Rating Group: American Public Health Association

1997 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
HI Governor Neil Abercrombie D 100%
Gary Ackerman 100%
Thomas Allen 100%
Rob Andrews 100%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 100%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 100%
Howard Berman 100%
Jeff Bingaman 100%
Rod Blagojevich 100%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 100%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 100%
George Brown, Jr. 100%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 100%
Thomas Campbell 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 100%
Eva Clayton 100%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 100%
William Coyne 100%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 100%
IL U.S. House-7 Danny Davis D 100%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 100%
CO U.S. House-1 Diana DeGette D 100%
Bill Delahunt 100%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 100%
Peter Deutsch 100%
Norm Dicks 100%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 100%
Calvin Dooley 100%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 100%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 100%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 100%
Lane Evans 100%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 100%
Bob Filner 100%
Barney Frank 100%
Elizabeth Furse 100%
Sam Gejdenson 100%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutierrez D 100%
Jane Harman 100%
Maurice Hinchey 100%
Stephen Horn 100%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 100%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 100%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 100%
Nancy Johnson 100%
Joseph Kennedy II 100%
Barbara Bailey Kennelly 100%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 100%
Carolyn Kilpatrick 100%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Carl Levin D 100%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 100%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 100%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 100%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 100%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 100%
Robert Matsui 100%
NY U.S. House-4 Carolyn McCarthy D 100%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 100%
MA U.S. House-2 Jim McGovern D 100%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 100%
Martin Meehan 100%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 100%
Juanita Millender-McDonald 100%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 100%
Constance Morella 100%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 100%
John Olver 100%
Major Owens 100%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 100%
AZ U.S. House-7 Ed Pastor D 100%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 100%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 100%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 100%
Steve Rothman 100%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 100%
Martin Olav Sabo 100%
CA U.S. House-46 Loretta Sanchez D 100%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 100%
Paul Sarbanes 100%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 100%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 100%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 100%
CA U.S. House-30 Brad Sherman D 100%
David Skaggs 100%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 100%
WA U.S. House-9 Adam Smith D 100%
Louis Stokes 100%
Ellen Tauscher 100%
Karen Thurman 100%
MA U.S. House-6 John Tierney D 100%
Esteban Edward Torres 100%
Robert Torricelli 100%
Bruce Vento 100%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 100%
Mel Watt 100%
CA U.S. House-33 Henry Waxman D 100%
Paul Wellstone 100%
Robert Wexler 100%
Lynn Woolsey 100%
Albert Wynn 100%
Sidney Yates 100%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 89%
Dale Bumpers 89%
Thomas Daschle 89%
Chris Dodd 89%
Byron Dorgan 89%
Russ Feingold 89%
John Glenn 89%
IA U.S. Senate-Jr Tom Harkin D 89%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr Timothy Johnson D 89%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 89%
Frank Lautenberg 89%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 89%
Joe Lieberman 89%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 89%
WV U.S. Senate-Sr Jay Rockefeller IV D 89%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 89%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 86%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 86%
Sherwood Boehlert 86%
David Edward Bonior 86%
Rick Boucher 86%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 86%
Julian Dixon 86%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 86%
Victor Fazio 86%
Thomas Foglietta 86%
Harold Ford, Jr. 86%
Jonas Frost III 86%
Benjamin Gilman 86%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 86%
James Greenwood 86%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 86%
Darlene Hooley 86%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 86%
Paul Kanjorski 86%
WI U.S. House-3 Ron Kind D 86%
Nicholas Lampson 86%
Tom Lantos 86%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 86%
William Luther 86%
