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Chip Cravaack's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

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Chip Cravaack refused to tell citizens where he stands on any of the issues addressed in the 2012 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests from Vote Smart, national media, and prominent political leaders.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These issue positions, from the year 2012, are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Pro-life Inferred Answer Abortion: Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: Values. 1 January 2011. "Recognizing the inherent value in every human life, I will continue my pro-life voting record while I serve you in the House of Representative. Moreover, no one who opposes abortion should be coerced to perform or pay for an abortion. Consequently, I will oppose laws and legislation that infringe on health care workers' right to follow the dictates of their conscience. In addition, I remain opposed to laws and regulations which require taxpayers to pay for abortion." (
  • Chip Cravaack. H Amdt 95. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Use of Federal Funds For Planned Parenthood. Chip Cravaack voted Yea on 02/18/2011. (
  • Chip Cravaack. HR 3. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Taxpayer Funding of Abortion. Chip Cravaack voted Yea on 05/04/2011. (
  • Chip Cravaack. Cravaack Votes to Further Protect the Sanctity of Life. 4 May 2011. "Today, U.S. Congressman Chip Cravaack (MN-8) voted in favor of H.R. 3, the No Taxpayer Funding for Abortion Act. The legislation establishes a permanent, government-wide prohibition on taxpayer subsidies for abortion and abortion coverage. "As a co-sponsor of H.R. 3, I am very pleased it passed the House with bi-partisan support," said Cravaack. "The Hyde amendment, which prevents certain types of taxpayer funding for abortion is effective but ultimately incomplete. H.R. 3 puts in place a permanent, government-wide prohibition on taxpayer subsidies for abortion and ensures no abortion will receive special tax treatment. At the same time, it does not affect how women with extenuating circumstances are able to pay for their care. No American should be asked to foot the bill or subsidize another person's decision to terminate their pregnancy." (
Yes Inferred Answer Afghanistan: Do you support United States' combat operations in Afghanistan? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. H Con Res 28. 112th Congress. Removing Troops from Afghanistan. Chip Cravaack voted Nay on 03/17/2011. (
  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: Defense and National Security. 1 January 2011. "Perhaps now more than ever it is crucial that we support our brave men and women around the world who serve to protect our freedoms and liberties. The war efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan have lasted longer than anyone wanted, but it is my firm belief that we either take the fight to the terrorists or they will bring it to us. While so many brave American's are serving across the globe to protect our way of life, we must all remember those who protect us here at home. Local law enforcement play such a big role in keeping our citizens safe, consistently putting their lives on the line so that we can feel secure about our community. The members of the National Guard also play a critical role keeping us safe and maintaining a strong presence across the country. Additionally, many members of the Guard have also been called into active duty in the war efforts." (
No Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support reducing defense spending? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. HR 1363. 112th Congress. 2011 Department of Defense Budget and Additional Continuing Appropriations. Chip Cravaack voted Yea on 04/07/2011. (
  • Chip Cravaack. H Amdt 13. 112th Congress. Reducing Navy and Air Force Aircraft Procurement. Chip Cravaack voted Nay on 02/15/2011. (
  • Chip Cravaack. A Shutdown Should Not Affect Our Troops. 7 April 2011. "Today, U.S. Congressman Chip Cravaack (MN-8) made the following statement after the House of Representatives passed a one-week continuing resolution that funds the Department of Defense for the remainder of Fiscal Year 2011 and the rest of the federal government until April 15th: I supported this latest continuing resolution because it will fund the Department of Defense through the end of the fiscal year. That means our war fighters -- especially those in conflict zones -- will not see their pay interrupted. I cannot in good conscience allow that to happen. Having served for 24 years in the United States Navy, I know firsthand the sacrifices our service members and their families make to ensure we can live peacefully and in a free society. A government shutdown should never negatively affect them." (
