Representative Sandy Levin's Political Positions

Office: U.S. House (MI) - District 9, Democratic
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Sandy Levin has refused to provide voters with positions on key issues covered by the 2016 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests. Historically, candidates have failed to complete our test due to the advice they receive from their parties and advisors and out of fear of negative attack ads.

What is the Political Courage Test?

This candidate has demonstrated 0% courage during the test.

*Note: This percentage is calculated based on the number of issue areas addressed by the candidate on the Political Courage Test at the conclusion of the testing period. It does not indicate support or lack of support by Project Vote Smart.

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Vote Smart's Research

  • Rated 100% by Planned Parenthood http://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/26918/sandy-levin/2 (votesmart.org)
  • "I respect different views on abortion. But today House Republicans have brought a bill to the Floor that violates the Supreme Court’s decision in Roe v. Wade […] House Republicans are substituting their judgment for a decision that should be made by a woman and her doctor." https://www.facebook.com/RepSandyLevin/posts/725574750802066 (www.facebook.com)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted in favor of H.R.8 "Job Protection and Recession Prevention Act of 2012" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/42053 (votesmart.org)
  • "Republicans refuse to ask the very wealthiest to contribute toward deficit reduction even in the face of this new report, which shows millions of middle class families are paying a higher tax rate than millionaires. This makes plain that there are tens of thousands like Warren Buffett out there, paying a lower tax rate than the middle class families whose incomes have stalled over the last three decades." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/644984/#.VZ_q4_lViko (votesmart.org)
  • "The President's proposed 'Buffett Rule' is right on target as overall the very wealthy in our country have seen their incomes skyrocket while middle class income has stalled and poverty has risen. We need an approach to deficit reduction that is balanced and a tax system that fairly represents today's reality and begins to get a handle on the dramatic income inequality in our nation." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/638216/#.VZ_rF_lViko (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • "We have learned that our approach to substance abuse must be consistent, strong and it must include prevention, treatment and law enforcement efforts. It must also involve all segments of our community in sending a unified message to our youthand providing them with the tools necessary to avoid drugs." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/365206/issue-position-anti-drug-efforts#.VaVT0nUVhHw (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Even with the creation of more than 5.2 million private sector jobs since the recovery began, and the resurgence in the auto industry that added 250,000 new jobs, the recovery is too important for government to sit on the sidelines. We simply must do more to accelerate economic growth and job creation." http://levin.house.gov/issue/economy (levin.house.gov)
  • Voted in favor of H.R.1 "Appropriations, Tax Law Amendments, and Unemployment Benefit Amendments ('Stimulus Bill')" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/23644#.VZ6hgflViko (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • "While the American economy has made significant strides in rebounding from the Great Recession, many middle class families have been left behind. These tax credits are a priority that should be addressed in tax reform to give families the certainty they need to succeed." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/961760/senate-and-house-democrats-introduce-bills-to-put-more-money-in-pockets-of-working-families-reduce-costs-of-college-child-care#.VaVUdnUVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • "The President's budget takes direct aim at that challenge. It includes proposals to support working families by making child care more accessible, guaranteeing paid sick leave and making permanent extensions of vital provisions including the Earned Income Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit and American Opportunity Tax Credit." http://democrats.waysandmeans.house.gov/press-release/levin-opening-statement-hearing-president%E2%80%99s-2016-budget-proposal (democrats.waysandmeans.house.gov)
  • Voted in favor of H.R.3630 "Extends Payroll Tax Cut" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/38274 (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • "I believe we must set high standards for our students, demand accountability from our schools, and ensure that school boards, administrators, and teachers are able to make the best decisions for their students to preserve local control of our school districts. The federal government must also ensure adequate resources are available for targeted programs like those that help train teachers, reduce class size and support education for low-income and disabled students." http://levin.house.gov/issue/education (levin.house.gov)
  • "I voted for the original No Child Left Behind law because I felt it was important that we set high standards, demand accountability and provide the financial resources to support our schools." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/365219/issue-position-education-improving-and-supporting-schools#.VaVVs3UVhHw (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted against S.1 "A Bill To Approve the Keystone XL Pipeline" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/50944#.VZ2lKvlViko (votesmart.org)
  • Voted against H.R.3 "Keystone XL Pipeline Act" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/50797#.VZ2mOflViko (votesmart.org)
  • Daily Caller "[…] it’s under review but no way was that going to address the immediate jobs picture. No way. So the senators who are talking about the pipeline should now get busy and support proposals that will bring jobs right away." http://dailycaller.com/2011/11/30/levin-no-way-would-keystone-pipeline-address-jobs-immediately-video/ (dailycaller.com)