James Maloney 86%
Matthew Martinez 86%
Paul McHale 86%
Carrie Meek 86%
CA U.S. House-11 George Miller D 86%
John Moakley 86%
VA U.S. House-8 Jim Moran, Jr. D 86%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 86%
NC U.S. House-4 David Price D 86%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 86%
Christopher Shays 86%
Vic Snyder 86%
MI U.S. Senate-Jr Debbie Stabenow D 86%
Pete Stark 86%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 86%
Bob Wise, Jr. 86%
Ciro Rodriguez 83%
Max Baucus 78%
Joseph Maxwell Cleland 78%
Kent Conrad 78%
Daniel Graham 78%
Ernest Hollings 78%
Daniel Inouye 78%
Bob Kerrey 78%
Herb Kohl 78%
Carol Moseley Braun 78%
Marion Berry 71%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 71%
Robert Borski, Jr. 71%
Mike Castle 71%
William Clay, Sr. 71%
Robert Clement 71%
James Davis 71%
Thomas Davis III 71%
Chet Edwards 71%
Harris Fawell 71%
Robert Franks 71%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 71%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 71%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 71%
Jay Johnson 71%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 71%
Sue Kelly 71%
Patrick Kennedy 71%
Gerald Kleczka 71%
James Kolbe 71%
Dennis Kucinich 71%
James Leach 71%
Thomas Manton 71%
Karen McCarthy 71%
Michael McNulty 71%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 71%
Dave Obey 71%
NJ U.S. House-9 Bill Pascrell, Jr. D 71%
Donald Payne 71%
Owen Pickett 71%
Earl Pomeroy 71%
John Edward Porter 71%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 71%
Silvestre Reyes 71%
Marge Roukema 71%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano D 71%
Ted Strickland 71%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 71%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 67%
Richard Bryan 67%
Robert Byrd 67%
John Chafee 67%
James Merrill Jeffords 67%
Charles Robb 67%
Arlen Specter 67%
Charlie Bass 57%
Leonard Boswell 57%
Julia Carson 57%
Gary Condit 57%
Robert Cramer 57%
Patsy Ann Danner 57%
Ronald Dellums 57%
MI U.S. House-12 John Dingell D 57%
Mark Foley 57%
Jon David Fox 57%
John Ganske 57%
Jim Gibbons 57%
Wayne Gilchrest 57%
Bart Gordon 57%
Lee Hamilton 57%
W.G. Hefner 57%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 57%
TX U.S. House-15 Rubén Hinojosa, Sr. D 57%
William Jefferson 57%
Ronald Klink 57%
Rick Lazio 57%
Frank Mascara 57%
Dan Miller 57%
David Minge 57%
WV U.S. House-3 Nick Rahall II D 57%
James Ramstad 57%
Ralph Regula 57%
Timothy Roemer 57%
Max Sandlin, Jr. 57%
Norman Sisisky 57%
John Spratt, Jr. 57%
Bart Stupak 57%
Ed Towns 57%
James Turner 57%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 57%
Bob Weygand 57%
ME U.S. Senate-Sr Susan Collins R 56%
Wendell Ford 56%
LA U.S. Senate-Sr Mary Landrieu D 56%
Patrick Moynihan 56%
John Breaux 44%
Judd Gregg 44%
Olympia Snowe 44%
Henry Scott Baesler 43%
Douglas Bereuter 43%
Allen Boyd, Jr. 43%
Jerry Costello 43%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 43%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle, Jr. D 43%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 43%
Bob Etheridge 43%
Tillie Fowler 43%
George Gekas 43%
Tony Hall 43%
David Lee Hobson 43%
Christopher John 43%
Dale Kildee 43%
Scott Klug 43%
John LaFalce 43%
Steve LaTourette 43%
Jerry Lewis 43%
William Lipinski 43%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 43%
Robert William Ney 43%
Jim Oberstar 43%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 43%
Michael Pappas 43%
Glenn Poshard 43%
Deborah Pryce 43%
Frank Riggs 43%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 43%
Jim Saxton 43%
John Tanner 43%
William Thomas 43%
James Traficant, Jr. 43%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 43%
W. Curtis Weldon 43%
Bill Young 43%
Edmond Spencer Abraham 33%
Ben Campbell 33%
Alfonse D'Amato 33%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 33%
Dick Lugar 33%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 33%
William Roth, Jr. 33%
Gordon Smith 33%
Brian Bilbray 29%
Michael Bilirakis 29%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 29%
Vern Ehlers 29%
Philip English 29%
John Ensign 29%
Thomas Ewing 29%
Michael Patrick Forbes 29%
William Goodling 29%
Thomas Holden 29%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 29%
Ray LaHood 29%
James McCrery III 29%
Joseph McDade 29%
John McHugh 29%
Jack Metcalf 29%
Alan Mollohan 29%
Jack Murtha 29%
Michael Oxley 29%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 29%
WI U.S. House-6 Tom Petri R 29%
Jack Quinn 29%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matthew Salmon R 29%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 29%
IL U.S. House-15 John Shimkus R 29%
Ike Skelton 29%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 29%
Nick Smith 29%
John Sununu 29%
William Tauzin 29%
Kit Bond 22%
Slade Gorton 22%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 22%
Kay Hutchison 22%
Rick Santorum 22%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 22%
Ted Stevens 22%
John Warner 22%
AL U.S. House-6 Spencer Bachus R 14%
James Barcia 14%
Bill Barrett 14%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 14%
Herbert Bateman 14%
Ed Bryant 14%
Steve Buyer 14%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 14%
