Rating Group: American Public Health Association

1998 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 14%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 17%
AL U.S. Senate-Jr Jeff Sessions III R 0%
AL U.S. House-4 Robert Aderholt R 13%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 33%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matt Salmon R 0%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 100%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 100%
CA U.S. House-13 Barbara Lee D 100%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 100%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 100%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 100%
CA U.S. House-24 Lois Capps D 100%
CA U.S. House-30 Brad Sherman D 100%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 100%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 0%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 100%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 25%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 100%
CA U.S. House-46 Loretta Sanchez D 100%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 0%
CO U.S. House-1 Diana DeGette D 100%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 100%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 100%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 0%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 100%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 25%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 0%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 50%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 100%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 0%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 33%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 13%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 100%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 100%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutiérrez D 88%
IL U.S. House-7 Danny Davis D 100%
IL U.S. House-15 John Shimkus R 13%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 50%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 0%
KS U.S. Senate-Jr Jerry Moran R 13%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 17%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 0%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 0%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 0%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 100%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 88%
MA U.S. House-2 Jim McGovern D 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 100%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 100%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 100%
ME U.S. Senate-Sr Susan Collins R 50%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 100%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Debbie Stabenow D 100%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 50%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 100%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 100%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 25%
MO U.S. Senate-Jr Roy Blunt R 0%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 13%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 0%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 100%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 83%
NA U.S. Secretary of Defense Charles Hagel R 17%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 100%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 0%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 0%
NC U.S. House-4 David Price D 100%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 100%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 25%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 38%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 100%
NJ U.S. House-9 Bill Pascrell, Jr. D 75%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 50%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 67%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 100%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 0%
NY U.S. House-5 Gregory Meeks D 100%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 100%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 100%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 100%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 100%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 100%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 100%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 100%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 100%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 0%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 0%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 0%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 88%
