Congresswoman Marcia L. Fudge (OH-11) today joined Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney (NY-14) and Congresswoman Gwen Moore (WI-4) in introducing a resolution to honor the 40th anniversary of Title IX. Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in education, including sports and other opportunities. The Resolution provides as follows:
"Though the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in employment based on race, color, sex, national origin, or religion, educational institutions were for the most part excluded from its coverage until 1972. From 1970-1972, Congress held a number of hearings on sex discrimination in higher education.
WHEREAS: Title IX is part of the Education Amendments of 1972, and was introduced by Rep. Edith Green of Oregon. It was renamed the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act for her work as its major protector and defender. Title IX states in part that, "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance"; and
WHEREAS prior to Title IX sex discriminant was rampant:
Many colleges limited the number of women by requiring higher grades and test scores than those of men.
Medical and law schools often had admission quotas of a handful or less for women students.
Girls and women were typically discouraged by school personnel from preparing for most occupations other than the lower paying ones dominated by women; men were not allowed to enroll in schools of nursing.
High school and college athletic programs were very limited. Female athletes often had to raise money for their equipment, uniforms, travel and other costs.
Pregnant students were often expelled from high schools.
The percentage of women faculty in 1969 was less than the percentage in 1929.
Women faculty were often not hired, or if hired, were paid less and often not promoted.
WHEREAS: In educational institutions receiving federal funding, Title IX prohibits almost all discrimination against all students--male and female--on the basis of sex; and
WHEREAS: Ten major areas addressed by the law are: access to higher education and career education; education for pregnant and parenting students; employment; learning environment; math, science and technology; sexual harassment and sexual violence; standardized testing; and athletics; and
WHEREAS: Though best known for its impact in sports, Title IX has also created opportunities for women in math, law, science, and other fields where women and girls have historically faced considerable barriers to access and involvement; and
WHEREAS: Title IX requires schools and colleges receiving federal funds to give women and girls an equal opportunity to play sports by requiring equal treatment for women and girls in regard to athletic scholarships and other benefits such as coaching, equipment and facilities; and,
WHEREAS: The impact of Title IX has been tremendous in many areas:
Today, Women are now more than half of undergraduate students.
Women earn more than half of all bachelor's degrees in biological and social sciences.
Women are about half of the students in medical and law schools;
And, girls participation in high school sports had increased more than tenfold.
WHEREAS: There is more to be done: Women's advancement in some areas, such as computer science, engineering and technical fields, has stalled or decreased. Pregnant and parenting students are still often impacted by policies that hinder them from finishing and obtaining higher education. Sexual harassment affects a large number of both male and female students at all levels of education. Many people are unaware that Title IX also covers sexual violence against girls and women, as well as bullying that contains sexual content. The number of female high schools athletes today is still lower than the number of male high school athletes who were participating in sports when Title IX was passed in 1972.
NOW BE IT RESOLVED, that Congress recognizes and honors the 40th Anniversary of Title IX and its groundbreaking influence for girls and women throughout the United States. Congress affirms the equal treatment of men and women, and boys and girls, and strives to work towards a time when girls and women can achieve true equality in athletics, education, and employment. "