Rating Group: American Public Health Association

1997 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
Edmond Spencer Abraham 33%
Gary Ackerman 100%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 89%
Wayne Allard 11%
Thomas Allen 100%
Rob Andrews 100%
Bill Archer 0%
Richard Armey 0%
John Ashcroft 0%
Henry Scott Baesler 43%
Richard Hugh Baker 0%
Cass Ballenger 0%
James Barcia 14%
Bob Barr, Jr. 0%
Bill Barrett 14%
Roscoe Bartlett 0%
Charlie Bass 57%
Herbert Bateman 14%
Max Baucus 78%
Bob Bennett 11%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 86%
Douglas Bereuter 43%
Howard Berman 100%
Marion Berry 71%
Brian Bilbray 29%
Michael Bilirakis 29%
Jeff Bingaman 100%
Rod Blagojevich 100%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 0%
Sherwood Boehlert 86%
Kit Bond 22%
Henry Bonilla 0%
David Edward Bonior 86%
Sonny Bono 0%
Robert Borski, Jr. 71%
Leonard Boswell 57%
Rick Boucher 86%
Allen Boyd, Jr. 43%
John Breaux 44%
George Brown, Jr. 100%
Richard Bryan 67%
Ed Bryant 14%
Dale Bumpers 89%
Jim Bunning 0%
Conrad Burns 0%
Dan Burton 0%
Steve Buyer 14%
Robert Byrd 67%
Herbert Callahan 0%
Ben Campbell 33%
Thomas Campbell 100%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 14%
Chris Cannon 14%
Julia Carson 57%
Mike Castle 71%
John Chafee 67%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 0%
Jon Lynn Christensen 14%
William Clay, Sr. 71%
Eva Clayton 100%
Joseph Maxwell Cleland 78%
Robert Clement 71%
Michael Collins 0%
Larry Combest 0%
Gary Condit 57%
Kent Conrad 78%
Merrill Cook 14%
John Cooksey 14%
Jerry Costello 43%
Paul Coverdell 11%
Christopher Cox 0%
William Coyne 100%
Larry Craig 11%
Robert Cramer 57%
Philip Crane 0%
Barbara Cubin 0%
Randall Cunningham 0%
Alfonse D'Amato 33%
Patsy Ann Danner 57%
Thomas Daschle 89%
James Davis 71%
Thomas Davis III 71%
Bill Delahunt 100%
Thomas DeLay 0%
Ronald Dellums 57%
Peter Deutsch 100%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 43%
Jay Dickey 14%
Norm Dicks 100%
Julian Dixon 86%
Chris Dodd 89%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 11%
Calvin Dooley 100%
John Doolittle 0%
Byron Dorgan 89%
David Dreier 0%
Jennifer Dunn 14%
Chet Edwards 71%
Vern Ehlers 29%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 43%
Jo Ann Emerson 14%
Philip English 29%
John Ensign 29%
Bob Etheridge 43%
Lane Evans 100%
Terry Everett 0%
Thomas Ewing 29%
Duncan McLauchlin Faircloth 0%
Harris Fawell 71%
Victor Fazio 86%
Russ Feingold 89%
Bob Filner 100%
Thomas Foglietta 86%
Mark Foley 57%
Michael Patrick Forbes 29%
Harold Ford, Jr. 86%
Wendell Ford 56%
Tillie Fowler 43%
Jon David Fox 57%
Barney Frank 100%
Robert Franks 71%
William Frist 11%
Jonas Frost III 86%
Elizabeth Furse 100%
Elton Gallegly 0%
John Ganske 57%
Sam Gejdenson 100%
George Gekas 43%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 71%
Jim Gibbons 57%
Wayne Gilchrest 57%
Paul Gillmor 14%
Benjamin Gilman 86%
Newt Gingrich 0%
John Glenn 89%
Henry Gonzalez 14%
Virgil Goode, Jr. 0%
William Goodling 29%
Bart Gordon 57%
Slade Gorton 22%
Porter Goss 14%
Daniel Graham 78%
William Phillip Gramm 0%
Rodney Grams 0%
James Greenwood 86%
Judd Gregg 44%
Gilbert Gutknecht 14%
Tony Hall 43%
Lee Hamilton 57%
James Hansen 14%
Jane Harman 100%
J. Dennis Hastert 14%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 14%
