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Ruben Gallego's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Office: U.S. House (AZ) - District 7, Democratic
Ruben Gallego has refused to provide voters with positions on key issues covered by the 2018 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests from Vote Smart and voters like you.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

For Presidential and Congressional candidates who refuse to provide voters with their positions, Vote Smart has researched their public records to determine their likely responses. These issue positions are from 2018.

Pro-choice Inferred Answer Abortion: Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Rated 100% by Planned Parenthood http://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/123732/ruben-gallego/2 (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by Planned Parenthood http://votesmart.org/candidate/evaluations/123732/ruben-gallego/2 (votesmart.org)
  • "In recent years, we've also seen a disturbing trend of politicians trying to dictate how health care should be administered to women. In Congress, I will be a fierce advocate for choice, just as I have been in Arizona." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/927466/issue-position-choice/?search=abortion#.VXBvpXUViko (votesmart.org)
  • "In recent years, we've also seen a disturbing trend of politicians trying to dictate how health care should be administered to women. In Congress, I will be a fierce advocate for choice, just as I have been in Arizona." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/927466/issue-position-choice/?search=abortion#.VXBvpXUViko (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Donald Trump's morally bankrupt budget demolishes programs designed to help working families make ends meet, while lining the pockets of the very wealthy. Medicaid, the federal food stamp program, and Social Security disability insurance will all suffer from massive cuts, while the richest Americans will be handed tax breaks." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1187645/rep-gallego-statement-on-trump-budget-request#.WzYvba3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "He supports tax reforms that would make the system fair for all taxpayers, moving away from sales taxes to more equitable models." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/731800/issue-position-for-equitable-taxation#.VXBwx3UViko (votesmart.org)
  • "Mr. Speaker, the Republican budget, however, does nothing to help struggling Americans - it gives tax breaks to the wealthy, ends the Medicare guarantee, makes it harder for Americans to buy a home and cuts funding for education." https://rubengallego.house.gov/media-center/videos/congressman-gallego-speech-gop-budget-march-18-2015 (rubengallego.house.gov)
  • "Donald Trump's morally bankrupt budget demolishes programs designed to help working families make ends meet, while lining the pockets of the very wealthy. Medicaid, the federal food stamp program, and Social Security disability insurance will all suffer from massive cuts, while the richest Americans will be handed tax breaks." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1187645/rep-gallego-statement-on-trump-budget-request#.WzYvba3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.B.2399 "Authorizes School Boards to Increase Property Taxes to Pay for Bonds" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/45009 (votesmart.org)
  • "He supports tax reforms that would make the system fair for all taxpayers, moving away from sales taxes to more equitable models." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/731800/issue-position-for-equitable-taxation#.VXBwx3UViko (votesmart.org)
  • "Mr. Speaker, the Republican budget, however, does nothing to help struggling Americans - it gives tax breaks to the wealthy, ends the Medicare guarantee, makes it harder for Americans to buy a home and cuts funding for education." https://rubengallego.house.gov/media-center/videos/congressman-gallego-speech-gop-budget-march-18-2015 (rubengallego.house.gov)
  • Voted in favor of H.B.2399 "Authorizes School Boards to Increase Property Taxes to Pay for Bonds" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/45009 (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support reducing defense spending? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "At some point, President Trump is going to realize that Mexico isn't budging in their refusal to entertain his absurd idea to have them pay for a border wall that won't work and isn't needed," Rep Gallego said. "With no direct appropriation from Congress, President Trump is going to get desperate for funding. It's important that we protect funds designated for our military personnel and equipment from his political whims." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1187503/rep-gallego-successfully-fights-trump-agenda-on-ndaa#.WzYuta3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "At some point, President Trump is going to realize that Mexico isn't budging in their refusal to entertain his absurd idea to have them pay for a border wall that won't work and isn't needed," Rep Gallego said. "With no direct appropriation from Congress, President Trump is going to get desperate for funding. It's important that we protect funds designated for our military personnel and equipment from his political whims." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1187503/rep-gallego-successfully-fights-trump-agenda-on-ndaa#.WzYuta3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Last year, I introduced an amendment that would have prevented Trump from irresponsibly siphoning our defense funds to pay for a useless wall that will do nothing to keep our nation safe. I plan to reintroduce that amendment this spring when the House Armed Services Committee marks up this year's defense spending bill." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1238069/marine-veteran-rep-gallego-slams-trump-plan-to-pay-for-border-wall-with-military-funds-will-reintroduce-amendment-to-stop-him/?search=defense%20spending#.WzY0Iq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Last year, I introduced an amendment that would have prevented Trump from irresponsibly siphoning our defense funds to pay for a useless wall that will do nothing to keep our nation safe. I plan to reintroduce that amendment this spring when the House Armed Services Committee marks up this year's defense spending bill." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1238069/marine-veteran-rep-gallego-slams-trump-plan-to-pay-for-border-wall-with-military-funds-will-reintroduce-amendment-to-stop-him/?search=defense%20spending#.WzY0Iq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Campaign Finance: Do you support the regulation of indirect campaign contributions from corporations and unions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "By making citizen-funded elections a viable alternative to our current big-money system, members of Congress would spend more time with their constituents and less time with the insider crowd." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1214606/how-to-take-congress-back-from-special-interests#.WzYxCq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Although the Supreme Court has ruled against limiting political spending, we can still dilute big money's influence by setting up a small-donor fundraising system to compete with today's big-money politics. That's the idea behind H.R. 20, the Government By the People Act." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1214606/how-to-take-congress-back-from-special-interests#.WzYxCq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "By making citizen-funded elections a viable alternative to our current big-money system, members of Congress would spend more time with their constituents and less time with the insider crowd." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1214606/how-to-take-congress-back-from-special-interests#.WzYxCq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Although the Supreme Court has ruled against limiting political spending, we can still dilute big money's influence by setting up a small-donor fundraising system to compete with today's big-money politics. That's the idea behind H.R. 20, the Government By the People Act." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1214606/how-to-take-congress-back-from-special-interests#.WzYxCq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Additionally, Ruben is a vocal supporter of the Loop 202 extension, which would not only create jobs during the construction period, but would also bring a new hospital, shopping, restaurants, and other resources to the community." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/731785/#.VXi96HUVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R.22 "Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/54470 (votesmart.org)
  • Signed a letter stating, "As the House and Senate work to finalize a long term surface transportation conference report, we urge you to support the higher funding levels needed to strengthen our surface transportation infrastructure and improve our competitiveness." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/1028510/letter-to-paul-ryan-speaker-of-the-house-increasing-transportation-funding (votesmart.org)
  • "Additionally, Ruben is a vocal supporter of the Loop 202 extension, which would not only create jobs during the construction period, but would also bring a new hospital, shopping, restaurants, and other resources to the community." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/731785/#.VXi96HUVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • Signed a letter stating, "As the House and Senate work to finalize a long term surface transportation conference report, we urge you to support the higher funding levels needed to strengthen our surface transportation infrastructure and improve our competitiveness." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/1028510/letter-to-paul-ryan-speaker-of-the-house-increasing-transportation-funding (votesmart.org)
  • Voted in favor of H.R.22 "Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/54470 (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support lowering corporate taxes as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Today, President Trump and Congressional Republicans pulled off one of the biggest heists in American history -- stealing from the pockets of middle class families and workers in order to line the pockets of the already-rich." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1214362/rep-ruben-gallego-statement-on-passage-of-the-gop-tax-scam#.WzYvtK3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Donald Trump has an obsession with winners versus losers, so I'll put it this way -- the only winners under this scam are rich people like Trump and his cronies, while middle class families, students, and workers will lose "bigly.' The spoils of this tax plan go overwhelmingly to the wealthiest Americans, while the rest of the country is left to foot the bill." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1210100/rep-ruben-gallego-statement-on-the-gop-tax-disaster#.WzYwCK3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Today, President Trump and Congressional Republicans pulled off one of the biggest heists in American history -- stealing from the pockets of middle class families and workers in order to line the pockets of the already-rich." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1214362/rep-ruben-gallego-statement-on-passage-of-the-gop-tax-scam#.WzYvtK3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Donald Trump has an obsession with winners versus losers, so I'll put it this way -- the only winners under this scam are rich people like Trump and his cronies, while middle class families, students, and workers will lose "bigly.' The spoils of this tax plan go overwhelmingly to the wealthiest Americans, while the rest of the country is left to foot the bill." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1210100/rep-ruben-gallego-statement-on-the-gop-tax-disaster#.WzYwCK3SQfI (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Education: Do you support requiring states to adopt federal education standards? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Increased support for science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, helping to create a workforce that will allow Arizona to compete in the areas of technological innovation, computer science, and engineering." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/731782/issue-position-for-better-k-12-education#.WzY1963SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Increased support for science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, helping to create a workforce that will allow Arizona to compete in the areas of technological innovation, computer science, and engineering." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/731782/issue-position-for-better-k-12-education#.WzY1963SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "Providing funding for better teacher pay, so that Arizona can attract and retain the best educators possible, providing students with greater opportunity to pursue higher education and prosperous careers." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/731782/issue-position-for-better-k-12-education#.VXi-qHUVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • "Providing funding for better teacher pay, so that Arizona can attract and retain the best educators possible, providing students with greater opportunity to pursue higher education and prosperous careers." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/731782/issue-position-for-better-k-12-education#.VXi-qHUVhHw (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Energy & Environment: Do you support government funding for the development of renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, thermal)? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "As our legislator, Ruben has fought for more jobs and economic development in the district, supporting expedited construction of the Loop 202 extension and turning the Salt River riverbank into one of the nation's largest solar energy fields." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/731777/issue-position-for-us (votesmart.org)
  • "As our legislator, Ruben has fought for more jobs and economic development in the district, supporting expedited construction of the Loop 202 extension and turning the Salt River riverbank into one of the nation's largest solar energy fields." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/731777/issue-position-for-us (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Energy & Environment: Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "The agreement reached during the Paris Climate Summit is an important first step to addressing a worsening climate crisis. The historic plan will reduce carbon pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels in favor of cleaner, more sustainable energy sources." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/1036951/rep-ruben-gallego-statement-on-paris-climate-summit-agreement (votesmart.org)
  • "The agreement reached during the Paris Climate Summit is an important first step to addressing a worsening climate crisis. The historic plan will reduce carbon pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels in favor of cleaner, more sustainable energy sources." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/1036951/rep-ruben-gallego-statement-on-paris-climate-summit-agreement (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Guns: Do you generally support gun-control legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "Americans can agree on fundamentals; support for background checks and clamping down on gun purchases from those who are mentally ill or on a terrorism watch-list." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/927471/issue-position-guns/?search=gun#.VXBvInUViko (votesmart.org)
  • "Americans can agree on fundamentals; support for background checks and clamping down on gun purchases from those who are mentally ill or on a terrorism watch-list." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/927471/issue-position-guns/?search=gun#.VXBvInUViko (votesmart.org)
  • "Yet we know smart gun laws work. We know background checks keep guns out of the hands of terrorists, criminals, and the mentally ill. We know banning assault rifles and high-capacity magazines protects police officers and the communities they serve." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/975975/prevent-dangerous-guns-from-reaching-dangerous-people#.VXmaO3UVh (votesmart.org)