Vote Smart's Research

  • "I strongly support President Obama’s call for energy efficiency tax incentives. Advanced energy tax incentives are vital as we seek to lay the foundation for a new era in American manufacturing and innovation as well as reduce our overall energy consumption." http://levin.house.gov/press-release/levin-applauds-presidents-call-energy-tax-incentives (levin.house.gov)
  • "Key Provisions of the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES): Invest in a new clean energy technologies and energy efficiency, including energy efficiency and renewable energy ($90 billion in new investments by 2025)carbon and sequestration ($60 billion)electric and other advanced technology vehicles ($20 billion)and basic scientific research and development ($20 billion)." http://levin.house.gov/press-release/clean-energy-bill-will-spur-green-jobs-reduce-carbon-emissions (levin.house.gov)
  • "[…] we need to invest in renewable energy, and take the steps necessary to allow United States companies to compete with those in China and other nations to supply the world's growing demand for wind turbines, solar panels, and advanced batteries." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/746932/no-more-solyndras-act/?search=keystone#.Vk4LN2wViko (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Key Provisions of the American Clean Energy and Security Act (ACES): Reduce carbon emissions from U.S. sources by 17% by 2020 and over by 80% by 2025 compared to 2005 levels. Complementary measures in the legislation, such as investments in preventing tropical deforestation, will achieve significant additional reductions in carbon emissions." http://levin.house.gov/press-release/clean-energy-bill-will-spur-green-jobs-reduce-carbon-emissions (levin.house.gov)
  • Voted in favor of H.R.2454 "Energy and Environmental Law Amendments ('Cap and Trade)" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/26496#.VZ6HxvlViko (votesmart.org)
  • "This legislation rejects the scientific consensus that climate change is occurring and overturns EPA’s scientific finding that carbon pollution endangers public health and the environment. In a word, this bill would take a fundamentally anti-science dogma and enshrine it into public law." http://levin.house.gov/press-release/levin-opposes-republican-measure-weaken-clean-air-act (levin.house.gov)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed a letter stating "Our nation has suffered at least 74 school shootings since the Sandy Hook massacre. The factors allowing these rampages are no mystery: loopholes in the background check laws, straw purchases, restrictions on law enforcement, and gaps in our mental health system." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/888676/letter-to-john-boehner-speaker-of-the-house-163-members-of-congress-demand-a-vote-not-silence-to-prevent-gun-violence#.VaVXZ3UVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 7% by National Rifle Association http://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/26918/sandy-levin/37 (votesmart.org)
  • "We should be considering the bipartisan, commonsense legislation that Americans overwhelmingly support: preventing suspected terrorists from buying guns, known as no buy, no fly, and closing loopholes that allow online and gun show sales to go forward without background checks." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/1118049/meaningful-gun-safety-legislation (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • "We are thankful that today the Supreme Court made it clear that the Affordable Care Act includes tax credits for eligible Americans, including those purchasing coverage in the federal Marketplace. We look forward to continuing to work in Congress, with the Administration and other stakeholders, to ensure robust implementation of the law going forward." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/986503/pallone-levin-scott-the-aca-is-working#.VaVX4HUVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R.3590 "Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/29181 (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed a letter stating "We hope that your actions will prevent the separation of undocumented family members of U.S. citizens, lawful permanent residents, and DACA beneficiaries and offer protection to others who have long worked in the United States and have established strong ties with our communities." http://gutierrez.house.gov/sites/gutierrez.house.gov/files/documents/11.13.14%20Gutierrez-Lofgren%20Letter%20to%20POTUS%20on%20Exec%20Action%20Post%20Election%20%28FINAL%29.pdf (gutierrez.house.gov)
  • "There is an urgent need to overhaul our nation’s immigration system. I’m pleased that the President announced a comprehensive approach that includes a tough but fair path to earned citizenship for those undocumented immigrants already here, enhanced border security and legal enforcement, and a streamlining of our legal immigration system based on national economic needs and family unification." http://levin.house.gov/press-release/statement-president-obama%E2%80%99s-immigration-reform-proposal (levin.house.gov)
  • Voted in favor of H.R.5281 "DREAM Act" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/32955 (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • "As the Supreme Court recently ruled in favor of marriage equality, my bill would effectuate this equality to all married couples under our country's tax code, providing them with the fairness, dignity, and basic rights we all deserve […]" http://votesmart.org/public-statement/1005044/levin-introduces-bill-to-ensure-equality-for-all-married-couples-under-us-tax-code/?search=same-sex#.Vk4Tj2wViko (votesmart.org)
  • "The President made an important statement about equality yesterday, speaking to the progress underway in our nation recognizing the rights of all individuals in long-term committed relationships. I agree that same sex couples should be able to marry legally." http://levin.house.gov/press-release/statement-president-obamas-support-same-sex-marriage (levin.house.gov)
  • "The Supreme Court met this week to hear two cases impacting marriage rights for LGBT Americans. Rep. Levin joined a number of House colleagues in submitting an amicus brief urging the court to strike down Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (which covers federal recognition of same-sex marriage) as unconstitutional – an argument that was made before the Court yesterday." http://levin.house.gov/supreme-court-hears-cases-marriage-equality (levin.house.gov)

