Rating Group: American Public Health Association

1998 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
HI Governor Neil Abercrombie D 100%
Edmond Spencer Abraham 33%
Gary Ackerman 100%
AL U.S. House-4 Robert Aderholt R 13%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 100%
Wayne Allard 0%
Thomas Allen 100%
Rob Andrews 100%
Bill Archer 0%
Richard Armey 0%
John Ashcroft 0%
AL U.S. House-6 Spencer Bachus R 13%
Richard Hugh Baker 13%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 100%
Cass Ballenger 0%
James Barcia 38%
Bob Barr, Jr. 0%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 88%
Bill Barrett 13%
Roscoe Bartlett 0%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 0%
Charlie Bass 25%
Herbert Bateman 0%
Max Baucus 83%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 100%
Bob Bennett 17%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 100%
Douglas Bereuter 25%
Howard Berman 100%
Marion Berry 63%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 83%
Brian Bilbray 75%
Michael Bilirakis 13%
Jeff Bingaman 100%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 50%
Rod Blagojevich 88%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 0%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 100%
MO U.S. Senate-Jr Roy Blunt R 0%
Sherwood Boehlert 100%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 0%
Kit Bond 33%
Henry Bonilla 25%
David Edward Bonior 88%
Mary Bono Mack 13%
Robert Borski, Jr. 88%
Leonard Boswell 50%
Rick Boucher 88%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 100%
Allen Boyd, Jr. 50%
TX U.S. House-8 Kevin Brady R 0%
PA U.S. House-1 Bob Brady D 100%
John Breaux 50%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 100%
George Brown, Jr. 100%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 100%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 17%
Richard Bryan 83%
Ed Bryant 13%
Jim Bunning 13%
Conrad Burns 0%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 0%
Dan Burton 13%
Steve Buyer 0%
Robert Byrd 67%
Herbert Callahan 13%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 25%
MI U.S. House-4 Dave Camp R 0%
Ben Campbell 17%
Thomas Campbell 88%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 0%
Chris Cannon 0%
CA U.S. House-24 Lois Capps D 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 100%
Julia Carson 100%
Mike Castle 75%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 0%
John Chafee 67%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Saxby Chambliss R 13%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 13%
William Clay, Sr. 100%
Eva Clayton 100%
Joseph Maxwell Cleland 100%
Robert Clement 63%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 100%
NC U.S. House-6 Howard Coble R 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Jr Thomas Coburn R 0%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 13%
Michael Collins 0%
ME U.S. Senate-Sr Susan Collins R 50%
Larry Combest 13%
Gary Condit 63%
Kent Conrad 50%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 100%
Merrill Cook 38%
John Cooksey 13%
Jerry Costello 50%
Paul Coverdell 17%
Christopher Cox 0%
William Coyne 100%
Larry Craig 0%
Robert Cramer 43%
Philip Crane 0%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 13%
Barbara Cubin 0%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 100%
Randall Cunningham 0%
Patsy Ann Danner 38%
Thomas Daschle 83%
IL U.S. House-7 Danny Davis D 100%
James Davis 88%
Thomas Davis III 50%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 0%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 100%
CO U.S. House-1 Diana DeGette D 100%
Bill Delahunt 100%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 100%
Thomas DeLay 0%
Peter Deutsch 100%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 50%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 25%
Jay Dickey 13%
Norm Dicks 100%
MI U.S. House-12 John Dingell D 75%
Julian Dixon 100%
Chris Dodd 100%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 100%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 0%
Calvin Dooley 88%
John Doolittle 0%
Byron Dorgan 67%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle, Jr. D 50%
David Dreier 0%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 0%
Jennifer Dunn 13%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 100%
Chet Edwards 100%
Vern Ehlers 38%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 25%
Jo Ann Emerson 0%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 100%
Philip English 0%
WY U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Enzi R 0%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 100%
Bob Etheridge 63%
Lane Evans 100%
Terry Everett 13%
Thomas Ewing 25%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 100%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 100%
Russ Feingold 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 100%
Bob Filner 100%
Mark Foley 43%
Michael Patrick Forbes 50%
Harold Ford, Jr. 100%
Vito Fossella, Jr. 25%
Tillie Fowler 13%
Barney Frank 100%
Robert Franks 63%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 50%
