Rating Group: American Public Health Association

1995 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 0%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 3%
AL U.S. House-6 Spencer Bachus R 0%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 3%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matt Salmon R 4%
AZ U.S. House-7 Ed Pastor D 96%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 97%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 100%
CA U.S. House-11 George Miller D 100%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 96%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 100%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 96%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 100%
CA U.S. House-25 Buck McKeon R 4%
CA U.S. House-33 Henry Waxman D 100%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 92%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 8%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 100%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 0%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 92%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 4%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 100%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 92%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 0%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 96%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 21%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 21%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Saxby Chambliss R 0%
GA U.S. House-1 Jack Kingston R 8%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 79%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 92%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 8%
HI Governor Neil Abercrombie D 92%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 3%
IA U.S. Senate-Jr Tom Harkin D 93%
IA U.S. House-3 Tom Latham R 0%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 4%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 100%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 92%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutierrez D 92%
IN U.S. Senate-Sr Daniel Coats R 3%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 100%
IN Council Member-At-Large John Myers R 0%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 0%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 4%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 7%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 4%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 0%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 100%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 83%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 93%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 96%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 88%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 96%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Carl Levin D 100%
MI U.S. House-4 Dave Camp R 4%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 29%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 96%
MI U.S. House-12 John Dingell D 96%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 92%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 33%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 3%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 0%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 96%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 86%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 97%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 4%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 4%
NC U.S. House-6 Howard Coble R 0%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 100%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 38%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 29%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 100%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 25%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 86%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 96%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 13%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 96%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 100%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 100%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 100%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano D 88%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 100%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 100%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 100%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 100%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 17%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 0%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 0%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 83%
