NOMINATION OF MIGUEL A. ESTRADA, OF VIRGINIA, TO BE UNITED STATES CIRCUIT JUDGE FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIACONTINUED
Mr. CHAMBLISS. Mr. President, I am still new to this body having been here less than 2 months at this point in my career in the Senate. After spending 8 years in the House of Representatives, I am still feeling my way through with respect to finding the microphone, and things like that.
I am somewhat at a loss when it comes to the process through which we are now going. It is totally unlike any type of process that I experienced in the House of Representatives because we don't confirm judges anywhere except in the Senate. I spent 26 years as a lawyer before being elected to the House of Representatives. In my 26 years as a lawyer, I tried hundreds of cases, and on appeals dozens and dozens of cases, and I had a number of opportunities to appear before both trial judges and appellate judges, on a variety of different issues.
At any one moment before an appellate court, you can pretty well look at a judge and tell whether or not that judge has done his homework on your issue. You have a sense of whether or not he has the intellect to interpret the issue and be very responsive to your argument. And if you ever find a judge who is not responsive, you can check his background, and you may find out that maybe he did not have the intellect to follow the course of your argument.
So when I look at the background of Miguel Estrada and try to decide whether or not, were I to appear as a lawyer before him, he would be the type of individual to whom I could make an argument and have him interpret that argument, even though it is on a very complex issue, I believe he would be. I have to tell you, his is one of the most unusual profiles I have ever seen of any member of the bar, much less any potential member of the bench.
It is unusual not just because his is a true American dream story. It is unusual because this man, as a practicing lawyer in public service and in the private sector, has distinguished himself above all other lawyers with whom he has ever been associated.
He is a man who has distinguished himself by coming to the United States, not speaking much, if any, English, and not only attending major universities, but graduating from those universities with high honors: from Columbia University with an undergraduate degree, and Harvard Law School with a law degree.
At Harvard Law School he was a member of the editorial board of the Law Review. And those of us who went to law school know there are only a few Law Review editorial board members. I can still remember in my law school class those who were members of the law review. Out of my class, of the 200 who started in law school, there wereI think about five of themwho were members of the Law Review. So it is a very distinct intellectual group of students who make the Law Review. And the editors of the Law Review are the elite of those very few who are designated with law review status.
The intellectual background of this man is unquestioned. He does have the capability of interpreting and deciphering any complex issue that might be presented to him as a member of the appellate court bench.
So when I think about, again, appearing before a man with his type of background, to argue a complex case, I think it would be wonderful to know you have somebody with the qualifications and the capability of Miguel Estrada to really listen to your argument and make the kind of decision every lawyer wants to have made on his or her particular case.
One thing that confuses me about Miguel Estrada's nomination is, I was told while I was in law school that I should join the American Bar Association as a student. And I did. I was a very active member of the American Bar Association in my small, rural community in Georgia for all of the 26 years I practiced law.
The American Bar Association is a very well respected, very highly recognized peer group within our profession. The American Bar Association was asked to review Mr. Estrada, as they review every other judicial nominee, and to make a recommendation to this body as to whether or not he is qualified to be confirmed by this body to the District of Columbia Circuit Court. They came back and said: Not only is he qualified, not only does he possess the academic and intellectual and legal background to serve on the Circuit Court for the District of Columbia, but he is well qualified. We are giving him the highest recommendation that lawyers can give to a lawyer who seeks confirmation to any court.
As a member of the Judiciary Committee, I have already seen that we have some judges who come through the committee who do not receive the highest recommendation from the American Bar Association, but nevertheless get confirmed by this body. And they should, because everybody is not going to get that highest qualification recommendation from the American Bar Association.
But Mr. Estrada got the highest qualification from his peersthose men and women who practice law with him, who talked to other lawyers who practiced law with him, who know how he functions day in and day out in the practice of law, who know his temperament and his capabilities as well as his ability to serve in the capacity of an appellate court judge. And for that body to come forward and say, we are going to give him the highest recommendation possible is just another one of the assets he brings to this body from the standpoint of confirming his nomination.
I was not here when Mr. Estrada had his hearing before the Judiciary Committee. That took place in September of last year when the committee was controlled by the Democrats. At that point in time, from what I read in the record, Mr. Estrada appeared before the Judiciary Committee for a full day's hearing. Every member of the Judiciary Committee had the opportunity to ask Mr. Estrada any question they wanted to. And they did.
