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Patrick McHenry's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Office: U.S. House (NC) - District 10, Republican
Patrick McHenry has refused to provide voters with positions on key issues covered by the 2018 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests from Vote Smart and voters like you.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

For Presidential and Congressional candidates who refuse to provide voters with their positions, Vote Smart has researched their public records to determine their likely responses. These issue positions are from 2018.

Pro-life Inferred Answer Abortion: Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "The Congressman is a cosponsor of the Right to Life Act of 2005 (H.R. 579) guaranteeing constitutional rights to the unborn, the Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act (H.R. 356) requiring abortion centers to fully inform patients regarding pain felt by the unborn and the Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act (H.R. 748)" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/388080/issue-position-sanctity-of-human-life#.WqBpvWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 36 "Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/23562/61077/21031/pain-capable-unborn-child-protection-act#.WqBjeme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by National Right to Life Committee https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The Congressman is a cosponsor of the Right to Life Act of 2005 (H.R. 579) guaranteeing constitutional rights to the unborn, the Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act (H.R. 356) requiring abortion centers to fully inform patients regarding pain felt by the unborn and the Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act (H.R. 748)" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/388080/issue-position-sanctity-of-human-life#.WqBpvWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 36 "Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/23562/61077/21031/pain-capable-unborn-child-protection-act#.WqBjeme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by National Right to Life Committee https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Congressman McHenry believes in lowering the tax burden on American workers, families and small businesses." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848430/issue-position-tax-reform/?search=income%20tax#.WqBqp2e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 1 "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/24168/62172/21031/tax-cuts-and-jobs-act#.WqBizGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The Congressman strongly supports the small business and middle class tax cuts of 2001 and 2003." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848430/issue-position-tax-reform/?search=tax%20cuts#.WqFOOWe3wfl (votesmart.org)
  • "Americans need a tax code that grows the middle-class, increases American competitiveness, and creates good-paying jobs. Today, House Republicans introduced a plan that will do that. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act provides real middle class tax relief." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1205601/mchenry-on-the-tax-cuts-and-jobs-act/?search=income%20tax#.WqBrAWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Congressman McHenry believes in lowering the tax burden on American workers, families and small businesses." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848430/issue-position-tax-reform/?search=income%20tax#.WqBqp2e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "The Congressman strongly supports the small business and middle class tax cuts of 2001 and 2003." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848430/issue-position-tax-reform/?search=tax%20cuts#.WqFOOWe3wfl (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 1 "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/24168/62172/21031/tax-cuts-and-jobs-act#.WqBizGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Americans need a tax code that grows the middle-class, increases American competitiveness, and creates good-paying jobs. Today, House Republicans introduced a plan that will do that. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act provides real middle class tax relief." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1205601/mchenry-on-the-tax-cuts-and-jobs-act/?search=income%20tax#.WqBrAWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support reducing defense spending? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "In our dangerous world where Islamic extremists control broad swathes of the Middle East and hostile regimes like North Korea and Russia threaten global security, America needs a strong military prepared to defend our nation and its assets abroad at a moment's notice." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1095914/ensuring-the-military-has-the-resources-needed-to-protect-our-nation/?search=defense%20spending#.WqFQ7Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "In our dangerous world where Islamic extremists control broad swathes of the Middle East and hostile regimes like North Korea and Russia threaten global security, America needs a strong military prepared to defend our nation and its assets abroad at a moment's notice." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1095914/ensuring-the-military-has-the-resources-needed-to-protect-our-nation/?search=defense%20spending#.WqFQ7Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Campaign Finance: Do you support the regulation of indirect campaign contributions from corporations and unions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Rated 0% by Common Cause https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 0% by Common Cause https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "We must end wasteful government spending and return to a responsible federal budget!" https://twitter.com/McHenryCampaign/status/810556487693017089 (twitter.com)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 22 "Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/20486/54470/21031/fixing-americas-surface-transportation-fast-act#.WqBjx2e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 22 "Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/20486/54470/21031/fixing-americas-surface-transportation-fast-act#.WqBjx2e3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support lowering corporate taxes as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted in favor of H.R. 1 "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/24168/62172/21031/tax-cuts-and-jobs-act#.WqBizGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Americans need a tax code that grows the middle-class, increases American competitiveness, and creates good-paying jobs. Today, House Republicans introduced a plan that will do that. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act provides real middle class tax relief." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1205601/mchenry-on-the-tax-cuts-and-jobs-act/?search=corporate%20tax#.WqFOBGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 1 "Tax Cuts and Jobs Act" https://votesmart.org/bill/24168/62172/21031/tax-cuts-and-jobs-act#.WqBizGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Americans need a tax code that grows the middle-class, increases American competitiveness, and creates good-paying jobs. Today, House Republicans introduced a plan that will do that. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act provides real middle class tax relief." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1205601/mchenry-on-the-tax-cuts-and-jobs-act/?search=corporate%20tax#.WqFOBGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Education: Do you support requiring states to adopt federal education standards? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "The federal government has a role to play in education, but most of these decisions are best made at the local level, so that we can have an education system responsive to the needs of parents and students." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1034815/issue-position-education (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Energy & Environment: Do you support government funding for the development of renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, thermal)? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Congressman McHenry's plan would invest the flood of new revenue from drilling into the development and practical applications of alternatives energy sources like solar, wind, nuclear and hydroelectric." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848414/issue-position-energy-policy-gas-prices/?search=solar#.WqFLTWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Congressman McHenry's plan would invest the flood of new revenue from drilling into the development and practical applications of alternatives energy sources like solar, wind, nuclear and hydroelectric." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848414/issue-position-energy-policy-gas-prices/?search=solar#.WqFLTWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "We need to have an all-of-the-above energy strategy that makes the most of oil, gas, wind, water, solar, nuclear -- and any sources of energy we may not yet have discovered." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1034824/issue-position-energy/?search=solar#.WqFLHWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "We need to have an all-of-the-above energy strategy that makes the most of oil, gas, wind, water, solar, nuclear -- and any sources of energy we may not yet have discovered." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1034824/issue-position-energy/?search=solar#.WqFLHWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Energy & Environment: Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Regulations that waste our money, time and resources are bad for jobs, but the EPA is going one step further to restrict our personal freedom." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1063060/mchenry-introduces-rpm-act/?search=environmental%20protection#.WqFMcGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "[...] Congressman McHenry believes firmly that the culture of the Environmental Protection Agency must be reformed so that it works to help businesses and individuals comply with regulations instead of strictly acting in a punitive manner and working to put good people out of business." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/700807/issue-position-environmental-policy/?search=environmental%20protection#.WqFMAme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Regulations that waste our money, time and resources are bad for jobs, but the EPA is going one step further to restrict our personal freedom." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1063060/mchenry-introduces-rpm-act/?search=environmental%20protection#.WqFMcGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 806 "Ozone Standards Implementation Act of 2017" https://votesmart.org/bill/23451/60587/21031/ozone-standards-implementation-act-of-2017#.WqBkE2e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "[...] Congressman McHenry believes firmly that the culture of the Environmental Protection Agency must be reformed so that it works to help businesses and individuals comply with regulations instead of strictly acting in a punitive manner and working to put good people out of business." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/700807/issue-position-environmental-policy/?search=environmental%20protection#.WqFMAme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 806 "Ozone Standards Implementation Act of 2017" https://votesmart.org/bill/23451/60587/21031/ozone-standards-implementation-act-of-2017#.WqBkE2e3wfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Guns: Do you generally support gun-control legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Rated 100% by National Rifle Association https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 38 "Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act of 2017" https://votesmart.org/bill/24312/62138/21031/concealed-carry-reciprocity-act-of-2017#.WqBjKWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Congressman McHenry strongly supports the Second Amendment to the Constitution. He has continually defended the rights of law-abiding citizens to purchase, use, and keep personal firearms. Congressman McHenry is a member of the National Rifle Association." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848427/issue-position-second-amendment#.WqBng2e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As your representative, I will defend the rights of law abiding citizens to purchase, use, and keep personal firearms. Gun control laws only endanger honest citizens." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/698261/national-rifle-association-endorses-mchenry#.WqBnxGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 38 "Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act of 2017" https://votesmart.org/bill/24312/62138/21031/concealed-carry-reciprocity-act-of-2017#.WqBjKWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Congressman McHenry strongly supports the Second Amendment to the Constitution. He has continually defended the rights of law-abiding citizens to purchase, use, and keep personal firearms. Congressman McHenry is a member of the National Rifle Association." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/848427/issue-position-second-amendment#.WqBng2e3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As your representative, I will defend the rights of law abiding citizens to purchase, use, and keep personal firearms. Gun control laws only endanger honest citizens." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/698261/national-rifle-association-endorses-mchenry#.WqBnxGe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by National Rifle Association https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Health Care: Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare")? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted in favor of H.R. 6079 "Repeals the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010" https://votesmart.org/bill/15581/41104/21031/repeals-the-patient-protection-and-affordable-care-act-of-2010#.WqBm-me3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As an alternative to the burdensome, expensive and intrusive Obamacare, Patrick is a proud cosponsor of the American Health Care Reform Act, which would replace Obamacare with a free market solution […]" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/851810/issue-position-health-care/?search=obamacare#.WqBsnWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Since it became law, I committed to repealing and replacing this broken law and today's House passage of the American Health Care Act is the first step in that process." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1180709/mchenry-on-passage-of-the-american-health-care-act/?search=obamacare#.WqBsVme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 1628 "American Health Care Act of 2017" https://votesmart.org/bill/22765/59189/21031/american-health-care-act-of-2017#.WqBmtme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 6079 "Repeals the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010" https://votesmart.org/bill/15581/41104/21031/repeals-the-patient-protection-and-affordable-care-act-of-2010#.WqBm-me3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "As an alternative to the burdensome, expensive and intrusive Obamacare, Patrick is a proud cosponsor of the American Health Care Reform Act, which would replace Obamacare with a free market solution […]" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/851810/issue-position-health-care/?search=obamacare#.WqBsnWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Since it became law, I committed to repealing and replacing this broken law and today's House passage of the American Health Care Act is the first step in that process." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1180709/mchenry-on-passage-of-the-american-health-care-act/?search=obamacare#.WqBsVme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R. 1628 "American Health Care Act of 2017" https://votesmart.org/bill/22765/59189/21031/american-health-care-act-of-2017#.WqBmtme3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support the construction of a wall along the Mexican border? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Our appropriations package ensures security on our southern border by fully funding President Trump's request for a wall along the southern border […]" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1196877/mchenry-on-the-passage-of-the-make-america-secure-and-prosperous-appropriations-act/?search=border#.WqBtume3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Our appropriations package ensures security on our southern border by fully funding President Trump's request for a wall along the southern border […]" https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1196877/mchenry-on-the-passage-of-the-make-america-secure-and-prosperous-appropriations-act/?search=border#.WqBtume3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Today, the House took decisive action to keep all Americans safe by passing the Make America Secure Appropriations Act […] it fulfills our shared commitment to secure the southern border by fully funding President Trump's request for a border wall." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1180755/mchenry-on-passage-of-make-america-secure-appropriations-act/?search=border%20wall#.WqBtHme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Today, the House took decisive action to keep all Americans safe by passing the Make America Secure Appropriations Act […] it fulfills our shared commitment to secure the southern border by fully funding President Trump's request for a border wall." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1180755/mchenry-on-passage-of-make-america-secure-appropriations-act/?search=border%20wall#.WqBtHme3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support requiring immigrants who are unlawfully present to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "[...] he opposes offering amnesty to illegal immigrants, and supports increased border security to keep would-be terrorists from crossing into America to do harm." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/388179/issue-position-illegal-immigration/?search=amnesty#.WqFNRWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by Federation for American Immigration Reform https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "[...] he opposes offering amnesty to illegal immigrants, and supports increased border security to keep would-be terrorists from crossing into America to do harm." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/388179/issue-position-illegal-immigration/?search=amnesty#.WqFNRWe3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Patrick will not support a massive comprehensive bill is a back door to amnesty." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1034821/issue-position-immigration/?search=amnesty#.WqFNcme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by Federation for American Immigration Reform https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Patrick will not support a massive comprehensive bill is a back door to amnesty." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1034821/issue-position-immigration/?search=amnesty#.WqFNcme3wfI (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Marijuana: Do you support the legalization of marijuana for recreational purposes? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Rated 0% by Americans for Safe Access https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 0% by Americans for Safe Access https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 17% by National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 17% by National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer National Security: Should the United States use military force in order to prevent governments hostile to the U.S. from possessing a nuclear weapon? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "[...] McHenry also supports the President's tough stand against rogue nations such as North Korea and Iran. Unless faced with strong opposition, countries such as these will acquire and sell nuclear technology to anyone, including terrorists determined to use weapons of mass destruction in the United States." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/558038/issue-position-national-security-and-the-war-on-terror/?search=korea#.WqFRtme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by Center for Security Policy https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "In our dangerous world where Islamic extremists control broad swathes of the Middle East and hostile regimes like North Korea and Russia threaten global security, America needs a strong military prepared to defend our nation and its assets abroad at a moment's notice." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1095914/ensuring-the-military-has-the-resources-needed-to-protect-our-nation/?search=defense%20spending#.WqFQ7Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "[...] McHenry also supports the President's tough stand against rogue nations such as North Korea and Iran. Unless faced with strong opposition, countries such as these will acquire and sell nuclear technology to anyone, including terrorists determined to use weapons of mass destruction in the United States." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/558038/issue-position-national-security-and-the-war-on-terror/?search=korea#.WqFRtme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "With the continued threats posed by Islamic extremists and dangerous nations like North Korea, we need a strong and agile U.S. military prepared to confront hostile actors and defend our nation at a moment's notice." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1180742/fulfilling-our-responsibility-to-the-us-military/?search=korea#.WqFR8me3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by Center for Security Policy https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "In our dangerous world where Islamic extremists control broad swathes of the Middle East and hostile regimes like North Korea and Russia threaten global security, America needs a strong military prepared to defend our nation and its assets abroad at a moment's notice." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1095914/ensuring-the-military-has-the-resources-needed-to-protect-our-nation/?search=defense%20spending#.WqFQ7Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "With the continued threats posed by Islamic extremists and dangerous nations like North Korea, we need a strong and agile U.S. military prepared to confront hostile actors and defend our nation at a moment's notice." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1180742/fulfilling-our-responsibility-to-the-us-military/?search=korea#.WqFR8me3wfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer National Security: Do you support increased American intervention in Middle Eastern conflicts beyond air support? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Rated 100% by Center for Security Policy https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "[...] McHenry also supports the President's tough stand against rogue nations such as North Korea and Iran. Unless faced with strong opposition, countries such as these will acquire and sell nuclear technology to anyone, including terrorists determined to use weapons of mass destruction in the United States." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/558038/issue-position-national-security-and-the-war-on-terror/?search=korea#.WqFRtme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by Center for Security Policy https://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/21031/patrick-mchenry#.WqBn8We3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "In our dangerous world where Islamic extremists control broad swathes of the Middle East and hostile regimes like North Korea and Russia threaten global security, America needs a strong military prepared to defend our nation and its assets abroad at a moment's notice." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1095914/ensuring-the-military-has-the-resources-needed-to-protect-our-nation/?search=defense%20spending#.WqFQ7Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "[...] McHenry also supports the President's tough stand against rogue nations such as North Korea and Iran. Unless faced with strong opposition, countries such as these will acquire and sell nuclear technology to anyone, including terrorists determined to use weapons of mass destruction in the United States." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/558038/issue-position-national-security-and-the-war-on-terror/?search=korea#.WqFRtme3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "With the continued threats posed by Islamic extremists and dangerous nations like North Korea, we need a strong and agile U.S. military prepared to confront hostile actors and defend our nation at a moment's notice." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1180742/fulfilling-our-responsibility-to-the-us-military/?search=korea#.WqFR8me3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "With the continued threats posed by Islamic extremists and dangerous nations like North Korea, we need a strong and agile U.S. military prepared to confront hostile actors and defend our nation at a moment's notice." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1180742/fulfilling-our-responsibility-to-the-us-military/?search=korea#.WqFR8me3wfI (votesmart.org)
  • "In our dangerous world where Islamic extremists control broad swathes of the Middle East and hostile regimes like North Korea and Russia threaten global security, America needs a strong military prepared to defend our nation and its assets abroad at a moment's notice." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1095914/ensuring-the-military-has-the-resources-needed-to-protect-our-nation/?search=defense%20spending#.WqFQ7Ge3wfI (votesmart.org)

Key

Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

Vote Smart does not permit the use of its name or programs in any campaign activity, including advertising, debates, and speeches.
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