Vote Smart's Research

  • "As I see it, an important aspect of U.S. assistance in this amendment in the training Syrian rebels, is that it will be the occasion for nations with a Sunni majority to join in the battle against the fanatical Sunni ISIS." http://www.mlive.com/news/detroit/index.ssf/2014/09/detroit-area_congressman_we_ca.html (www.mlive.com)

Vote Smart's Research

  • "As a member of the Social Security Subcommittee in the House of Representatives, I will continue to fight to strengthen Social Security, address the challenges facing the program, and fight against privatization." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/365225/issue-position-social-security#.VaVbi3UVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • "I believe that the Social Security privatization proposals advanced by President Bush would not 'strengthen and save' Social Security, as the President suggests; on the contrary, privatization would weaken and replace Social Security." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/365225/issue-position-social-security/?search=social%20security#.VZ_08PlViko (votesmart.org)

Key

Candidate Answer Official Position

Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer Inferred Position

Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer Unknown Position

Candidate refused to address this issue.

 Project Vote Smart's Research

Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Congressional Election 2002 National Political Awareness Test

This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.

The Political Courage Test asks candidates which items they will support if elected. It does not ask them to indicate which items they will oppose. Through extensive research of public polling data, we discovered that voters are more concerned with what candidates would support when elected to office, not what they oppose. If a candidate does not select a response to any part or all of any question, it does not necessarily indicate that the candidate is opposed to that particular item.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning abortion.

a) Abortions should always be illegal.
b) Abortions should always be legally available.
c) Abortions should be legal only within the first trimester of pregnancy.
d) Abortions should be legal when the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape.
e) Abortions should be legal when the life of the woman is endangered.
f) Eliminate public funding for abortions and public funding of organizations that advocate or perform abortions.
g) Other or expanded principles

I favor a woman's ability to choose. In the case of late-term abortions, I support restrictions except in cases when the procedure is needed to preserve the life of the mother or avert serious health consequences to the woman.

Budgetary Priorities

Using the key below, indicate what levels of federal funding you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category.

Slightly Decrease Fundinga) Agricultural
Maintain Funding Statusb) Arts
Maintain Funding Statusc) Defense
Greatly Increase Fundingd) Education
Maintain Funding Statuse) Environmental
Maintain Funding Statusf) International Aid
Slightly Increase Fundingg) Law Enforcement
Greatly Increase Fundingh) Medical Research
Slightly Decrease Fundingi) National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA)
Slightly Increase Fundingj) National Parks
Maintain Funding Statusk) Public Health Services
Slightly Increase Fundingl) Scientific Research
Greatly Increase Fundingm) Terrorism Prevention
Slightly Increase Fundingn) Transportation and Highway Infrastructure
Maintain Funding Statuso) Welfare
p) Other or expanded categories

Most of these areas need and deserve additional resources; however, the economic downturn and the irresponsible tax and budget policies of the Bush Administration and the Republican Majority in Congress have vaporized the hard-won budget surpluses of recent years and replaced them with large budget deficits for as far as the eye can see. As a direct consequence, critically needed priorities are being staved for resources, and my responses reflect that reality.

Defense Spending

Using the key below, indicate what levels of federal funding you support for the following categories. Select one number per category.