There has been some question about whether or not he was totally forthcoming in his answers, whether he gave complete responses to the questions that were asked of him. Well, in addition to having the opportunity to ask Mr. Estrada questions at the time of his hearing, whether Mr. Leahy was chairman or now with Mr. Hatch as chairman, the members of the Judiciary Committee always have the opportunity to submit written questions in addition to those questions that are asked at the hearing.
If a Judiciary Committee member is not satisfied with answers to questions he or she asked, he or she simply has the right to come back and say, I want you to go into further detail with respect to this particular issue, to tell me whatever it is I want to have answered. Only two members of the Judiciary Committee came forward and said: We have additional questions we want to ask. Those two were both Democrats. They had the right to do it. They did it. And I respect them for coming back with additional questions when they felt they did not get totally complete answers. The fact of the matter is, though, those questions were answered immediately by Mr. Estrada.
So for somebody to come forward now on the other side of the aisle and say, we do not think he fully answered our questions, where were they? Where were they at the time of the hearing? Why didn't they come forward after the hearing if they were not satisfied at the hearing and submit additional written questions?
To come to this body now and to say Mr. Estrada was not totally forthcoming at the time of the hearing just shows this particular nomination has dipped itself into the depths of political partisanship. And it is not right.
I am biased. I am a lawyer. I think I am a member of the greatest profession that exists in the United States of America. I think we have a great judicial system because even though a lot of people throw rocks at our systemand I myself even have criticized it from time to timewe have the best system in the world. We have the best system in the world because it works. And people of all walks and backgrounds have the opportunity to have their cases heard by a judge, whether it is Mr. Estrada or a magistrate court judge in Colquitt County, GA. People have the right to have their cases heard.
And now, for somebody to come forward and say, I asked this guy a question, and he did not really answer my question, therefore, I am going to vote against him, I think just throws another rock at our judicial system that should not be thrown.
Referring, again, to Mr. Estrada's qualifications being called into question, this is an issue that has been batted back and forth between political parties. I have listened to an extensive amount of the debate over the past 2 or 3 weeks, both as Presiding Officer as well as on and off the floor. I have listened to my colleagues on the other side of the aisle raise issues relative to Mr. Estrada. In talking about qualifications of anybody to go to the bench, particularly the circuit court versus the district court, you can look at an individual lawyer and say, this man or this woman has appeared before the highest court in the land, the Supreme Court, not once, not twice, not 3 times, but 15 times to argue cases, and he has distinguished himself very well in those 15 arguments. As we all know, sometimes you are on the winning side and sometimes you are on the losing side, but 10 out of the 15 times that Mr. Estrada has been to the U.S. Supreme Court, irrespective of whether he was on the appellate side, which is the losing side going in, or whether he was on the appellee's side, the winning side going in, he has prevailed at the end of the day. So for a guy to argue 15 times before the U.S. Supreme Court and to win 10 of them is a very distinguishable record.
The fact that he even argued cases before the Supreme Court very honestly puts him in a category of lawyers that is the most highly respected group of lawyers that exists in the United States today. There are just not many folks who have the opportunity to argue a case before the Supreme Court. Here we have a man who has argued 15 cases before them.
Another argument I have heard time and time again is that we should be able to see the memos that he submitted to his boss while he was assistant to the Solicitor General. Some believe we should be able to see what was in his mind from a legal perspective, and use those memos to try to determine whether or not he has the judicial qualifications and temperament to serve as a member of the DC Circuit Court of Appeals.
Let me tell you what that is like. As a practicing lawyer, if I have somebody come into my office and I interview them and take notes and I then take their case and go into my law library and do extensive research on the issue for my client to make sure that I am well prepared from a legal precedent standpoint and I then write a memorandum, which I have put in my file to make sure that at the appropriate timewhen the case either comes to a hearing or I have an argument with opposing counselthat memorandum is personal and privileged to me and my client.
What the Democrats have asked for is, to view the collateral memos that were prepared by Mr. Estrada for his boss, the Solicitor General, while he was working in the Clinton administration and while he was working in the Bush 41 administration. That is wrong. They should not ask for it in the first place, but the Justice Department is absolutely right in refusing to produce them. They should not produce those memos because those memos are personal. They are private. They are privileged.
Every lawyer in the country ought to be outraged that the Justice Department is even being asked for those memoranda to be presented to this body for review when they were prepared in a private setting, in a setting in which there was a lawyer-client relationship in existence. Those types of memos have never been allowed to be offered into court for proof of any issue, and they should not be required to be presented here in this body.
Speaking of politics being involved here, again, as a new Member of this body and a new member of the Judiciary Committee, I am having a little trouble understanding the politics of this issue. I could understand it if Mr. Estrada has been a lifelong Republican, had the tattoo of an elephant on him and was a known advocate or radical that held forth extreme positions. I could understand the politics involved in seeking to block this man by the folks on the other side of the aisle.