William Frist 33%
Jonas Frost III 100%
Elton Gallegly 25%
John Ganske 75%
Sam Gejdenson 100%
George Gekas 0%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 88%
Jim Gibbons 13%
Wayne Gilchrest 63%
Paul Gillmor 13%
Benjamin Gilman 75%
Virgil Goode, Jr. 13%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 0%
William Goodling 0%
Bart Gordon 50%
Slade Gorton 17%
Porter Goss 13%
Daniel Graham 100%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 0%
William Phillip Gramm 0%
Rodney Grams 0%
TX U.S. House-12 Kay Granger R 25%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 33%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 86%
James Greenwood 75%
Judd Gregg 17%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutierrez D 88%
Gilbert Gutknecht 13%
NA U.S. Secretary of Defense Charles Hagel R 17%
TX U.S. House-4 Ralph Hall R 25%
Tony Hall 43%
James Hansen 14%
IA U.S. Senate-Jr Tom Harkin D 100%
J. Dennis Hastert 0%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 100%
WA U.S. House-4 Doc Hastings R 0%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 0%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 13%
Joel Hefley 0%
Jesse Helms 0%
Wally Herger, Jr. 0%
Rick Hill 14%
Van Hilleary 0%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 100%
Maurice Hinchey 100%
TX U.S. House-15 Rubén Hinojosa, Sr. D 86%
David Lee Hobson 25%
Pete Hoekstra 0%
Thomas Holden 38%
Ernest Hollings 40%
Darlene Hooley 100%
Stephen Horn 88%
John Nathan Hostettler 0%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 38%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 100%
Kenny Hulshof 0%
Duncan Hunter 0%
Asa Hutchinson 13%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 0%
Kay Hutchison 17%
Henry Hyde 14%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 0%
Daniel Inouye 100%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 0%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 100%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 100%
William Jefferson 88%
James Merrill Jeffords 50%
William Lewis Jenkins 0%
Christopher John 29%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 100%
Nancy Johnson 88%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 0%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr Timothy Johnson D 83%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 0%
Paul Kanjorski 63%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 88%
OH Governor John Kasich R 13%
Sue Kelly 63%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 100%
Patrick Kennedy 88%
Bob Kerrey 100%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 100%
Dale Kildee 63%
Carolyn Kilpatrick 100%
WI U.S. House-3 Ron Kind D 88%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 0%
GA U.S. House-1 Jack Kingston R 0%
Gerald Kleczka 88%
Ronald Klink 63%
Joseph Knollenberg 0%
Herb Kohl 100%
James Kolbe 63%
Dennis Kucinich 75%
Jon Kyl 0%
John LaFalce 63%
Ray LaHood 13%
Nicholas Lampson 88%
LA U.S. Senate-Sr Mary Landrieu D 83%
Tom Lantos 100%
Stephen Largent 0%
IA U.S. House-3 Tom Latham R 13%
Steve LaTourette 63%
Frank Lautenberg 100%
Rick Lazio 63%
James Leach 75%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 67%
CA U.S. House-13 Barbara Lee D 100%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Carl Levin D 100%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 100%
Jerry Lewis 25%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 100%
Ron Lewis 0%
Joe Lieberman 100%
John Linder 0%
William Lipinski 38%
Robert Livingston 13%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 25%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 100%
Trent Lott, Sr. 0%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 100%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 13%
Dick Lugar 17%
William Luther 88%
Connie Mack 17%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 100%
James Maloney 88%
Don Manzullo 0%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 100%
Matthew Martinez 71%
Frank Mascara 38%
Robert Matsui 100%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 33%
NY U.S. House-4 Carolyn McCarthy D 100%
Karen McCarthy 100%
Bill McCollum 0%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 0%
James McCrery III 0%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 100%
MA U.S. House-2 Jim McGovern D 100%
John McHugh 25%
Scott McInnis 0%
David McIntosh 0%
NC U.S. House-7 Mike McIntyre D 38%
CA U.S. House-25 Buck McKeon R 0%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 100%
Michael McNulty 71%
Martin Meehan 100%
Carrie Meek 100%
NY U.S. House-5 Gregory Meeks D 100%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 100%
Jack Metcalf 0%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 0%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 100%
Juanita Millender-McDonald 100%
Dan Miller 25%
CA U.S. House-11 George Miller D 100%
David Minge 75%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 100%
John Moakley 80%
Alan Mollohan 25%
VA U.S. House-8 Jim Moran, Jr. D 88%
KS U.S. Senate-Jr Jerry Moran R 13%
Constance Morella 100%