Slightly Increase Fundinga) Armed Forces personnel training
Greatly Increase Fundingb) Covert intelligence operations
Maintain Funding Statusc) Military hardware
Slightly Increase Fundingd) Pay for active duty personnel
Slightly Decrease Fundinge) National Missile Defense Program
Maintain Funding Statusf) Programs to improve military retention rates
Maintain Funding Statusg) Research and development of new weapons
Slightly Increase Fundingh) Troop and equipment readiness
i) Other or expanded categories

With regard to federal outlays for military hardware and R&D for new weapons, I supported the significant increases for both these functions included in the most recent defense funding legislation. At the same time, the Pentagon must do a much better job prioritizing the focus of our nation's procurement and R&D priorities. Simply put, we have too many weapons systems chasing too few dollars.

Taxes

Using the key below, indicate what levels you support concerning taxes, deductions, and tax credits in the following categories. Select one number per tax.

Income Taxes - Family Income

a) Less than $25,000
b) $25,000 - $75,000
c) $75,000 - $150,000
d) Over $150,000
e) Other or expanded categories

Income Taxes - Retiree Income

f) Over $40, 000
g) Other or expanded categories

Other Taxes

a) Alcohol taxes
b) Capital gains taxes
c) Cigarette taxes
d) Corporate taxes
e) Gasoline taxes
f) Inheritance taxes
g) Other or expanded categories

Deductions/Credits

a) Charitable deductions
b) Medical expense deductions
c) Mortgage deductions
d) Child tax credit
e) Earned income tax credit
f) Student loan tax credit
g) Other or expanded categories

Taxes

2) Should a married couple filing jointly pay the same taxes as if they were an unmarried couple filing separately?
No3) Would you use Social Security surpluses to balance the budget?
4) Other or expanded principles

We are currently in year two of a 9-year, $1.6 trillion tax cut. As many predicted during the debate on the President's tax cut last year, the sheer size of the tax cut has been a key factor in sending the federal budget back into deficit, to the point where Social Security and Medicare funds are being used to fund the tax cut. Congress should retain the tax cuts that have already taken place, but postpone most of the tax cuts scheduled for future years that are not yet in effect - the vast majority of which benefit only the very richest taxpayers. These funds should be reserved for Social Security and Medicare.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding campaign finance and governmental reform issues.

a) Support public taxpayer funding for congressional candidates who comply with campaign spending limits.
b) Increase the amount individuals are permitted to contribute to federal campaigns.
c) Prohibit Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions to candidates for federal office.
Xd) Provide free or low-cost television advertising to candidates who agree to voluntary campaign spending limits.
Xe) Ban unregulated soft money campaign contributions to political parties or committees.
Xf) Prohibit non-U.S. citizens from making soft money contributions to national parties or party committees.
Xg) Require full disclosure of funding sources of issue advocacy commercials which appear within 60 days of an election.
h) Remove all contribution limits to federal candidates and parties.
i) Require congressional candidates to raise over half of their campaign money from their home state.
j) Require that unions give members the option of not having membership dues used for political purposes.
Yesk) Support the federal government mandate that creates national voting system standards.
Nol) Do you support amending the Constitution to limit the number of terms that members of Congress can serve?
Nom) Do you support voting on-line?
n) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) to address crime.

a) Eliminate the use of the death penalty for federal crimes.
b) Increase spending to build more federal prisons.
c) Impose "truth in sentencing" for violent criminals so they serve full sentences with no chance of parole.
Xd) Support programs to provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related skills and job-placement assistance when released.
Xe) Support programs to provide prison inmates with drug and alcohol addiction treatment.
Xf) Increase funding for community policing programs.
g) Implement penalties other than incarceration for certain non-violent offenders.
Xh) Require that crimes based on gender, sexual orientation, and disability be prosecuted as federal hate crimes.
Xi) Enforcement of civil rights should primarily be the responsibility of the federal government.
j) Minors accused of a violent crime should be prosecuted as adults.
k) Support programs that provide job training and placement services for at-risk youth.
l) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning illegal drugs.