But that is not the case. Here we have a man who came to the United States speaking little or no English, a man who went to two of the finest schools in America not known for their conservative-leaning students or faculty, Columbia University and Harvard. I don't know where they lean, but they are certainly not conservative-leaning universities.
That is his background. He comes from an administration that was not a conservative-leaning administration, the Clinton administration. He worked for 4 years in that administration. He worked for the Solicitor General in the first Bush administration for a year and then the Clinton administration for 4 years. There is nothing to indicate that this man would have an off-the-wall conservative-leaning philosophy.
I do not understand the politics of somebody coming up and saying: Well, we think he may be too conservative or he may be radical.
Those kinds of statements were made within the Judiciary Committee, and there is simply no basis for them.
The fact is, every Solicitor General who lives today who has worked for any administration, whether it is Republican or Democratic, has come forward and signed a letter saying, No. 1, the privileged memoranda sought to be produced from the Justice Department should not be produced because they will compromise future administrations. They never should be produced. And No. 2, they recommend Mr. Estrada for confirmation by this body.
When somebody in that position makes a statement, it takes it totally out of the realm of politics and puts it in the realm of professionalism, which is where it ought to be. We ought to have good, quality, competent men and women going to the bench.
As a Member of the House of Representatives during the Clinton administration, I had a good friend who was nominated to the District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. She is a good lawyer. She was a really outstanding U.S. attorney. She is not a Republican, but I thought she ought to be put on the district court. She was, in fact, appointed, and she was confirmed by this body because she was a good lawyer. She was the type of person who ought to be on the bench.
The same thing holds true for Mr. Estrada. All you have to do is look at his record. It is pretty easy to tell that he is a good lawyer. When you talk to other lawyers about him, I promise you, in the legal profession, you know very quickly whether or not somebody is well respected and well thought of.
Mr. Estrada has the respect of his colleagues. We have searched high and low. If anybody has anything negative to say about Mr. Estrada, it has come forward. Only one coworker who he worked with over the years has had anything negative to say about Mr. Estrada.
Do you know what is unusual about that? That same individual, who was his supervisor in the Office of Solicitor General during the Clinton years, gave him a rating on two different years. That review rating that was given to Mr. Estrada was "outstanding" by this particular individual who is now the only member of the Solicitor General's Office, or any other place where Mr. Estrada was employed, who has had anything whatsoever, to say in a negative capacity regarding Mr. Estrada.
So whether it is people he worked for, whether you look at his qualifications from an educational standpoint, vis-a-vis an intellectual standpoint, whether it is the Hispanic community that you look to for a recommendation on Mr. Estradaeverywhere you look, he gets nothing but the highest marks, the absolute highest marks.
One other area in which I think Mr. Estrada has really excelled is with respect to what we in the legal community refer to as pro bono work. Pro bono work is done different ways in different parts of the world. In my part of Georgia, a practicing lawyer does pro bono work when he or she takes appointed criminal cases usually. Occasionally, you will represent an individual in a civil matter and you don't get paid for it. That is what we talk about as a pro bono type case. Mr. Estrada has been very active in the world of pro bono service. In fact, he handled one case that was a death row inmate case, which is not the normal type of case that a lawyer of Mr. Estrada's background would handle. But he took the case and, obviously, he did the work necessary to fully, totally, and very professionally represent his client, because he spent almost 400 hours in research and preparation for representing this individuala death row inmate's case.
For a man to spend 400 hoursI don't know what his billable rate is, but even at my billable rate in rural Georgia, that would have been an awful lot of money that Mr. Estrada sacrificed for the sake of making sure this death row inmate had more than adequate representation. In fact, with Mr. Estrada, the death row inmate was represented by an outstanding lawyer who had the capabilityand I am absolutely certain he didto do everything necessary to fully and totally represent his client.
Now, one final criticism of Mr. Estrada is that he has no judicial experience. Well, I don't buy this argument. In fact, I think, if anything, it may be to his advantage. Having judicial experience sometimes, I think, could be even a negative factor, although in a case where you had somebody as qualified as Mr. Estrada, it would not make any difference one way or the other. But you have an individual here who has legal experience. That is what is important. He has legal experience in being able to work on complex cases, and most of the time, cases that come before the circuit court are complex cases. Mr. Estrada has the ability to deal with those complex cases because he has handled them for years and years as a practicing attorney in the public and private sectors. He has the type of background that lends itself to being able to deal with those complex cases and make a rational, reasonable interpretation of the Constitution, which every judge is expected to do and which is exactly what Mr. Estrada said he would do at his hearing in September before the Judiciary Committee.
