Rating Group: American Public Health Association

1998 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
HI Governor Neil Abercrombie D 100%
Gary Ackerman 100%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 100%
Thomas Allen 100%
Rob Andrews 100%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 100%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 100%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 100%
Howard Berman 100%
Jeff Bingaman 100%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 100%
Sherwood Boehlert 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 100%
PA U.S. House-1 Bob Brady D 100%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 100%
George Brown, Jr. 100%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 100%
CA U.S. House-24 Lois Capps D 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 100%
Julia Carson 100%
William Clay, Sr. 100%
Eva Clayton 100%
Joseph Maxwell Cleland 100%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 100%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 100%
William Coyne 100%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 100%
IL U.S. House-7 Danny Davis D 100%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 100%
CO U.S. House-1 Diana DeGette D 100%
Bill Delahunt 100%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 100%
Peter Deutsch 100%
Norm Dicks 100%
Julian Dixon 100%
Chris Dodd 100%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 100%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 100%
Chet Edwards 100%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 100%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 100%
Lane Evans 100%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 100%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 100%
Russ Feingold 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 100%
Bob Filner 100%
Harold Ford, Jr. 100%
Barney Frank 100%
Jonas Frost III 100%
Sam Gejdenson 100%
Daniel Graham 100%
IA U.S. Senate-Jr Tom Harkin D 100%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 100%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 100%
Maurice Hinchey 100%
Darlene Hooley 100%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 100%
Daniel Inouye 100%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 100%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 100%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 100%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 100%
Bob Kerrey 100%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 100%
Carolyn Kilpatrick 100%
Herb Kohl 100%
Tom Lantos 100%
Frank Lautenberg 100%
CA U.S. House-13 Barbara Lee D 100%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Carl Levin D 100%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 100%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 100%
Joe Lieberman 100%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 100%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 100%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 100%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 100%
Robert Matsui 100%
NY U.S. House-4 Carolyn McCarthy D 100%
Karen McCarthy 100%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 100%
MA U.S. House-2 Jim McGovern D 100%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 100%
Martin Meehan 100%
Carrie Meek 100%
NY U.S. House-5 Gregory Meeks D 100%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 100%
Juanita Millender-McDonald 100%
CA U.S. House-11 George Miller D 100%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 100%
Constance Morella 100%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 100%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 100%
John Olver 100%
Major Owens 100%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 100%
AZ U.S. House-7 Ed Pastor D 100%
Donald Payne 100%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 100%
NC U.S. House-4 David Price D 100%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 100%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 100%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 100%
WV U.S. Senate-Sr Jay Rockefeller IV D 100%
Steve Rothman 100%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 100%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 100%
Martin Olav Sabo 100%
CA U.S. House-46 Loretta Sanchez D 100%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 100%
Paul Sarbanes 100%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 100%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 100%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 100%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano D 100%
CA U.S. House-30 Brad Sherman D 100%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 100%
WA U.S. House-9 Adam Smith D 100%
Vic Snyder 100%
MI U.S. Senate-Jr Debbie Stabenow D 100%
Pete Stark 100%
Ellen Tauscher 100%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 100%
Karen Thurman 100%
MA U.S. House-6 John Tierney D 100%