OH Governor John Kasich R 13%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 100%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 50%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 0%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 13%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 100%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 100%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 100%
PA U.S. House-1 Bob Brady D 100%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 100%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle D 50%
PA U.S. House-16 Joe Pitts R 0%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 100%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 0%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 13%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 100%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr John Thune R 13%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 0%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 0%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 0%
TX U.S. House-8 Kevin Brady R 0%
TX U.S. House-12 Kay Granger R 25%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 13%
TX U.S. House-15 Rubén Hinojosa, Sr. D 86%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 100%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 0%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 86%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 100%
TX U.S. House-32 Pete Sessions R 0%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 100%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 0%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 100%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 0%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 67%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 100%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 100%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 100%
WA U.S. House-9 Adam Smith D 100%
WI U.S. House-3 Ron Kind D 88%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 0%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 88%
WY U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Enzi R 0%
Neil Abercrombie 100%
Edmond Spencer Abraham 33%
Gary Ackerman 100%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 100%
Wayne Allard 0%
Thomas Allen 100%
Rob Andrews 100%
Bill Archer 0%
Richard Armey 0%
John Ashcroft 0%
Spencer Bachus 13%
Richard Hugh Baker 13%
Cass Ballenger 0%
James Barcia 38%
Bob Barr, Jr. 0%
Bill Barrett 13%
Roscoe Bartlett 0%
Charlie Bass 25%
Herbert Bateman 0%
Max Baucus 83%
Bob Bennett 17%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 100%
Douglas Bereuter 25%
Howard Berman 100%
Marion Berry 63%
Brian Bilbray 75%
Michael Bilirakis 13%
Jeff Bingaman 100%
Rod Blagojevich 88%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 0%
Sherwood Boehlert 100%
Kit Bond 33%
Henry Bonilla 25%
David Edward Bonior 88%
Mary Bono Mack 13%
Robert Borski, Jr. 88%
Leonard Boswell 50%
Rick Boucher 88%
Allen Boyd, Jr. 50%
John Breaux 50%
George Brown, Jr. 100%
Richard Bryan 83%
Ed Bryant 13%
Jim Bunning 13%
Conrad Burns 0%
Dan Burton 13%
Steve Buyer 0%
Robert Byrd 67%
Herbert Callahan 13%
Dave Camp 0%
Ben Campbell 17%
Thomas Campbell 88%
Chris Cannon 0%
Julia Carson 100%
Mike Castle 75%
John Chafee 67%
Saxby Chambliss 13%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 13%
William Clay, Sr. 100%
Eva Clayton 100%
Joseph Maxwell Cleland 100%
Robert Clement 63%
Howard Coble 0%
Thomas Coburn 0%
Michael Collins 0%
Larry Combest 13%
Gary Condit 63%
Kent Conrad 50%
Merrill Cook 38%
John Cooksey 13%
Jerry Costello 50%
Paul Coverdell 17%
Christopher Cox 0%
William Coyne 100%
Larry Craig 0%
Robert Cramer 43%
Philip Crane 0%
Barbara Cubin 0%
Randall Cunningham 0%
Patsy Ann Danner 38%
Thomas Daschle 83%
James Davis 88%
Thomas Davis III 50%
Bill Delahunt 100%
Thomas DeLay 0%
Peter Deutsch 100%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 25%
Jay Dickey 13%
Norm Dicks 100%
John Dingell 75%
Julian Dixon 100%
Chris Dodd 100%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 0%
Calvin Dooley 88%
John Doolittle 0%
Byron Dorgan 67%
David Dreier 0%
Jennifer Dunn 13%
Chet Edwards 100%
Vern Ehlers 38%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 25%
Jo Ann Emerson 0%
Philip English 0%
Bob Etheridge 63%
Lane Evans 100%
Terry Everett 13%
Thomas Ewing 25%
Russ Feingold 100%
Bob Filner 100%
Mark Foley 43%
Michael Patrick Forbes 50%
Harold Ford, Jr. 100%
Vito Fossella, Jr. 25%
Tillie Fowler 13%
Barney Frank 100%
Robert Franks 63%
William Frist 33%
Jonas Frost III 100%
Elton Gallegly 25%
John Ganske 75%
Sam Gejdenson 100%
George Gekas 0%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 88%
