other

I support any reasonable effort to limit costs and increase accountability

Indicate which principles you support (if any) to address crime.
a) Broaden use of the death penalty for federal crimes.
b) Increase spending to build more federal prisons.
Xc) Impose "truth in sentencing" for violent criminals so they serve full sentences with no chance of parole.
d) Fund programs to provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related skills and job-placement assistance when released.
Xe) Expand funding for community policing programs.
f) Increase penalties for the possession of any illegal firearms.
g) Prosecute youths accused of a felony as adults.
Xh) Increase funding for local Boys & Girls Clubs and other independent organizations in communities with at-risk youth.
i) Reduce prison sentences for those who commit non-violent crimes.
Xj) Deport all permanent resident aliens convicted of a felony.
Xk) Other

We must hold people accountable while also focusing on prevention

Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning illegal drugs.
a) Increase penalties for selling illegal drugs.
b) Impose mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
c) Impose capital punishment for convicted international drug traffickers.
d) Strengthen current laws dealing with non-controlled substances, including inhalants and commercially available pills.
e) Increase funding of federally-sponsored drug education and drug treatment programs.
f) Decriminalize the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes.
g) Increase funding for border security to stop the flow of illegal drugs into the U.S.
Xh) Other

Prevention and education with tough enforcement

1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the economy and employment.
Xa) Provide tax credits for companies that move job-creating industries into areas with high unemployment.
Xb) Increase funding for national job-training programs that re-train displaced workers or teach skills needed in today's job market.
Xc) Reduce government regulations on the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion.
Xd) Establish empowerment zones in areas with large numbers of unemployed people.
e) Eliminate any federal programs designed to reduce unemployment.
f) Increase the minimum wage.
Xg) Pass legislation that encourages employers to offer their employees the options of flex-time scheduling, comp-time and unpaid leave to attend to their family responsibilities.
Xh) Provide tax credits for businesses that provide on-site child care.
2) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding affirmative action and discrimination.
a) The federal government should consider race and sex in making government contracting decisions.
b) The federal government should continue affirmative action programs only if such programs do not include quotas.
c) The federal government should discontinue affirmative action programs.
d) The federal government should prosecute cases of discrimination in the public sector.
e) The federal government should prosecute cases of discrimination in the private sector.
f) The federal government should include sexual orientation in its anti-discrimination laws.
Xg) Other

Laws should be strengthened and enforced against discrimination

1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning education.
Xa) Support national standards and testing in reading and math.
b) Allow parents to use vouchers to send their children to any publicly funded school.
c) Allow parents to use vouchers to send their children to any participating school: public, private or religious.
d) Allow parents to use tax-free savings accounts to send their children to any publicly funded school.
e) Allow parents to use tax-free savings accounts to send their children to any participating school: public, private or religious.
f) Support creation of more charter schools where teachers and professionals receive authorization and funding to establish new schools.
g) Give all federal education funding to states in the form of block grants and allow them to spend it as they see fit.
h) Support voluntary teacher testing and reward teachers with merit pay.
i) Increase funding for block grants to states to help them hire additional teachers.
Xj) Other

Strengthen public education; provide technology in schools; smaller class sizes

No2) Do you support amending the U.S. Constitution to guarantee the right to religious expression and voluntary prayer in public places, including schools?
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding America's environment and natural resources.
a) Require the state to fully compensate citizens when environmental regulations limit uses on privately owned land.
Xb) Strengthen the Clean Water Act.
c) Change the Endangered Species Act of 1973 to limit the number of habitats eligible to be designated as endangered.
Xd) Increase fees charged to ranchers who graze cattle on federal lands.
Xe) Revise the 1872 mining law to increase the fees charged to mining companies using federal lands.
Xf) Encourage development of alternative fuels to reduce pollution.
g) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel powered engines, including cars and trucks.
h) Increase federal taxes on gasoline and diesel fuels to promote conservation and alternative fuel development.
Xi) Promote the selling of pollution credits between nations to encourage industries to decrease pollution levels.
j) Impose stricter national air quality standards.
k) Adhere to the United Nations treaty regarding global climate change.
Xl) Strengthen the restrictions on clear-cutting on federal lands.
Xm) Other