OH Governor John Kasich R 8%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 96%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 17%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Jr Thomas Coburn R 13%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 0%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 96%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 92%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 92%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle, Jr. D 71%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 100%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 4%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 13%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 96%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr Timothy Johnson D 83%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 0%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 0%
TX U.S. House-4 Ralph Hall R 8%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 0%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 0%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 100%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 4%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 83%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 88%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 96%
TX U.S. House-36 Steve Stockman R 4%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 17%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 96%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 0%
VA U.S. House-8 Jim Moran, Jr. D 92%
VA U.S. House-10 Frank Wolf R 21%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 93%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 96%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 100%
WA U.S. House-4 Doc Hastings R 0%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 96%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 4%
WI U.S. House-6 Tom Petri R 13%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 92%
WV U.S. Senate-Sr Jay Rockefeller IV D 93%
WV U.S. House-3 Nick Rahall II D 75%
Edmond Spencer Abraham 17%
Gary Ackerman 92%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 97%
Wayne Allard 4%
Rob Andrews 58%
Bill Archer 4%
Richard Armey 4%
John Ashcroft 0%
Henry Scott Baesler 58%
Richard Hugh Baker 0%
William Baker 0%
Cass Ballenger 0%
James Barcia 58%
Bob Barr, Jr. 0%
Bill Barrett 4%
Roscoe Bartlett 4%
Charlie Bass 21%
Herbert Bateman 0%
Max Baucus 62%
Anthony Beilenson 100%
Bob Bennett 10%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 83%
Douglas Bereuter 25%
Howard Berman 88%
Tom Bevill 42%
Brian Bilbray 29%
Michael Bilirakis 4%
Jeff Bingaman 86%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 0%
Peter Blute 21%
Sherwood Boehlert 63%
Kit Bond 7%
Henry Bonilla 0%
David Edward Bonior 88%
Sonny Bono 4%
Robert Borski, Jr. 92%
Rick Boucher 79%
Bill Bradley 100%
John Breaux 55%
Bill Brewster 29%
Glen Browder 38%
George Brown, Jr. 88%
Hank Brown 3%
Richard Bryan 83%
Ed Bryant 4%
John Bryant 92%
Dale Bumpers 90%
Jim Bunn 21%
Jim Bunning 0%
Conrad Burns 3%
Dan Burton 0%
Steve Buyer 4%
Robert Byrd 83%
Herbert Callahan 0%
Ben Campbell 21%
Mike Castle 38%
John Chafee 52%
Jim Chapman 46%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 0%
Jon Lynn Christensen 0%
Dick Chrysler 0%
William Clay, Sr. 96%
Eva Clayton 92%
Robert Clement 67%
William Clinger 8%
William Cohen 66%
Ronald Coleman 92%
Barbara-Rose Collins 79%
Cardiss Collins 92%
Michael Collins 0%
Larry Combest 0%
Gary Condit 29%
Kent Conrad 83%
Wes Cooley 0%
Jerry Costello 67%
Paul Coverdell 7%
Christopher Cox 4%
William Coyne 100%
Larry Craig 0%
Robert Cramer 33%
Philip Crane 0%
Frank Arnold Cremeans 4%
Barbara Cubin 0%
Randall Cunningham 13%
Alfonse D'Amato 14%
Patsy Ann Danner 58%
Thomas Daschle 86%
Thomas Davis III 29%
E. Kika de la Garza 54%
Thomas DeLay 0%
Ronald Dellums 96%
Peter Deutsch 67%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 21%
Jay Dickey 0%
Norm Dicks 96%
Julian Dixon 96%
Chris Dodd 93%
Robert Dole 0%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 14%
Calvin Dooley 54%
John Doolittle 0%
Byron Dorgan 83%
Robert Dornan 4%
David Dreier 0%
Jennifer Dunn 17%
Chet Edwards 58%
Vern Ehlers 25%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 21%
Bill Emerson 0%
Philip English 21%
John Ensign 13%
Lane Evans 100%
Terry Everett 0%
Thomas Ewing 4%
Jim Exon 72%
Duncan McLauchlin Faircloth 3%
Harris Fawell 29%
Victor Fazio 75%
Russ Feingold 90%
Cleo Fields 88%
Jack Fields, Jr. 0%
Bob Filner 79%
Floyd Flake 83%
Michael Patrick Flanagan 13%
Thomas Foglietta 100%
Mark Foley 17%
Michael Patrick Forbes 25%
Harold Ford, Sr. 96%
Wendell Ford 83%
Tillie Fowler 25%
Jon David Fox 21%
Barney Frank 92%
Gary Franks 29%
Robert Franks 25%
Dan Frisa 4%
William Frist 7%
Jonas Frost III 75%
David Funderburk 4%
Elizabeth Furse 96%
Elton Gallegly 4%
John Ganske 13%
Sam Gejdenson 96%
George Gekas 8%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 88%
Pete Geren 17%
Sam Gibbons 88%
Wayne Gilchrest 50%
Paul Gillmor 13%
Benjamin Gilman 50%