Xa) Increase penalties for selling illegal drugs.
b) Support mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
Xc) Expand federally sponsored drug education and drug treatment programs.
d) Decriminalize the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes.
Xe) Increase border security to stop the flow of illegal drugs into the U.S.
f) Eliminate federal funding for programs associated with the "war on drugs."
Xg) Other or expanded principles

I support stiff penalties for drug dealers, and also believe that the Michigan state legislature needs to address the problems arising from "mandatory-minimum" sentencing. I am the co-author of the Drug Free Communities law which provides federal grants to community anti-drug coalitions. These coalitions help to bring together all segments of our communities to combat drug use at the grassroots level. I also have actively supported the establishment of Drug Courts, including securing federal funds to start a new drug court in Warren, MI. The goal of these drug courts is to intervene early with non-violent offenders and use a combination of carrots and sticks to press individuals to address their substance abuse problems.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning education.

a) Support national standards and testing of public school students.
b) Allow parents to use vouchers (equal opportunity scholarships) to send their children to any publicly-funded school.
c) Allow parents to use vouchers (equal opportunity scholarships) to send their children to any participating school: public, private or religious.
Xd) Support charter schools where teachers and professionals receive authorization and funding to establish new schools.
Xe) Increase funding for block grants to states to help them hire additional teachers.
f) Support teacher testing and reward teachers with merit pay.
Xg) Increase funding for computers and computer training in public schools.
Xh) Increase funding for school capital improvements (e.g. buildings and infrastructure).
i) Eliminate restrictions on federal education funding, giving educators or local school districts more flexibility to design and implement their programs.
Xj) Increase funding of programs such as Pell grants and Stafford loans to help students pay for college.
Xk) Support federal tax incentives to help families save for college.
Xl) Other or expanded principles

Congress and the Bush Administration must honor the promises made last year to significantly increase federal resources to elementary and secondary education in this country.
I believe educational decisions are best left to parents, school boards and teachers at the state and local level. By the same token, the federal government has played a vital role in ensuring equality of educational opportunity in this country. Federal programs like Title I and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ensure that a public education is available to every child in America. I also believe the federal government should do more to help states and localities when it comes to providing the resources our schools need to meet high standards. I strongly supported the "No Child Left Behind Act" [H.R 1] approved by Congress last year. With regard to the testing requirement in the bill, H.R. 1 is designed to identify schools in which students are not meeting state academic standards and places its highest and first priority on providing resources and technical assistance to those schools. Fifteen states already test in math and reading in grades 3-8. More than half of the states test students annually in reading and math in at least three of these grades. The bill also provides funds to states to develop the new assessments or improve their existing assessments.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding employment and affirmative action.

Xa) Increase funding for national job-training programs that re-train displaced workers or teach skills needed in today's job market.
b) Reduce government regulation of the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion.
Xc) Establish empowerment zones in areas with large numbers of unemployed people.
d) Provide tax credits for businesses that provide child care for their employees.
Xe) Encourage employers to offer flex-time scheduling, comp-time, and unpaid leave for family emergencies.
f) Eliminate any federal programs designed to reduce unemployment.
Xg) Increase the federal minimum wage.
h) Considering race and gender in government contracting decisions is appropriate for the federal government.
Xi) Include sexual orientation in federal anti-discrimination laws.
Xj) Continue federal affirmative action programs.
k) Discontinue federal affirmative action programs.
Xl) Other or expanded principles

Congress should take action to extend unemployment compensation benefits.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding America's environment and natural resources.

Xa) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Water Act.
Xb) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Air Act.
c) Support opening a select portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge for oil exploration.
Xd) Support the U.S. re-entering the current Kyoto treaty process to limit global warming.
e) Require states to fully compensate citizens when environmental regulations limit uses of privately owned land.
Xf) Promote increased use of alternative fuel technology.
g) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles.
h) Provide tax credits for state and local bonds to preserve open spaces, build parks, improve water quality and redevelop brownfields.
i) Support the National Forest Protection and Restoration Act prohibiting commercial logging in our national forests.
Xj) Provide states and local communities with more flexibility to address their respective environmental problems.
Xk) Other or expanded principles

Congress should also prohibit logging in roadless areas of our national forests; ban oil drilling in the Great Lakes, and allow give states and allow local governments to limit or prohibit unwanted shipments of out-of-state garbage. With regard to international efforts to curb greenhouse gases, I do not believe the U.S. should agree to the Kyoto treaty in its present form. One key shortcoming of the Kyoto treaty is that it does not set any binding targets on developing nations such as China and India. With that said, most of the scientific community - and the Bush Administration itself - now accept the view that human activities are contributing to climate change. It would be prudent for the U.S. to take the lead in calling for new international negotiations on steps to deal with greenhouse emissions.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning gun issues.