  • Chip Cravaack. PoliGraph: Cravaack misses on defense cut claim. 5 August 2011. "Rep. Chip Cravaack was one of four Minnesota lawmakers who voted against the bill to raise the nation's $14.3 trillion debt ceiling. Among his reasons for rejecting the measure is that it would cut defense spending by half. The debt ceiling 'bill risks cutting 50 percent in current military spending, endangering our national security amid an ever-increasing and varied level of credible threats targeting the U.S. and our military operations." (
  • Tom Schek. Minnesota Public Radio: Cravaack warns of looming budget showdown. 19 May 2012. "Sequestration is going to be absolutely disastrous for our military," he said. "Fifty-percent of that is coming out of national defense, which is only 20-percent of the actually budget in itself. So, do the math. An inordinate amount of money's being taken out of our military." (
No Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack signed the Americans for Tax Reform Taxpayers Protection Pledge. "I, Chip Cravaack, pledge to the taxpayers of the 8th district of the state of Minnesota and to the American people that I will: ONE, oppose any and all efforts to increase the marginal income tax rate for individuals and business; and TWO, oppose any net reduction or elimination of deductions and credits, unless matched dollar for dollar by further reducing tax rates." (
No Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Cravaack Statement on Passage of Budget Control Act. 29 July 2011. "Last week, I voted in favor of the only solution to our nation's spending spiral to achieve long-term fiscal sustainability -- the Cut, Cap, and Balance Act of 2011. We must be responsible now. This includes savings to projected budget levels, enforceable spending controls, and a Balanced Budget Amendment to the Constitution to avert a debt crisis, national default, and credit rating downgrade. This evening, I could not in good conscience support the Budget Control Act considered by the House because the numbers simply don't add up. The legislation would enable our nation to continue borrowing on an unsustainable course without the savings it desperately needs, the spending controls to prevent a U.S. credit downgrade, or the guarantee of a Balanced Budget Amendment to ensure prosperity for future Americans." (
  • Chip Cravaack. Weak Jobs Report Fires Up House GOP Freshman's Calls for Spending Cuts. 5 June 2011. "They are sitting on money which they want to invest, but the uncertainty caused by this administration is keeping them back. Businesses don't know what this administration is going to do to them next, what taxes or what regulation is going to be imposed. [Cravaack] the idea that government spending stimulates the economy is just false. Keynesian theory has never worked. We spent $1 trillion and unemployment is nowhere near 8 percent." (
  • Chip Cravaack. More Jobs for Minnesota. 30 September 2011. "I will examine all pro-growth proposals that mitigate excessive, job-destroying regulations that saddle small businesses and job creators. Republicans and Democrats must find areas of agreement regarding job creation that both sides can agree. We must set aside differences, build consensus, and produce a bill that helps job creation so that we can come together and act quickly to get the middle class back to work in this country. We cannot have more ˜stimulus' style spending. Any jobs package must provide specifics on how it will be paid for. I am committed to taking every possible step to improve conditions for private sector job creation in the Eighth District and to get our economy back on track so that America's workers and business owners can do what they do best: create, innovate and lead. We must focus on removing government barriers to private-sector job creation and the pursuit of pro-growth tax relief. According to the Congressional Budget Office, non-defense discretionary spending is up 26% since 2008. We just averted a debt crisis - how can we be asked to spend more? One of my biggest concerns is more failed ˜stimulus' style spending and more failed tax and spend policies. We must cut the red tape and burdensome regulations in order to bring more jobs to Minnesota. If the President can prove that his plan will create American jobs and prevent their outsourcing to places like China, Mexico, and India, I think the House should most definitely take the President's proposal into serious consideration. But we've heard this ˜must pass' mantra before. After all we went through to avert a debt crisis, are we really being asked to spend more? I urge the President to commit to pro-jobs, pro growth policies that eliminate red tape and put Minnesotans back to work." (