Newt Gingrich 0%
John Glenn 93%
Henry Gonzalez 75%
William Goodling 17%
Bart Gordon 67%
Slade Gorton 24%
Porter Goss 8%
Daniel Graham 90%
William Phillip Gramm 3%
Rodney Grams 0%
Enid Greene 13%
James Greenwood 33%
Judd Gregg 7%
Steven Gunderson 21%
Gilbert Gutknecht 4%
Tony Hall 79%
Lee Hamilton 67%
Melton Hancock 0%
James Hansen 8%
Jane Harman 75%
J. Dennis Hastert 0%
Mark Hatfield 38%
James Hayes 25%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 8%
Joel Hefley 4%
W.G. Hefner 75%
Fredrick Kenneth Fred' Heineman 8%
Jesse Helms 3%
Wally Herger, Jr. 4%
Van Hilleary 8%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 83%
Maurice Hinchey 100%
David Lee Hobson 17%
Pete Hoekstra 8%
Martin Hoke 13%
Thomas Holden 54%
Ernest Hollings 76%
Stephen Horn 46%
John Nathan Hostettler 0%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 21%
Duncan Hunter 0%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 4%
Kay Hutchison 3%
Henry Hyde 8%
Bob Inglis, Sr. 4%
Daniel Inouye 86%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 0%
Andrew Jacobs, Jr. 83%
William Jefferson 88%
James Merrill Jeffords 59%
Nancy Johnson 29%
Harry Johnston 96%
J. Bennett Johnston 69%
Paul Kanjorski 83%
Nancy Landon Kassebaum 24%
Sue Kelly 33%
Dirk Kempthorne 0%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 100%
Joseph Kennedy II 88%
Patrick Kennedy 96%
Barbara Bailey Kennelly 88%
Bob Kerrey 76%
Dale Kildee 83%
Jay Kim 4%
Gerald Kleczka 79%
Ronald Klink 79%
Scott Klug 25%
Joseph Knollenberg 0%
Herb Kohl 86%
James Kolbe 17%
Jon Kyl 0%
John LaFalce 83%
Ray LaHood 21%
Tom Lantos 96%
Stephen Largent 4%
Steve LaTourette 25%
Greg Laughlin 4%
Frank Lautenberg 100%
Rick Lazio 38%
James Leach 42%
Jerry Lewis 4%
Ron Lewis 0%
Joe Lieberman 93%
Jim Lightfoot 4%
Blanche Lincoln 54%
John Linder 0%
William Lipinski 58%
Robert Livingston 4%
James Longley, Jr. 21%
Trent Lott, Sr. 0%
Dick Lugar 14%
William Luther 96%
Connie Mack 7%
Thomas Manton 75%
Don Manzullo 4%
Matthew Martinez 92%
Bill Martini 33%
Frank Mascara 75%
Robert Matsui 96%
Karen McCarthy 83%
Bill McCollum 8%
James McCrery III 0%
Joseph McDade 4%
Paul McHale 96%
John McHugh 8%
Scott McInnis 13%
David McIntosh 0%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 96%
Michael McNulty 75%
Martin Meehan 96%
Carrie Meek 50%
Jack Metcalf 13%
Jan Meyers 21%
Dan Miller 4%
David Minge 71%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 96%
John Moakley 54%
Susan Molinari 25%
Alan Mollohan 58%
G.V. Montgomery 17%
Carlos Moorhead 4%
Constance Morella 67%
Carol Moseley Braun 93%
Patrick Moynihan 83%
Frank Murkowski 7%
Jack Murtha 75%
Sue Myrick 4%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 4%
Mark Neumann 4%
Robert William Ney 4%
Don Nickles 3%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 0%
Sam Nunn 45%
James Nussle 4%
Jim Oberstar 83%
Dave Obey 88%
John Olver 96%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 46%
Bill Orton 58%
Major Owens 100%
Michael Oxley 0%
Ronald Packard 4%
Mike Parker 13%
William Paxon 0%
Donald Payne 100%
Lewis Payne, Jr. 58%
Clay Pell 97%
Pete Peterson 58%
Owen Pickett 38%
Richard Pombo 0%
Earl Pomeroy 75%
John Edward Porter 38%
Glenn Poshard 58%
Larry Pressler 0%
Deborah Pryce 25%
David Pryor 90%
James Quillen 4%
Jack Quinn 17%
George Radanovich 0%
James Ramstad 33%
Ralph Regula 17%
Bill Richardson 96%
Frank Riggs 13%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 96%
Charles Robb 86%
Timothy Roemer 58%
Charles Rose III 67%
Toby Roth 4%
William Roth, Jr. 14%
Marge Roukema 46%
Martin Olav Sabo 88%
Rick Santorum 7%
Paul Sarbanes 97%
Jim Saxton 25%
Joe Scarborough 8%
Daniel Schaefer 0%
Steven Schiff 25%
Pat Schroeder 92%
Andrea Seastrand 4%
John Shadegg 0%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 13%
Christopher Shays 42%
E.G. Shuster 8%
Paul Simon 97%
Alan Simpson 21%
Norman Sisisky 38%
David Skaggs 88%
Joseph Skeen 0%
Ike Skelton 29%
Linda Smith 8%
Nick Smith 8%
Bob Smith 0%
Olympia Snowe 55%
Gerald B.H. Solomon 0%
Mark Souder 4%
Arlen Specter 62%
Floyd Spence 4%
John Spratt, Jr. 83%
Pete Stark 88%
Cliff Stearns 4%
Charles Stenholm 33%
Ted Stevens 17%
Louis Stokes 100%
Gerry Studds 100%
Bob Stump 0%
Bart Stupak 67%
James Talent 4%
John Tanner 46%
Randy Tate 13%
William Tauzin 13%
Charles Taylor 0%
Gene Taylor 42%
Frank Tejeda 38%
Craig Thomas 3%
William Thomas 13%
Fred Thompson 7%
Ray Thornton 75%
Karen Thurman 50%
Strom Thurmond 7%
Todd Tiahrt 0%
Peter Torkildsen 50%
Esteban Edward Torres 96%
Robert Torricelli 92%
Ed Towns 79%
James Traficant, Jr. 63%
Bruce Vento 100%
Harold Volkmer 50%
Barbara Vucanovich 0%
Robert Walker 0%
James Walsh 4%
Zach Wamp 8%
Michael Ward 88%
John Warner 7%
Mel Watt 88%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 0%
David Weldon 13%
W. Curtis Weldon 17%
Gerald Weller 4%
Paul Wellstone 97%
Rick White 25%
Pat Williams 75%
Charles Wilson 63%
Bob Wise, Jr. 92%
Lynn Woolsey 100%
Albert Wynn 96%
Sidney Yates 88%
Bill Young 13%
Bill Zeliff 13%
Richard Zimmer 46%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.