a) Ban the sale or transfer of semi-automatic guns, except those used for hunting.
Xb) Maintain and strengthen the enforcement of existing federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
c) Ease federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
d) Repeal federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
e) Allow citizens to carry concealed guns.
Xf) Require manufacturers to provide child-safety locks on guns.
Xg) Require background checks on gun sales between private citizens at gun shows.
h) Require a license for gun possession.
i) Raise the minimum age for ownership of handguns from 18 to 21.
j) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding health issues.

a) Providing health care is not a responsibility of the federal government.
b) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income.
Xc) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights to define and enforce the rights of insured patients, including greater access to specialists and emergency rooms, wider choice of health care providers, and appeal mechanisms when claims are denied.
Xd) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights which includes the right to sue when claims are denied.
Xe) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights which includes the right to appeal to an administrative board of specialists when services are denied.
Xf) Support legislation to provide prescription drug coverage under Medicare.
Xg) Increase research funding of the human genome to find cures for diseases such as cancer, AIDS/HIV, Alzheimer's, and heart disease.
Xh) Increase federal funding for training health workers to recognize and respond to the release of biological agents.
Xi) Prohibit the procedure of cloning human embryos.
j) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding immigration.

a) Decrease the number of legal immigrants allowed into the country.
b) Provide extra federal aid to states with higher numbers of immigrants for necessary medical and social services.
c) Prohibit states from passing laws that deny human services (medical care, education) to illegal immigrants or their children.
d) Increase the immigration quota for computer scientists and other information technology workers.
e) Establish English as the official U.S. language.
f) Collect fingerprint data from all U.S. visa applicants which would be accessible to all federal immigration-related agencies.
g) Allow legalization for certain illegal immigrants working in the U.S.
h) Other or expanded principles

International Aid

Indicate which principles (if any) you support regarding U. S. economic assistance.

Xa) Aid should be granted to countries when extraordinary circumstances cause disaster and threaten civilian lives.
Xb) Aid should be granted to countries when it is in the security interests of the U. S.
Xc) Aid should be granted to countries that are close allies of the U. S. and in need of financial/military assistance.
d) Aid should be eliminated for any nation with documented human rights abuses.
e) Aid programs should be scaled back and eventually eliminated except for extraordinary circumstances.
Xf) Other or expanded principles

I believe that a nation's human rights practices should be a major consideration in deciding whether or not to extend U.S. assistance. Obviously, it is not the only factor. Another factor is whether extending the assistance advances important U.S. interests.

International Policy

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the Middle East.

a) The U.S. should take military action against Iraq only as part of an international effort.
b) The U.S. should end the economic embargo against Iraq.
c) The U.S. should not continue to play a prominent leadership role in the peace process between Israel and the Palestine Authority.
d) The U.S. should support the formation of a Palestinian state.
Xe) Other or expanded principles

It's clear to most Americans that Saddam Hussein is not someone to be trusted. He has had a long history of attacking his neighbors and his own people as well. There is good reason to believe that Iraq retains some of its arsenal of chemical and biological weapons. The best option for dealing with this threat is for the Security Council to approve a strong resolution to require Iraq to allow arms inspectors to return promptly without any conditions or restrictions, and to provide for effective elimination of those weapons. At this writing, Congress will soon consider a resolution with respect to Iraq, although it is not yet clear what form this resolution will ultimately take.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the United States-United Nations relationship.

Xa) The U.S. should participate in United Nations peacekeeping missions only when vital U.S. interests are involved.
b) The U.S. should not commit military troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions.
c) The U.S. should withdraw completely from the United Nations.
d) Other or expanded principles
No3) Should the U.S. have full diplomatic relations with Cuba?
No4) Should the U.S. recognize and extend full diplomatic relations to Taiwan?
No5) Should the U.S. increase its financial support to Colombia for the "war on drugs?"
Yes6) Do you support the cooperative threat reduction programs with Russia to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons? ___ Yes ___ No ___ Undecided
No7) Do you support the recent withdrawal of the U.S. from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) treaty in order to deploy a national missile defense system?
Yes8) Should the U.S. hold nations accountable for terrorists who operate from their country?
9) Other or expanded principles

International Trade

No1) Do you support the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
Yes2) Do you support the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)?
Yes3) Do you support continued U.S. membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO)?
Yes4) Do you support China becoming a member of the World Trade Organization?
5) Should a nation's human rights record affect its normal trade relations (most favored nation) trading status with the United States? ___ Yes ___ No ___ Undecided
No6) Should the President have "fast-track" authority to negotiate trade agreements?
7) Do you support the trade embargo against Cuba?
X8) Other or expanded principles

I believe it is critical for any Fast Track to contain detailed, concrete negotiating objectives, address the issues of labor market and environmental standards and dramatically enhance the role of Congress in future negotiations. I have actively opposed Fast Track proposals, including those offered by the Republican Majority in the House, that have failed to live up to these principles.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding national security.