  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: Spending Cuts and Debt. 1 January 2011. "Federal spending is out of control. The national debt is over $14 trillion and growing. In addition, the federal government has over $50 trillion in unfunded liabilities in entitlement programs. This level of spending is simply unsustainable. If the Congress does not cut spending and reform our entitlement programs, our children and grandchildren will pay the price by living lives with less opportunity and a poorer standard of living. This is why I support a ban on earmarks, cutting government waste, and balancing the budget. Congress must learn to do what families in Minnesota do every day, live within our means. Otherwise the next generation will never be able to enjoy the same opportunities and quality of life that most of us have taken for granted. Although fixing this problem will not be easy, it is essential that Congress take drastic action to reduce the debt." (
  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: National Debt. 10 October 2011. "The idea of borrowing more money to pay off money that we previously borrowed is demonstrated by Bernie Madoff and his special version of unsustainability-- and why he went to jail. It is an absolutely ludicrous economic policy that we need to spend more money to save money. Within the last year the current administration has pushed through a $787 billion-dollar stimulus plan, is contemplating another stimulus bill, passed $33 billion expansion of the S-chip program, a $410 billion omnibus appropriations spending bill, spent $80 billion in car company bailouts, has sponsored a $820 billion cap and trade bill in the House and now is on the verge of passing a $1 trillion-dollar healthcare bill. This is in addition to an already 12 trillion-dollar deficit. It is not helpful that Jim Oberstar continues to push relentlessly for his $500 billion transportation bill with money earmarked for his bike trails that we simply can not afford. We have to stop spending money we do not have. It will be the demise of our country." (
Yes Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support providing tax incentives to businesses for the purpose of job creation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Oberstar's Outbursts During Debate Highlight His Reckless Record. 19 October 2010. "Congressional Republicans and more than 30 House Democrats were calling for a vote to extend the tax cuts for working families and small businesses yet Congressman Oberstar voted to adjourn, which left the $3.9 trillion tax increase on the table. The tax hikes Congressman Oberstar voted for would adversely impact 75 percent of small business owners that file taxes and individual rates -- the same small business owners responsible for nearly two-thirds of private sector job creation." (
  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: Jobs and the Economy. 17 October 2011. "Taxes placed upon small business is one of the chief deterrents to job creation in Minnesota. It curtails entrepreneurial business ventures as well as job innovation and business expansion. Until Minnesota becomes a more business friendly state we will be stuck in a self-perpetuating bureaucratic quagmire that promotes increasing taxes rather than promoting growth. Currently Minnesota ranks 6th in the country for total state tax revenue per capitia. Creating a business friendly environment and thereby increasing total taxable revenue can reduce individual and business taxes. Business growth creates jobs, which create personal wealth, which increases demand for products and services. This in turn creates more business stability, which creates yet more jobs and the cycle continues." (
  • Chip Cravaack. Column: This Week in Washington. 14 October 2011. "I am committed to taking every possible step to improve conditions for private sector job creation in the Eighth District and to get our economy back on track so that America's workers and business owners can do what they do best: create, innovate and lead. We must focus on removing government barriers to private-sector job creation and the pursuit of pro-growth tax relief. Less than a year ago, President Obama warned that -- if Congress failed to prevent tax hikes -- Americans would "see it in smaller paychecks" and "fewer jobs." Unfortunately, the President's jobs bill is a big missed opportunity to get something done, and it's only divided Americans [¦] Both parties need to find common ground on job creation. I look forward to working with my House colleagues to finding common-sense solutions for private-sector job creation, and to continue passing jobs bills supported by both Republicans and Democrats." (
No Inferred Answer Education: Do you support requiring states to implement education reforms in order to be eligible for competitive federal grants? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: Education. 26 October 2011. "I believe education is a states issue and that revenue that is taxed on the auspices of education in Minnesota should stay in Minnesota. Transferring the power of educating our children from local and state entities to federal control puts our schools at risk for becoming a target for lobbyists and special interest groups. As a parent, I feel much more confident in assisting in the direction of our schools at a local level than I do following an impersonal, and at times implausible, mandate from the Department of Education in Washington, D.C. I feel that the dollars assigned to each student within the state of Minnesota should follow that student to any school that student's parents feel is in the best interest of their child. Competition between public, private and charter schools serve as a catalyst for better performance of all schools and will provide a better educational product for our children." (