MI U.S. House-4 Dave Camp R 14%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 14%
Chris Cannon 14%
Jon Lynn Christensen 14%
Merrill Cook 14%
John Cooksey 14%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 14%
Jay Dickey 14%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 14%
Jennifer Dunn 14%
Jo Ann Emerson 14%
Paul Gillmor 14%
Henry Gonzalez 14%
Porter Goss 14%
Gilbert Gutknecht 14%
TX U.S. House-4 Ralph Hall R 14%
James Hansen 14%
J. Dennis Hastert 14%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 14%
Rick Hill 14%
Pete Hoekstra 14%
Kenny Hulshof 14%
Asa Hutchinson 14%
Henry Hyde 14%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 14%
OH Governor John Kasich R 14%
Jay Kim 14%
John Linder 14%
Robert Livingston 14%
Don Manzullo 14%
NC U.S. House-7 Mike McIntyre D 14%
KS U.S. Senate-Jr Jerry Moran R 14%
Mark Neumann 14%
Anne Northup 14%
James Nussle 14%
Edward Pease 14%
John Peterson 14%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 14%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 14%
Steven Schiff 14%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 14%
E.G. Shuster 14%
Joseph Skeen 14%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 14%
Charles Stenholm 14%
James Talent 14%
Gene Taylor 14%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 14%
SD U.S. Senate-Jr John Thune R 14%
Todd Tiahrt 14%
James Walsh 14%
Zach Wamp 14%
VA U.S. House-10 Frank Wolf R 14%
Wayne Allard 11%
Bob Bennett 11%
IN U.S. Senate-Sr Daniel Coats R 11%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 11%
Paul Coverdell 11%
Larry Craig 11%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 11%
WY U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Enzi R 11%
William Frist 11%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 11%
NA U.S. Secretary of Defense Charles Hagel R 11%
Dirk Kempthorne 11%
Jon Kyl 11%
Trent Lott, Sr. 11%
Connie Mack 11%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 11%
Frank Murkowski 11%
Don Nickles 11%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 11%
Craig Thomas 11%
Fred Thompson 11%
AL U.S. House-4 Robert Aderholt R 0%
Bill Archer 0%
Richard Armey 0%
John Ashcroft 0%
Richard Hugh Baker 0%
Cass Ballenger 0%
Robert Barr, Jr. 0%
Roscoe Bartlett 0%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 0%
MO U.S. Senate-Jr Roy Blunt R 0%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 0%
Henry Bonilla 0%
Sonny Bono 0%
TX U.S. House-8 Kevin Brady R 0%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 0%
Jim Bunning 0%
Conrad Burns 0%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 0%
Dan Burton 0%
Herbert Callahan 0%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Saxby Chambliss R 0%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 0%
NC U.S. House-6 Howard Coble R 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Jr Thomas Coburn R 0%
Michael Collins 0%
Larry Combest 0%
Christopher Cox 0%
Philip Crane 0%
Barbara Cubin 0%
Randall Cunningham 0%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 0%
Thomas DeLay 0%
John Doolittle 0%
David Dreier 0%
Terry Everett 0%
Duncan McLauchlin Faircloth 0%
Elton Gallegly 0%
Newt Gingrich 0%
Virgil Goode, Jr. 0%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 0%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 0%
William Phillip Gramm 0%
Rodney Grams 0%
TX U.S. House-12 Kay Granger R 0%
WA U.S. House-4 Doc Hastings R 0%
Joel Hefley 0%
Jesse Helms 0%
Wally Herger, Jr. 0%
Van Hilleary 0%
John Nathan Hostettler 0%
Duncan Hunter 0%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 0%
Bob Inglis, Sr. 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 0%
William Lewis Jenkins 0%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 0%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 0%
GA U.S. House-1 Jack Kingston R 0%
Joseph Knollenberg 0%
Stephen Largent 0%
IA U.S. House-3 Tom Latham R 0%
Ron Lewis 0%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 0%
Bill McCollum 0%
Scott McInnis 0%
David McIntosh 0%
CA U.S. House-25 Buck McKeon R 0%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 0%
Sue Myrick 0%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 0%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 0%
Ronald Packard 0%
Mike Parker 0%
Ron Paul 0%
William Paxon 0%
Charles Pickering, Jr. 0%
Richard Pombo 0%
George Radanovich 0%
Bill Redmond 0%
Bob Riley 0%
James Rogan 0%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 0%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 0%
Jim Ryun 0%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 0%
Joe Scarborough 0%
Daniel Schaefer 0%
Robert Schaffer 0%
AL U.S. Senate-Jr Jeff Sessions III R 0%
TX U.S. House-32 Pete Sessions R 0%
John Shadegg 0%
Linda Smith 0%
Robert Smith 0%
Bob Smith 0%
Vincent Snowbarger 0%
Gerald B.H. Solomon 0%
Mark Souder 0%
Floyd Spence 0%
Cliff Stearns 0%
Bob Stump 0%
Charles Taylor 0%
Strom Thurmond 0%
Wesley Watkins 0%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 0%
David Weldon 0%
Gerald Weller 0%
Rick White 0%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 0%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 0%
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 0%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.