Jim Gibbons 13%
Wayne Gilchrest 63%
Paul Gillmor 13%
Benjamin Gilman 75%
Virgil Goode, Jr. 13%
William Goodling 0%
Bart Gordon 50%
Slade Gorton 17%
Porter Goss 13%
Daniel Graham 100%
William Phillip Gramm 0%
Rodney Grams 0%
James Greenwood 75%
Judd Gregg 17%
Gilbert Gutknecht 13%
Ralph Hall 25%
Tony Hall 43%
James Hansen 14%
Tom Harkin 100%
J. Dennis Hastert 0%
Doc Hastings 0%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 13%
Joel Hefley 0%
Jesse Helms 0%
Wally Herger, Jr. 0%
Rick Hill 14%
Van Hilleary 0%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 100%
Maurice Hinchey 100%
David Lee Hobson 25%
Pete Hoekstra 0%
Thomas Holden 38%
Ernest Hollings 40%
Darlene Hooley 100%
Stephen Horn 88%
John Nathan Hostettler 0%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 38%
Kenny Hulshof 0%
Duncan Hunter 0%
Asa Hutchinson 13%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 0%
Kay Hutchison 17%
Henry Hyde 14%
Daniel Inouye 100%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 0%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 100%
William Jefferson 88%
James Merrill Jeffords 50%
William Lewis Jenkins 0%
Christopher John 29%
Nancy Johnson 88%
Timothy Johnson 83%
Paul Kanjorski 63%
Sue Kelly 63%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 100%
Patrick Kennedy 88%
Bob Kerrey 100%
Dale Kildee 63%
Carolyn Kilpatrick 100%
Jack Kingston 0%
Gerald Kleczka 88%
Ronald Klink 63%
Joseph Knollenberg 0%
Herb Kohl 100%
James Kolbe 63%
Dennis Kucinich 75%
Jon Kyl 0%
John LaFalce 63%
Ray LaHood 13%
Nicholas Lampson 88%
Mary Landrieu 83%
Tom Lantos 100%
Stephen Largent 0%
Tom Latham 13%
Steve LaTourette 63%
Frank Lautenberg 100%
Rick Lazio 63%
James Leach 75%
Carl Levin 100%
Jerry Lewis 25%
Ron Lewis 0%
Joe Lieberman 100%
John Linder 0%
William Lipinski 38%
Robert Livingston 13%
Trent Lott, Sr. 0%
Dick Lugar 17%
William Luther 88%
Connie Mack 17%
James Maloney 88%
Don Manzullo 0%
Matthew Martinez 71%
Frank Mascara 38%
Robert Matsui 100%
Carolyn McCarthy 100%
Karen McCarthy 100%
Bill McCollum 0%
James McCrery III 0%
John McHugh 25%
Scott McInnis 0%
David McIntosh 0%
Mike McIntyre 38%
Buck McKeon 0%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 100%
Michael McNulty 71%
Martin Meehan 100%
Carrie Meek 100%
Jack Metcalf 0%
Juanita Millender-McDonald 100%
Dan Miller 25%
George Miller 100%
David Minge 75%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 100%
John Moakley 80%
Alan Mollohan 25%
Jim Moran, Jr. 88%
Constance Morella 100%
Patrick Moynihan 83%
Frank Murkowski 0%
Jack Murtha 50%
Sue Myrick 0%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 25%
Robert William Ney 13%
Don Nickles 0%
Anne Northup 13%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 0%
James Nussle 13%
Jim Oberstar 88%
Dave Obey 88%
John Olver 100%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 29%
Major Owens 100%
Michael Oxley 25%
Ronald Packard 0%
Ed Pastor 100%
Ron Paul 0%
Donald Payne 100%
Edward Pease 25%
John Peterson 14%
Tom Petri 0%
Charles Pickering, Jr. 0%
Owen Pickett 63%
Richard Pombo 0%
Earl Pomeroy 50%
John Edward Porter 63%
Deborah Pryce 29%
Jack Quinn 14%
George Radanovich 0%
Nick Rahall II 50%
James Ramstad 63%
Ralph Regula 25%
Silvestre Reyes 57%
Bob Riley 13%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 100%
Charles Robb 67%
Jay Rockefeller IV 100%
Ciro Rodriguez 88%
Timothy Roemer 50%
James Rogan 13%
William Roth, Jr. 33%
Steve Rothman 100%
Marge Roukema 50%
Jim Ryun 13%
Martin Olav Sabo 100%
Max Sandlin, Jr. 50%
Rick Santorum 0%
Paul Sarbanes 100%
Jim Saxton 25%
Joe Scarborough 0%
Robert Schaffer 0%
José Serrano 100%
John Shadegg 0%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 25%
Christopher Shays 75%
E.G. Shuster 0%
Norman Sisisky 63%
Joseph Skeen 13%
Ike Skelton 25%
Gordon Smith 17%
Nick Smith 25%
Bob Smith 0%
Olympia Snowe 50%
Vic Snyder 100%
Mark Souder 13%
Arlen Specter 60%
Floyd Spence 0%
John Spratt, Jr. 75%
Pete Stark 100%
Cliff Stearns 0%
Charles Stenholm 25%
Ted Stevens 17%
Ted Strickland 63%
Bob Stump 13%
Bart Stupak 63%
John Sununu 0%
James Talent 13%
John Tanner 50%
Ellen Tauscher 100%
William Tauzin 0%
Charles Taylor 0%
Gene Taylor 38%
Craig Thomas 0%
William Thomas 25%
Fred Thompson 0%
Karen Thurman 100%
Strom Thurmond 0%
Todd Tiahrt 0%
John Tierney 100%
Robert Torricelli 100%
Ed Towns 100%
James Traficant, Jr. 13%
James Turner 50%
Bruce Vento 100%
James Walsh 25%
Zach Wamp 0%
John Warner 33%
Wesley Watkins 13%
Mel Watt 100%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 13%
Henry Waxman 100%
David Weldon 13%
W. Curtis Weldon 38%
Gerald Weller 25%
Paul Wellstone 100%
Robert Wexler 100%
Bob Weygand 88%
Heather Wilson 14%
Bob Wise, Jr. 75%
Frank Wolf 13%
Lynn Woolsey 100%
Albert Wynn 100%
Bill Young 0%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.