Yes Inferred Answer Energy: Do you support reducing restrictions on offshore energy production? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: Energy. 24 October 2011. "People all across Minnesota understand the impact high energy prices have on their standard of living. Volatile prices hurt every aspect of the economy, and the United States has become dependent on foreign sources of energy. The solution to this problem is straightforward. The United States must increase local production of energy. This will ensure prices remain stable and prevent billions of dollars from reaching foreign countries that do not have our best interest at heart. Unfortunately, the current administration and the federal bureaucrats in Washington have made expanding our domestic energy production nearly impossible through their draconian regulations. I will monitor agencies such as the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency carefully to ensure that they responsibly facilitate expanding our domestic energy production. America must also lead the way in energy innovation. The government should work with businesses and universities to promote research into alternative energy sources. This will ensure that America will never again be reliant on foreign sources of energy." (
  • Chip Cravaack. HR 1230. 112th Congress. Offshore Leasing Act. Chip Cravaack voted Yea on 05/05/2011. (
No Inferred Answer Environment: Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Cravaack Statement on EPA's Most Recent Assault on Minnesota Jobs. 17 August 2012. "In the middle of the worst unemployment crisis since the Great Depression, the EPA's sheer and utter disregard for our industry, its workers, and their families shows how out of touch with reality Washington bureaucrats really are. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency has already demonstrated effective regulation of our environmental laws, and these regulators know what is best for our state. Under the Obama Administration, the EPA has Minnesota jobs in its crosshairs. We are witnessing this kind of administrative overreach at a time when we're supposed to be encouraging growth, not stifling it. I am very concerned about the impact this new overreach will have on Minnesota's Iron Range, and I will be contacting the EPA in response to its decision [¦] "Until we get Minnesota mining out from under the thumb of Washington bureaucrats, we will continue to see a slow death of our mining operations." (
  • Chip Cravaack. HR 910. 112th Congress. Energy Tax Prevention Act. Chip Cravaack voted Yea on 04/07/2011. (
  • Chip Cravaack. Mesabi Daily News - Regulatory Frustrations Aired. 1 September 2012. "Eighth District Republican U.S. Rep. Chip Cravaack was there to hear their concerns and shared their frustrations, especially regarding the federal Environmental Protection Agency. 'The federal government is in the way, rather than acting as a partner, Cravaack said [¦] Cravaack has also strongly blasted the EPA for proposing a rejection of the Minnesota State Implementation Plan put forth by the state Pollution Control Agency for upgrading taconite facilities. Cravaack said the EPA ruling 'threatens the very livelihood of Iron Range residents.'" (
  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: Agriculture. 24 October 2011. "Agriculture is vitally important to Minnesota. As the second largest employer in our state, and an essential source of food for our country, it is imperative we support the work of Minnesota farmers and ranchers. Make no mistake, making a living from the land is not easy. Today, Minnesota farmers and ranchers face numerous hurdles from burdensome governmental regulations to a tax code biased against Minnesotans that own a family farm. To address these federal problems [¦] I will oppose carbon emission trading schemes as well as unnecessary regulations that harm Minnesota agriculture." (
No Inferred Answer Guns: Do you support restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: Perserving our Second Amendment Rights. 10 October 2011. "The right to bear arms is a fundamental right guaranteed by the Constitution and any legislation which infringes on this right would be contrary to the original intent of the founders. Therefore, citizens should not have this right infringed upon by any government entity, including the federal government. As a Member of Congress, I will oppose any attempts to restrict the ability of law abiding citizens to purchase or carry firearms." (
  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: 2nd Amendment Rights. 10 October 2011. "I believe the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution is unambiguous. The right to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed under the Constitution. The right to keep and bear arms goes beyond the collective right of militias and is, in fact, an individual right." (