  • "Yet we know smart gun laws work. We know background checks keep guns out of the hands of terrorists, criminals, and the mentally ill. We know banning assault rifles and high-capacity magazines protects police officers and the communities they serve." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/975975/prevent-dangerous-guns-from-reaching-dangerous-people#.VXmaO3UVh (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Health Care: Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare")? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "The president can rightfully claim credit for a successful recovery from the Great Recession. The Affordable Care Act is also a success and growing in popularity. Those facts alone are affirmation of his agenda and the tough choices he has made." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/956396/az-central-look-at-how-much-obama-has-done-for-america/?search=Affordable%20Care%20Act#.VXma4XUVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • "The president can rightfully claim credit for a successful recovery from the Great Recession. The Affordable Care Act is also a success and growing in popularity. Those facts alone are affirmation of his agenda and the tough choices he has made." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/956396/az-central-look-at-how-much-obama-has-done-for-america/?search=Affordable%20Care%20Act#.VXma4XUVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • "There is no doubt that the Affordable Care Act is working. While Republicans continue their never ending fight to get rid of Obamacare no matter the cost -- voting 56 times to repeal the ACA and even shutting down the government - Democrats will continue fighting to increase access to affordable, quality health care for all Americans. The American people are living the benefits of the Affordable Care Act and we will continue working to ensure that these benefits are not taken away." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/960110/gallego-on-the-5th-anniversary-of-the-affordable-care-act/?search=Obamacare#.VXBrfHUViko (votesmart.org)
  • "There is no doubt that the Affordable Care Act is working. While Republicans continue their never ending fight to get rid of Obamacare no matter the cost -- voting 56 times to repeal the ACA and even shutting down the government - Democrats will continue fighting to increase access to affordable, quality health care for all Americans. The American people are living the benefits of the Affordable Care Act and we will continue working to ensure that these benefits are not taken away." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/960110/gallego-on-the-5th-anniversary-of-the-affordable-care-act/?search=Obamacare#.VXBrfHUViko (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support the construction of a wall along the Mexican border? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "At some point, President Trump is going to realize that Mexico isn't budging in their refusal to entertain his absurd idea to have them pay for a border wall that won't work and isn't needed," Rep Gallego said. "With no direct appropriation from Congress, President Trump is going to get desperate for funding. It's important that we protect funds designated for our military personnel and equipment from his political whims." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1187503/rep-gallego-successfully-fights-trump-agenda-on-ndaa#.WzYuta3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "At some point, President Trump is going to realize that Mexico isn't budging in their refusal to entertain his absurd idea to have them pay for a border wall that won't work and isn't needed," Rep Gallego said. "With no direct appropriation from Congress, President Trump is going to get desperate for funding. It's important that we protect funds designated for our military personnel and equipment from his political whims." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1187503/rep-gallego-successfully-fights-trump-agenda-on-ndaa#.WzYuta3SQfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support requiring immigrants who are unlawfully present to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "The Migration Policy Institute has estimated that 136,000 people in Arizona could be shielded from deportation under Obama's latest order. […] It's a shame that we're going to put this kind of shadow over our communities. All these communities want to do is work legally here, pay their taxes, raise their families, and become part of the social fabric of America." https://rubengallego.house.gov/media-center/in-the-news/arizonas-pro-immigrant-forces-confident-obama-will-win-immigration-order (rubengallego.house.gov)
  • "The Migration Policy Institute has estimated that 136,000 people in Arizona could be shielded from deportation under Obama's latest order. […] It's a shame that we're going to put this kind of shadow over our communities. All these communities want to do is work legally here, pay their taxes, raise their families, and become part of the social fabric of America." https://rubengallego.house.gov/media-center/in-the-news/arizonas-pro-immigrant-forces-confident-obama-will-win-immigration-order (rubengallego.house.gov)
  • "The positive impact of the DACA program has been well-documented, and President Obama's plan to expand DACA and implement a similar program for the parents of U.S. citizen children (DAPA) would have opened up those benefits to more people in our communities. I remain committed to fighting for that program, as well as permanent solutions to fix our broken immigration system." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/1123210/rep-gallego-on-the-4th-anniversary-of-the-implementation-of-daca (votesmart.org)
  • "The positive impact of the DACA program has been well-documented, and President Obama's plan to expand DACA and implement a similar program for the parents of U.S. citizen children (DAPA) would have opened up those benefits to more people in our communities. I remain committed to fighting for that program, as well as permanent solutions to fix our broken immigration system." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/1123210/rep-gallego-on-the-4th-anniversary-of-the-implementation-of-daca (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Marijuana: Do you support the legalization of marijuana for recreational purposes? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "At a time when a growing number of states are legalizing marijuana, zero tolerance policies simply don't make sense," said Rep. Gallego. "There's ample evidence that the social and personal consequences are far worse for alcohol use than for marijuana use -- but we wouldn't be able to assemble even one Marine Corps regiment if we excluded everyone who's ever had a sip of beer or whiskey. Smoking pot just once shouldn't prevent a patriotic American from fighting for his country. We need to finally exercise some common sense when it comes to marijuana." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1243997/rep-gallego-fights-for-smarter-marine-corps-policy-on-marijuana-use#.WzYwYq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "At a time when a growing number of states are legalizing marijuana, zero tolerance policies simply don't make sense," said Rep. Gallego. "There's ample evidence that the social and personal consequences are far worse for alcohol use than for marijuana use -- but we wouldn't be able to assemble even one Marine Corps regiment if we excluded everyone who's ever had a sip of beer or whiskey. Smoking pot just once shouldn't prevent a patriotic American from fighting for his country. We need to finally exercise some common sense when it comes to marijuana." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1243997/rep-gallego-fights-for-smarter-marine-corps-policy-on-marijuana-use#.WzYwYq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I support full legalization of marijuana." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1217660/rep-ruben-gallego-statement-on-changes-to-doj-marijuana-enforcement-policies#.WzYwrK3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "I support full legalization of marijuana." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1217660/rep-ruben-gallego-statement-on-changes-to-doj-marijuana-enforcement-policies#.WzYwrK3SQfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer National Security: Should the United States use military force in order to prevent governments hostile to the U.S. from possessing a nuclear weapon? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "President Trump's warning that North Korean threats will be answered by "fire and fury' is as irresponsible as it is alarming. Instead of threats and over-the-top rhetoric, we must aggressively pursue a smart long-term, comprehensive strategy to address the growing threats posed by the regime. Among the steps that we should immediately consider are further economic sanctions aimed at those countries that continue to trade with North Korea. This critical moment demands sound judgement, not the usual bluster from the Trump Administration." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1187461/rep-ruben-gallego-statement-on-developments-in-north-korea/?search=Nuclear%20weapons#.WzYynq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
  • "President Trump's warning that North Korean threats will be answered by "fire and fury' is as irresponsible as it is alarming. Instead of threats and over-the-top rhetoric, we must aggressively pursue a smart long-term, comprehensive strategy to address the growing threats posed by the regime. Among the steps that we should immediately consider are further economic sanctions aimed at those countries that continue to trade with North Korea. This critical moment demands sound judgement, not the usual bluster from the Trump Administration." https://votesmart.org/public-statement/1187461/rep-ruben-gallego-statement-on-developments-in-north-korea/?search=Nuclear%20weapons#.WzYynq3SQfI (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer National Security: Do you support increased American intervention in Middle Eastern conflicts beyond air support? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "If both the president and Congress are willing to make tough and likely unpopular decisions, then the president's strategy will prove to be the right move. If, however, we get pulled back into an ill-defined ground war in Iraq, I fear there are few good outcomes for either Iraq or the United States." http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ruben-gallego/obama-has-right-strategy-_b_5829646.html (www.huffingtonpost.com)
  • "As someone who served in Iraq, I want to see Iraq succeed but I also don't want to see ourselves sucked in to another mess in Iraq where we have to go and clean up again and again." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/956436/cronkite-news-lawmakers-question-request-to-authorize-military-force-against-isis (votesmart.org)
  • "If both the president and Congress are willing to make tough and likely unpopular decisions, then the president's strategy will prove to be the right move. If, however, we get pulled back into an ill-defined ground war in Iraq, I fear there are few good outcomes for either Iraq or the United States." http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ruben-gallego/obama-has-right-strategy-_b_5829646.html (www.huffingtonpost.com)
  • "We as Congress, I think, have to make sure that we keep the president and the Republicans in check from trying to get us into a war that I think is not going to produce anything that we would consider a victory." http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/01/08/a-different-kind-of-service-in-congress (www.usnews.com)
  • "As someone who served in Iraq, I want to see Iraq succeed but I also don't want to see ourselves sucked in to another mess in Iraq where we have to go and clean up again and again." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/956436/cronkite-news-lawmakers-question-request-to-authorize-military-force-against-isis (votesmart.org)
  • "We as Congress, I think, have to make sure that we keep the president and the Republicans in check from trying to get us into a war that I think is not going to produce anything that we would consider a victory." http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/01/08/a-different-kind-of-service-in-congress (www.usnews.com)

Key

Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

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