1. Do you support the President using military tribunals to try terrorist suspects when the President deems ordinary civil courts to be inappropriate or impractical?
2. Should the U.S. adopt higher qualification rules for student visa applications from nations known to sponsor terrorism?
3. Should law enforcement agencies be granted greater discretion to read mail and email, tap phones, and conduct random searches to prevent future terrorist attacks?
Yes4. Should federal law enforcement agencies share intelligence data with local law enforcement agencies?
Yes5. Should the federal government provide states with funding for homeland security?
X6. Other or expanded principles

In the aftermath of the September 11 strikes on New York and Washington, there is a clear imperative for the federal government to take the steps necessary to provide for homeland defense and prevent further attacks. Over the last 12 months, Congress has provided the Justice Department with extensive new tools and resources to proactively detect and combat terrorism, as well as beef up information sharing between intelligence and law enforcement. At the same time, fundamental constitutional principles must not be sacrificed. At the end of the day, we have to balance the requirements of preventing terrorism and preserving individual liberties. In a number of areas, the Justice Department's actions have gone too far, particularly in cases where American citizens are being held without charge and without adequate access to legal counsel. I am also troubled by the Justice Department's across-the-board zeal for secrecy. Most Americans understand that there are times when the government cannot divulge certain information because doing so might damage national security, but in order for our democratic system of government to work, the government's actions have to remain subject to meaningful judicial review by the courts as well as legislative review by Congress. Meaningful oversight cannot take place when the Justice Department stonewalls the courts and Congress on providing answers to basic questions about how it is implementing the law.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding Social Security.

a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts which they manage themselves.
b) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts managed by private firms contracted by the government.
c) The federal government should invest a portion of Social Security's assets collectively in stocks and bonds instead of U.S. Treasury securities.
d) Increase the payroll tax to better finance Social Security in its current form.
e) Lower Social Security's annual cost-of-living increases.
Xf) Support a "lock box" measure, limiting Congress's ability to spend Social Security and Medicare surpluses on any other federal programs except Social Security and Medicare, until each program's long-term solvency is guaranteed.
Xg) Other or expanded principles

I strongly oppose replacing the guarantee of Social Security with private investment accounts. Privatizing Social Security would mean that current and future benefits would depend upon the performance of private accounts subject to a variety of risks, including the ups and downs of the stock market. Privatization of Social Security would amount to playing roulette with people's retirement. Diversion of Social Security funds into private accounts would also undermine Social Security's financial solvency.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding technology.

Xa) Continue the moratorium on Internet sales taxes.
b) Implement regulation of Internet content by the federal government.
c) Regulation of the Internet should not be controlled by the federal government.
d) Support government mandates to curtail violent and sexual content on television.
e) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding poverty and the welfare system.

Xa) Support housing assistance for welfare recipients.
b) Provide homeless families with apartment vouchers they can use to defray the cost of an apartment.
Xc) Continue to give states and local governments responsibility for welfare programs through TANF block grants.
Xd) Maintain current welfare-to-work requirements in order for states to qualify for block grants.
Xe) Restore food stamp programs to legal immigrants.
f) Transfer homeless housing programs to states through block grants.
Xg) Provide continued Medicaid benefits for those welfare recipients who have moved from welfare to work.
h) Require states to return any unused welfare block grant funding to the federal government.
i) Direct federal poverty aid through religious, community-based, or other non-profit organizations.
Xj) Provide states with additional funding for Medicaid programs to alleviate increasing state budget deficits.
Xk) Other or expanded principles

I believe we should maintain the current Welfare Reform law's requirement that welfare recipients participate in 30 hours a week of work or work preparation. Congress should also increase program flexibility and take additional steps to make sure people leaving welfare can get good jobs that move them up the economic ladder.

In a total of seventy-five (75) words or less, please explain what your top two or three priorities will be if elected. Please explain how you would obtain any additional funding needed to implement these priorities.

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