All nations should participate in global climate change efforts, not just industrialized countries

Indicate which level of government that should have primary responsibility for the following services. Select one level only.
Federala) Border security
Federalb) Civil rights enforcement
Localc) Education
Stated) Environmental cleanup
Statee) Job training
Statef) Law enforcement
Stateg) Low-income housing
Federalh) Medicaid
Federali) Medicare
Statej) Transportation infrastructure (highways, roads, bridges)
Statek) Welfare
l) Other
1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding Bosnia/former Yugoslavia.
a) The U.S. should lift the arms embargo against Bosnia-Herzegovina.
b) The U.S. should maintain a military presence in Bosnia-Herzegovina with a certain deadline for withdrawal.
c) The U.S. should maintain a military presence in Bosnia-Herzegovina without a certain deadline for withdrawal.
Xd) Other

The US currently plays an important peace keeping role in Bosnia

2) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the Middle East.
a) The U.S. should resolve future disputes with Iraq through diplomatic means.
b) The U.S. should take unilateral military action if Iraq does not comply with all accepted UN resolutions.
c) The U.S. should take military action against Iraq only as part of an international effort.
d) The U.S. should not continue to play a prominent leadership role in the peace process between Israel and Palestine.
Xe) Other

Active involvement in Middle East peace keeping efforts & protection economic interests

3) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the United States-United Nations relationship.
a) The U.S. should contribute more funding and troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions.
b) The U.S. should contribute less funding and troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions.
c) The U.S. should participate in UN peacekeeping missions only when vital U.S. interests are involved.
d) The U.S. should not commit military troops to UN peacekeeping missions.
e) The U.S. should withdraw from the UN completely.
Xf) The U.S. should pay its debt to the United Nations.
g) Other
Undecided4) Should the U.S. have diplomatic and trade relations with Cuba?
5) Should the U.S. recognize and extend full diplomatic relations to Taiwan?
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning gun issues.
a) Ban the sale or transfer of all forms of semi-automatic weapons.
b) Increase federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms.
Xc) Maintain federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms.
d) Ease federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms.
e) Repeal federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms by law-abiding citizens.
f) Favor allowing citizens to carry concealed firearms.
g) Require manufacturers to provide child-safety locks with firearms.
Xh) Other

Support existing law; do not support the new "gun tax"

1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding health issues in America.
a) The federal government has no responsibility in providing health care.
b) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income.
c) Implement a government-financed, single-payer national health care system similar to that of Canada.
Xd) Support health care strategies focused on prevention, including health education and natural medicines and remedies.
Xe) Support legislation to define and enforce the rights of insured patients, including greater access to specialists and emergency rooms, wider choice of health care providers, and appeal mechanisms when claims are denied.
Xf) Allow small business owners, the self-employed and workers whose employers do not provide health insurance to have the same deductibility for health costs as corporations and large employers.
g) Expand eligibility for tax-free medical savings accounts, which would be taxed if used for any purpose other than medical costs.
h) Establish limits on the amount of damages awarded in medical malpractice lawsuits.
i) Allow states and local communities to use federal funds for needle-exchange programs to combat the spread of HIV.
Xj) Classify nicotine as a drug and cigarettes as drug delivery devices, which should be regulated by the Federal Food and Drug Administration.
Xk) Provide citizens age 55-65 the option of purchasing Medicare health coverage.
Other

I support efforts to increase access to home health care

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding immigration.
a) Decrease the number of immigrants allowed into the country.
b) Increase the eligibility of legal immigrants for certain social programs (i.e. HUD housing, food stamps).
c) Require the Immigration and Naturalization Service to reduce to six months the time between applying for citizenship and taking the oath of allegiance.
d) Provide extra federal aid to states with higher numbers of immigrants for necessary medical and social services.
e) Prohibit states from passing laws that deny human services (medical care, education) to illegal immigrants or their children.
f) Children of illegal immigrants, born in the United States, should not automatically receive U.S. citizenship.
g) Increase the immigration quota for computer scientists and other information technology workers.
h) Establish English as the official and recognized language of the United States government.
Xi) Other

Important part of heritage; we need a balanced approach

The American people have consistently mentioned the decline of morals and ethics in America as a major problem facing the country. On an attached page, in fifty words or less, explain what you will do as a member of Congress to address this concern.