Yes Inferred Answer Health Care: Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Cravaack Votes to Repeal Deeply Flawed Health Care Law. 19 January 2011. "I agree all Minnesotans should have access to high quality, affordable health care. However, I do not support the increased regulation, taxation and government interference found in the 2,400 page, $1 trillion legislation President Obama signed into law last year. The country can't afford it, and it serves as a massive over-reach on behalf of the federal government. Minnesotans and all Americans deserve better than the loop-hole filled, back-door negotiated, special interest bill they got. Fortunately, this will not be the only vote I take on health care [¦] Now that the House has voted to repeal Obamacare, I intend to work to ensure it is replaced with legislation that expands the accessibility of coverage, lowers costs and focuses on the quality of patient care “ without laying the bill at the feet of Minnesota taxpayers and future generations of Americans. We can do much better, and I look forward to working with my colleagues to pass legislation that offers positive solutions to the many serious problems found in the current law." (
  • Chip Cravaack. HR 2. 112th Congress. Repealing the Health Care Bill. Chip Cravaack voted Yea on 01/19/2011. (
No Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support requiring illegal immigrants to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Letter to President Obama. 9 September 2011. "Members of the bipartisan Immigration Reform Caucus along with member of the House vehemently oppose your August 18 2011 announcement to bypass Congress and use prosecutorial discretion to achieve amnesty to individuals who are illegally residing in the US. The manner with which your administration has introduced this policy not only robs the public of a thorough betting, but it also fails to appreciate the negative consequences of this policy shift. Over the last several years, with the support of the American public, Congress has consistently defeated amnesty proposals for illegal aliens. This recent effort appears to be nothing more than an attempt to avoid public review and unilaterally impose amnesty by picking and choosing which laws to enforce; or in this case, not to enforce, thereby enabling illegal aliens to remain in the country. In addition, we are convinced the consequences of implementing this policy, will include, but certainly not be limited to, the loss of public confidence and the encouragement of future illegal immigration. Even prior to this, the American public's confidence in the Administration to address illegal immigration was tenuous at best. This is evidenced by the number of states that have initiated and passed their own immigration enforcement laws. This shift in policy confirms the general public suspicion that the Administration is not serious about controlling illegal immigration. Also, this policy has the added affect of further encouraging illegal immigration. Frankly put, if we don't take our own laws seriously enough to enforce, why should we expect anyone to follow them? This policy will introduce a new wave a illegal immigrants emboldened with the knowledge that not only is it okay to break the law, but they will likely be rewarded for it with de facto amnesty statues, thereby exacerbating an already vicious cycle we as a nation try been trying to address for over two decades. This attempt to satisfy the narrow interests for the pro-amnesty lobby has ultimately earned the distrust of the greater American public. Our fear is that this policy will irreparably harm the prospects of true immigration reform for many years to come. Mr President, our request is simple: enforce our immigration laws evenly without passion, prejudice or preference." (
  • Chip Cravaack. Chip Cravaack is U.S House candidate for 8th District. 14 October 2010. "On the hot button issue of immigration reform, Cravaack said the immigration debate must wait until the borders are secured. Until the United States gets serious about guarding its borders, it can't be serious about immigration reform." (
  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: Homeland Security. 1 January 2011. "It is the federal government's job to keep its international borders secure and control the flow of non-citizens who are in the country on a temporary or permanent basis. This is no easy task with a country so large. However, there is no excuse for the porous borders and ineffective immigration process that exists today. Congress and the Administration share equal blame for our current situation. It is my intention to work with members of both parties and administration officials to streamline the immigration process and secure the borders. Additionally, local law enforcement personnel have been forced to play such a big role in securing the border and dealing with illegal aliens who break the law. They have neither the resources nor the time to take on this enormous task. We must do our job and relieve the burden on local and state officials. Our citizens demand and deserve no less." (