Robert Torricelli 100%
Ed Towns 100%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 100%
Bruce Vento 100%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 100%
Mel Watt 100%
CA U.S. House-33 Henry Waxman D 100%
Paul Wellstone 100%
Robert Wexler 100%
Lynn Woolsey 100%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 100%
Albert Wynn 100%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 88%
Rod Blagojevich 88%
David Edward Bonior 88%
Robert Borski, Jr. 88%
Rick Boucher 88%
Thomas Campbell 88%
James Davis 88%
Calvin Dooley 88%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 88%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutierrez D 88%
Stephen Horn 88%
William Jefferson 88%
Nancy Johnson 88%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 88%
Patrick Kennedy 88%
WI U.S. House-3 Ron Kind D 88%
Gerald Kleczka 88%
Nicholas Lampson 88%
William Luther 88%
James Maloney 88%
VA U.S. House-8 Jim Moran, Jr. D 88%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 88%
Jim Oberstar 88%
Dave Obey 88%
Ciro Rodriguez 88%
Bob Weygand 88%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 86%
TX U.S. House-15 Rubén Hinojosa, Sr. D 86%
Max Baucus 83%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 83%
Richard Bryan 83%
Thomas Daschle 83%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr Timothy Johnson D 83%
LA U.S. Senate-Sr Mary Landrieu D 83%
Patrick Moynihan 83%
John Moakley 80%
Brian Bilbray 75%
Mike Castle 75%
MI U.S. House-12 John Dingell D 75%
John Ganske 75%
Benjamin Gilman 75%
James Greenwood 75%
Dennis Kucinich 75%
James Leach 75%
David Minge 75%
NJ U.S. House-9 Bill Pascrell, Jr. D 75%
Christopher Shays 75%
John Spratt, Jr. 75%
Bob Wise, Jr. 75%
Matthew Martinez 71%
Michael McNulty 71%
Robert Byrd 67%
John Chafee 67%
Byron Dorgan 67%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 67%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 67%
Charles Robb 67%
Marion Berry 63%
Robert Clement 63%
Gary Condit 63%
Bob Etheridge 63%
Robert Franks 63%
Wayne Gilchrest 63%
Paul Kanjorski 63%
Sue Kelly 63%
Dale Kildee 63%
Ronald Klink 63%
James Kolbe 63%
John LaFalce 63%
Steve LaTourette 63%
Rick Lazio 63%
Owen Pickett 63%
John Edward Porter 63%
James Ramstad 63%
Norman Sisisky 63%
Ted Strickland 63%
Bart Stupak 63%
Arlen Specter 60%
Silvestre Reyes 57%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 50%
Leonard Boswell 50%
Allen Boyd, Jr. 50%
John Breaux 50%
ME U.S. Senate-Sr Susan Collins R 50%
Kent Conrad 50%
Jerry Costello 50%
Thomas Davis III 50%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 50%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle, Jr. D 50%
Michael Patrick Forbes 50%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 50%
Bart Gordon 50%
James Merrill Jeffords 50%
Jack Murtha 50%
Earl Pomeroy 50%
WV U.S. House-3 Nick Rahall II D 50%
Timothy Roemer 50%
Marge Roukema 50%
Max Sandlin, Jr. 50%
Olympia Snowe 50%
John Tanner 50%
James Turner 50%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 50%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 50%
Robert Cramer 43%
Mark Foley 43%
Tony Hall 43%
Ernest Hollings 40%
James Barcia 38%
Merrill Cook 38%
Patsy Ann Danner 38%
Vern Ehlers 38%
Thomas Holden 38%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 38%
William Lipinski 38%
Frank Mascara 38%
NC U.S. House-7 Mike McIntyre D 38%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 38%
Gene Taylor 38%
W. Curtis Weldon 38%
Edmond Spencer Abraham 33%
Kit Bond 33%
William Frist 33%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 33%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 33%
William Roth, Jr. 33%
John Warner 33%
Christopher John 29%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 29%
Deborah Pryce 29%
Charlie Bass 25%
Douglas Bereuter 25%
Henry Bonilla 25%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 25%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 25%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 25%
Thomas Ewing 25%
Vito Fossella, Jr. 25%
Elton Gallegly 25%
TX U.S. House-12 Kay Granger R 25%
TX U.S. House-4 Ralph Hall R 25%
David Lee Hobson 25%
Jerry Lewis 25%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 25%
John McHugh 25%
Dan Miller 25%
Alan Mollohan 25%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 25%
Michael Oxley 25%
Edward Pease 25%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 25%
Ralph Regula 25%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 25%
Jim Saxton 25%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 25%
Ike Skelton 25%
Nick Smith 25%
Charles Stenholm 25%
William Thomas 25%
James Walsh 25%
Gerald Weller 25%
Bob Bennett 17%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 17%
Ben Campbell 17%
Paul Coverdell 17%
Slade Gorton 17%
Judd Gregg 17%
NA U.S. Secretary of Defense Charles Hagel R 17%
Kay Hutchison 17%
Dick Lugar 17%
Connie Mack 17%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 17%
Gordon Smith 17%
Ted Stevens 17%
James Hansen 14%
Rick Hill 14%
Henry Hyde 14%
John Peterson 14%