Patrick Moynihan 83%
Frank Murkowski 0%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 100%
Jack Murtha 50%
Sue Myrick 0%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 100%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 88%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 25%
Robert William Ney 13%
Don Nickles 0%
Anne Northup 13%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 0%
James Nussle 13%
Jim Oberstar 88%
Dave Obey 88%
John Olver 100%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 29%
Major Owens 100%
Michael Oxley 25%
Ronald Packard 0%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 100%
NJ U.S. House-9 Bill Pascrell, Jr. D 75%
AZ U.S. House-7 Ed Pastor D 100%
Ron Paul 0%
Donald Payne 100%
Edward Pease 25%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 100%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 25%
John Peterson 14%
WI U.S. House-6 Tom Petri R 0%
Charles Pickering, Jr. 0%
Owen Pickett 63%
PA U.S. House-16 Joe Pitts R 0%
Richard Pombo 0%
Earl Pomeroy 50%
John Edward Porter 63%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 0%
NC U.S. House-4 David Price D 100%
Deborah Pryce 29%
Jack Quinn 14%
George Radanovich 0%
WV U.S. House-3 Nick Rahall II D 50%
James Ramstad 63%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 100%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 100%
Ralph Regula 25%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 67%
Silvestre Reyes 57%
Bob Riley 13%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 100%
Charles Robb 67%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 0%
WV U.S. Senate-Sr Jay Rockefeller IV D 100%
Ciro Rodriguez 88%
Timothy Roemer 50%
James Rogan 13%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 0%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 0%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 25%
William Roth, Jr. 33%
Steve Rothman 100%
Marge Roukema 50%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 100%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 0%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 100%
Jim Ryun 13%
Martin Olav Sabo 100%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matt Salmon R 0%
CA U.S. House-46 Loretta Sanchez D 100%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 100%
Max Sandlin, Jr. 50%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 13%
Rick Santorum 0%
Paul Sarbanes 100%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 100%
Jim Saxton 25%
Joe Scarborough 0%
Robert Schaffer 0%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 100%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 100%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 0%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano D 100%
AL U.S. Senate-Jr Jeff Sessions III R 0%
TX U.S. House-32 Pete Sessions R 0%
John Shadegg 0%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 25%
Christopher Shays 75%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 17%
CA U.S. House-30 Brad Sherman D 100%
IL U.S. House-15 John Shimkus R 13%
E.G. Shuster 0%
Norman Sisisky 63%
Joseph Skeen 13%
Ike Skelton 25%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 100%
WA U.S. House-9 Adam Smith D 100%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 38%
Gordon Smith 17%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 0%
Nick Smith 25%
Bob Smith 0%
Olympia Snowe 50%
Vic Snyder 100%
Mark Souder 13%
Arlen Specter 60%
Floyd Spence 0%
John Spratt, Jr. 75%
MI U.S. Senate-Jr Debbie Stabenow D 100%
Pete Stark 100%
Cliff Stearns 0%
Charles Stenholm 25%
Ted Stevens 17%
Ted Strickland 63%
Bob Stump 13%
Bart Stupak 63%
John Sununu 0%
James Talent 13%
John Tanner 50%
Ellen Tauscher 100%
William Tauzin 0%
Charles Taylor 0%
Gene Taylor 38%
Craig Thomas 0%
William Thomas 25%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 100%
Fred Thompson 0%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 13%
SD U.S. Senate-Jr John Thune R 13%
Karen Thurman 100%
Strom Thurmond 0%
Todd Tiahrt 0%
MA U.S. House-6 John Tierney D 100%
Robert Torricelli 100%
Ed Towns 100%
James Traficant, Jr. 13%
James Turner 50%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 50%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 100%
Bruce Vento 100%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 50%
James Walsh 25%
Zach Wamp 0%
John Warner 33%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 100%
Wesley Watkins 13%
Mel Watt 100%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 13%
CA U.S. House-33 Henry Waxman D 100%
David Weldon 13%
W. Curtis Weldon 38%
Gerald Weller 25%
Paul Wellstone 100%
Robert Wexler 100%
Bob Weygand 88%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 0%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 0%
Heather Wilson 14%
Bob Wise, Jr. 75%
VA U.S. House-10 Frank Wolf R 13%
Lynn Woolsey 100%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 100%
Albert Wynn 100%
Bill Young 0%
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 14%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.