I close by saying there have been 57 newspaper editorials I have seen relative to the nomination of Mr. Estrada and the treatment of his nomination on the floor of the Senate. Of the 57 editorials that have appeared in newspapers all across America, 50 have been favorable toward Mr. Estrada. One of those editorials appeared in a newspaper in my home State, in Atlanta, GA. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution wrote an editorialabout 3 weeks ago nowthat was complimentary to Mr. Estrada and critical of the Senate for not moving on his nomination.
Let me tell you, when it comes to politics, the Atlanta Journal-Constitution is not on one side most of the time; they are on one side all of the time. I have never received, in my political career, the endorsement of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, except for the one time when I did not have an opponent and I guess they had to endorse me. To say that they are in any way leaning toward the conservative side on any issue would be outlandish. But even the Atlanta Journal-Constitution came out and said this is wrong.
This man is a good and decent man. He has the intellect and background to serve on the Circuit Court for the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, and he should be confirmed. That line has been repeated by newspapers in America day in and day out for the last several months.
The Augusta newspaper, also in my State, wrote a glowing editorial also recommending that this body confirm the nomination of Miguel Estrada to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia.
I think, without question, that the right arguments have been made in support of Mr. Estrada. Just in winding downI see my friend from Nevada here, and I don't know whether he wants time or notI want to say that, from the standpoint of support from the Hispanic community, there has been overwhelming support from every aspect of the Hispanic community. When you look at the League of United Latin American Citizensthat is what we call LULACwhich is the Nation's oldest and largest Hispanic civil rights organization, the president of that organization, Mr. Rick Dovalina, wrote a letter, and this is what he said about Mr. Estrada:
On behalf of the League of United Latin American Citizens, the nation's oldest and largest Hispanic civil rights organization, I write to express our strong support for the confirmation of Mr. Miguel A. Estrada. . . . Few Hispanic attorneys have as strong educational credentials as Mr. Estrada who graduated magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa from Columbia and magna cum laude from Harvard Law School, where he was editor of the Harvard Law Review. He also served as a law clerk to the Honorable Anthony M. Kennedy in the U.S. Supreme Court, making him one of a handful of Hispanic attorneys to have had this opportunity. He is truly one of the rising stars in the Hispanic community and a role model for our youth.
The Hispanic National Bar Association president, Rafael A. Santiago, stated as follows:
The Hispanic National Bar Association, national voice of over 25,000 Hispanic lawyers in the United States, issues its endorsement. . . . Mr. Estrada's confirmation will break new ground for Hispanics in the judiciary. The time has come to move on Mr. Estrada's nomination. I urge the Senate Committee on the Judiciary to schedule a hearing on Mr. Estrada's nomination and the U.S. Senate to bring this highly qualified nominee to a vote, said Rafael A. Santiago, of Hartford, Connecticut, National President of the Hispanic National Bar Association.
So this man has the qualifications. He has the educational background. He has the legal background. He has the intellect. He has the support of Democrats. He has the support of Republicans. He has the support of liberals. He has the support of conservatives. He has the support of the Hispanic community. The only support he is lacking to bring this nomination to a vote on the floor of the Senate is the support from our colleagues on the other side of the aisle.
Not allowing this nomination to come to the floor for a vote is not fair, it is not judicially just. It is not just in any way from an ethical, moral, or judicial standpoint.
Mr. Estrada's nomination has been debated back and forth now for, gosh, going on 3 weeks. I guess 3 weeks starting tomorrowa total of 4 weeks. We were here 2 weeks, we were out 1 week, and now we are back. So I guess it is a total of 4 weeks. We have a lot of business that needs to be brought before this body. We have a jobs growth package that needs to be debated and passed that the President has put forth. We have the impending conflict with Iraq and the continuing war on terrorism that needs to be dealt with on the floor of this body. We need to move to other business.
We need the folks on the other side of the aisle to come forward and say: OK, we will give you a vote. We do not think he is qualified, but we are willing to give Mr. Estrada a vote. That is the right thing to do, that is the just thing to do, and that is the judicial thing to do. If they want to vote against him, vote against him, but if we want to vote for him, we ought to have the opportunity to vote for him. We ought not require 60 votes. We ought to require 51 votes, as I think our Constitution requires, and we ought to bring the name of Miguel Estrada to the floor of the Senate and have a vote.
I thank the Chair.