No Inferred Answer Marriage: Do you support same-sex marriage? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Issue Position: Values. 10 October 2011. "Despite recent attempts to redefine the institution of marriage, marriage is and will remain a union between one man and one woman. Given this fact, I will not support efforts to alter the legal definition of marriage." (
Unknown Position Unknown Answer National Security: Do you support targeting suspected terrorists outside of official theaters of conflict? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Cravaack Named To Homeland Security Subcommittees. 25 January 2011. "Upon learning I would be serving on the Homeland Security Committee I targeted these subcommittees as two of my top choices, so it is very gratifying to have gotten them. They focus on rooting out terrorists who are already within our borders, and dealing with protecting the transportation systems they have attempted to use -- on multiple occasions -- to do our nation harm. Now more than ever we need to be proactive in how we deal with terrorists both here and abroad, because the protection of American citizens and the homeland is Congress's most important and fundamental duty. I am excited about the opportunity to serve on these subcommittees, and I look forward to working on the vital and urgent tasks ahead of me. " (
  • Chip Cravaack. Cravaack Statement on the Death of Osama bin Laden. 2 May 2011. "I applaud the amazing men and women of our military and our intelligence agencies who have worked for almost 10 years to make sure Osama bin Laden -- the perpetrator of the worst terrorist attack in American history -- was finally brought to justice for his heinous crimes. This may not end the threat posed to us by global terrorism, but it is a clear victory for America and freedom loving people throughout the world." (
  • Chip Cravaack. Letter to Goodluck Jonathan, Nigerian President. 30 April 2012. "We write to express our grave concerns about the ongoing insurgency by Boko Haram, the Nigerian based terrorist organization that has killed an estimated 510 people in 2011 and as many as 160 this past January. While Boko Haram is largely based in northern Nigeria, we believe that a push south through Jos, could threaten your capital of Abuja, thereby destabilizing your country and potentially the region as a whole. We respect Nigeria's sovereign right to conduct her own internal affairs, however; we see the wisdom of supporting decisive action. We believe that developing a comprehensive strategy of rooting out corruption at the highest levels of the Nigerian government, implementing economic development plans for your northern citizens, respecting the rule of law, and formulating counterterrorism measures that compliment the increase in security funding, would be excellent steps to address the insurgency [¦] We certainly recognize that aggressively targeting an insurgency is difficult, especially one like Boko Haram, that has done nothing but grow in strength in recent years. However, any alternative gives Boko Haram time to recruit new converts and develop even more deadly strategies. Your Administration can stem the tide of violence that persists in your country but the window of opportunity is closing." (
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Social Security: Do you support allowing individuals to divert a portion of their Social Security taxes into personal retirement accounts? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Chip Cravaack. Cravaack Votes to Put America Back on Solid Economic Footing. 15 April 2011. "If recent history has shown us anything it is that Washington spends too much, not that Americans are taxed too little. This budget begins the task of reining in the massive deficits we have seen over the last few years and it puts us on a path to pay down our debt in the long term. It cuts $6.2 trillion in government spending over the next decade alone, and it does so without raising taxes. This budget replaces runaway spending, and the specter of higher future taxation to pay for it, with the certainty we need to achieve a full economic recovery. It does so without privatizing Social Security and Medicare, or making any changes to these programs for Americans 55 and older. In fact, it protects both of these programs so they will be available to future generations of Americans when they retire. One thing is clear, if we do not alter our course we risk going the way of failed economies like Greece, Portugal and Spain. I will not accept the prospect of leaving future generations of Minnesotans a less prosperous, less free nation than the one we have been blessed to live in. The status quo is not an option." (


Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

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