Jack Quinn 14%
Heather Wilson 14%
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 14%
AL U.S. House-4 Robert Aderholt R 13%
AL U.S. House-6 Spencer Bachus R 13%
Richard Hugh Baker 13%
Bill Barrett 13%
Michael Bilirakis 13%
Mary Bono Mack 13%
Ed Bryant 13%
Jim Bunning 13%
Dan Burton 13%
Herbert Callahan 13%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Saxby Chambliss R 13%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 13%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 13%
Larry Combest 13%
John Cooksey 13%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 13%
Jay Dickey 13%
Jennifer Dunn 13%
Terry Everett 13%
Tillie Fowler 13%
Jim Gibbons 13%
Paul Gillmor 13%
Virgil Goode, Jr. 13%
Porter Goss 13%
Gilbert Gutknecht 13%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 13%
Asa Hutchinson 13%
OH Governor John Kasich R 13%
Ray LaHood 13%
IA U.S. House-3 Tom Latham R 13%
Robert Livingston 13%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 13%
KS U.S. Senate-Jr Jerry Moran R 13%
Robert William Ney 13%
Anne Northup 13%
James Nussle 13%
Bob Riley 13%
James Rogan 13%
Jim Ryun 13%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 13%
IL U.S. House-15 John Shimkus R 13%
Joseph Skeen 13%
Mark Souder 13%
Bob Stump 13%
James Talent 13%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 13%
SD U.S. Senate-Jr John Thune R 13%
James Traficant, Jr. 13%
Wesley Watkins 13%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 13%
David Weldon 13%
VA U.S. House-10 Frank Wolf R 13%
Wayne Allard 0%
Bill Archer 0%
Richard Armey 0%
John Ashcroft 0%
Cass Ballenger 0%
Bob Barr, Jr. 0%
Roscoe Bartlett 0%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 0%
Herbert Bateman 0%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 0%
MO U.S. Senate-Jr Roy Blunt R 0%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 0%
TX U.S. House-8 Kevin Brady R 0%
Conrad Burns 0%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 0%
Steve Buyer 0%
MI U.S. House-4 Dave Camp R 0%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 0%
Chris Cannon 0%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 0%
NC U.S. House-6 Howard Coble R 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Jr Thomas Coburn R 0%
Michael Collins 0%
Christopher Cox 0%
Larry Craig 0%
Philip Crane 0%
Barbara Cubin 0%
Randall Cunningham 0%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 0%
Thomas DeLay 0%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 0%
John Doolittle 0%
David Dreier 0%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 0%
Jo Ann Emerson 0%
Philip English 0%
WY U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Enzi R 0%
George Gekas 0%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 0%
William Goodling 0%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 0%
William Phillip Gramm 0%
Rodney Grams 0%
J. Dennis Hastert 0%
WA U.S. House-4 Doc Hastings R 0%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 0%
Joel Hefley 0%
Jesse Helms 0%
Wally Herger, Jr. 0%
Van Hilleary 0%
Pete Hoekstra 0%
John Nathan Hostettler 0%
Kenny Hulshof 0%
Duncan Hunter 0%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 0%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 0%
William Lewis Jenkins 0%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 0%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 0%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 0%
GA U.S. House-1 Jack Kingston R 0%
Joseph Knollenberg 0%
Jon Kyl 0%
Stephen Largent 0%
Ron Lewis 0%
John Linder 0%
Trent Lott, Sr. 0%
Don Manzullo 0%
Bill McCollum 0%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 0%
James McCrery III 0%
Scott McInnis 0%
David McIntosh 0%
CA U.S. House-25 Buck McKeon R 0%
Jack Metcalf 0%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 0%
Frank Murkowski 0%
Sue Myrick 0%
Don Nickles 0%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 0%
Ronald Packard 0%
Ron Paul 0%
WI U.S. House-6 Tom Petri R 0%
Charles Pickering, Jr. 0%
PA U.S. House-16 Joe Pitts R 0%
Richard Pombo 0%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 0%
George Radanovich 0%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 0%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 0%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 0%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 0%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matt Salmon R 0%
Rick Santorum 0%
Joe Scarborough 0%
Robert Schaffer 0%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 0%
AL U.S. Senate-Jr Jeff Sessions III R 0%
TX U.S. House-32 Pete Sessions R 0%
John Shadegg 0%
E.G. Shuster 0%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 0%
Bob Smith 0%
Floyd Spence 0%
Cliff Stearns 0%
John Sununu 0%
William Tauzin 0%
Charles Taylor 0%
Craig Thomas 0%
Fred Thompson 0%
Strom Thurmond 0%
Todd Tiahrt 0%
Zach Wamp 0%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 0%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 0%
Bill Young 0%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.