The restoration of public confidence in government hinges, in large part, on the willingness of Congress to address important issues with the interest of people in mind, not partisan gain and political expediency. My priorities will continue to be those issues that affect the everyday lives of families I represent.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding Social Security.
a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts which they manage.
b) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts which are managed by the government.
c) Invest Social Security's assets collectively in stocks and bonds instead of U.S. Treasury securities.
d) Increase the payroll tax to finance the program in its current form.
e) Invest a portion of the budget surplus into the Social Security trust fund.
f) Increase the minimum age that determines when retirees are able to receive full Social Security benefits.
g) Lower Social Security's annual cost-of-living increases.
h) Limit Social Security benefits based on recipients' other income and assets.
i) Require individuals to pay the Social Security tax on income above $68,400, which is currently exempt.
Xj) Other

100% of budget surplus should be dedicated to Social Security

1) Indicate the levels you support concerning taxes in the following categories. Select one number (level) only.
Income Taxes:
a) Retiree income over $40,000
b) Family income less than $25,000
c) Family income $25-75,000
d) Family income $75-150,000
e) Family income over $150,000
Other Tax Issues:
f) Alcohol taxes
g) Capital gains taxes
h) Charitable deductions
i) Child tax credit
j) Cigarette taxes
k) Corporate income taxes
l) Earned Income Tax Credit
m) Estate taxes
n) Medical expense deductions
o) Mortgage deductions
p) Other

Tax cuts middle class families

q) Other

Tax cuts small business

No2) Do you support replacing the U.S. income tax structure with a flat income tax?
No3) Do you support eliminating the Internal Revenue Service?
No4) Do you support instituting a national sales tax?
Yes5) Should a married couple filing jointly pay the same taxes as if they were an unmarried couple filing separately?
No6) Do you support requiring a super-majority vote in both houses of Congress to raise taxes?
7) Other

We need to greatly simplify the tax code

No1) Do you support amending the Constitution to limit the number of terms which members of Congress can serve?
If you support term limits, how many terms should each serve?
Senator (# of 6 yr. terms)
Representatives (# of 2 yr. terms)
No1) Do you support the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
Undecided2) Do you support broadening NAFTA to include other countries in the western hemisphere?
Undecided3) Do you support the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)?
Undecided4) Do you support the World Trade Organization (WTO)?
Yes5) Do you support imposing tariffs on products imported from nations that maintain restrictive trade barriers on American products?
Yes6) Should a nation's human rights record affect its "most favored nation" trading status with the United States?
No7) Do you support granting the President "fast-track" authority?
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding poverty and the welfare system.
a) Provide tax incentives for companies to hire and train homeless people who want to work.
b) Increase funding of homeless shelters and low income housing projects.
c) Increase funds for housing assistance for welfare recipients who need housing to get or keep a job.
d) Provide homeless families with apartment vouchers they can use to supplement the cost of an apartment.
e) Continue to give states and local governments responsibility for welfare programs through block grants.
f) Eliminate federal funds for welfare programs at the federal, state or local levels.
g) Maintain current welfare-to-work requirements in order for states to qualify for block grants.
h) Convert government-funded low-income housing projects into private housing, managed and owned by the residents.
i) Require that unwed teenage mothers live with a parent or guardian (if possible) and attend school to receive benefits.
Xj) Other

Provide job training and education; promote independence

Please explain what your two main legislative priorities will be if elected. Please explain how you would obtain any additional government funding needed to implement these priorities.

I have worked hard on issues that make a difference in the lives of families every day. I will continue to fight for --
- Fiscal Responsibility: cutting waste, balancing the budget and providing tax relief for middle class families.
- Quality Schools & Job Training: Strengthening our schools by increasing school technology and greater access to college.
- Retirement Security & Pensions: Protecting your pension and preserving Social Security; using l00 percent of the budget surplus to repay Social Security.

Vote Smart does not permit the use of its name or programs in any campaign activity, including advertising, debates, and speeches.
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