Joel Hefley 0%
W.G. Hefner 57%
Jesse Helms 0%
Wally Herger, Jr. 0%
Rick Hill 14%
Van Hilleary 0%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 57%
Maurice Hinchey 100%
David Lee Hobson 43%
Pete Hoekstra 14%
Thomas Holden 29%
Ernest Hollings 78%
Darlene Hooley 86%
Stephen Horn 100%
John Nathan Hostettler 0%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 71%
Kenny Hulshof 14%
Duncan Hunter 0%
Asa Hutchinson 14%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 0%
Kay Hutchison 22%
Henry Hyde 14%
Bob Inglis, Sr. 0%
Daniel Inouye 78%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 14%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 100%
William Jefferson 57%
James Merrill Jeffords 67%
William Lewis Jenkins 0%
Christopher John 43%
Jay Johnson 71%
Nancy Johnson 100%
Paul Kanjorski 86%
Sue Kelly 71%
Dirk Kempthorne 11%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 89%
Joseph Kennedy II 100%
Patrick Kennedy 71%
Barbara Bailey Kennelly 100%
Bob Kerrey 78%
Dale Kildee 43%
Carolyn Kilpatrick 100%
Jay Kim 14%
Gerald Kleczka 71%
Ronald Klink 57%
Scott Klug 43%
Joseph Knollenberg 0%
Herb Kohl 78%
James Kolbe 71%
Dennis Kucinich 71%
Jon Kyl 11%
John LaFalce 43%
Ray LaHood 29%
Nicholas Lampson 86%
Tom Lantos 86%
Stephen Largent 0%
Steve LaTourette 43%
Frank Lautenberg 89%
Rick Lazio 57%
James Leach 71%
Jerry Lewis 43%
Ron Lewis 0%
Joe Lieberman 89%
John Linder 14%
William Lipinski 43%
Robert Livingston 14%
Trent Lott, Sr. 11%
Dick Lugar 33%
William Luther 86%
Connie Mack 11%
James Maloney 86%
Thomas Manton 71%
Don Manzullo 14%
Matthew Martinez 86%
Frank Mascara 57%
Robert Matsui 100%
Karen McCarthy 71%
Bill McCollum 0%
James McCrery III 29%
Joseph McDade 29%
Paul McHale 86%
John McHugh 29%
Scott McInnis 0%
David McIntosh 0%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 100%
Michael McNulty 71%
Martin Meehan 100%
Carrie Meek 86%
Jack Metcalf 29%
Juanita Millender-McDonald 100%
Dan Miller 57%
David Minge 57%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 100%
John Moakley 86%
Alan Mollohan 29%
Constance Morella 100%
Carol Moseley Braun 78%
Patrick Moynihan 56%
Frank Murkowski 11%
Jack Murtha 29%
Sue Myrick 0%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 0%
Mark Neumann 14%
Robert William Ney 43%
Don Nickles 11%
Anne Northup 14%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 0%
James Nussle 14%
Jim Oberstar 43%
Dave Obey 71%
John Olver 100%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 43%
Major Owens 100%
Michael Oxley 29%
Ronald Packard 0%
Michael Pappas 43%
Mike Parker 0%
Ron Paul 0%
William Paxon 0%
Donald Payne 71%
Edward Pease 14%
John Peterson 14%
Charles Pickering, Jr. 0%
Owen Pickett 71%
Richard Pombo 0%
Earl Pomeroy 71%
John Edward Porter 71%
Glenn Poshard 43%
Deborah Pryce 43%
Jack Quinn 29%
George Radanovich 0%
James Ramstad 57%
Bill Redmond 0%
Ralph Regula 57%
Silvestre Reyes 71%
Frank Riggs 43%
Bob Riley 0%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 100%
Charles Robb 67%
Ciro Rodriguez 83%
Timothy Roemer 57%
James Rogan 0%
William Roth, Jr. 33%
Steve Rothman 100%
Marge Roukema 71%
Jim Ryun 0%
Martin Olav Sabo 100%
Max Sandlin, Jr. 57%
Rick Santorum 22%
Paul Sarbanes 100%
Jim Saxton 43%
Joe Scarborough 0%
Daniel Schaefer 0%
Robert Schaffer 0%
Steven Schiff 14%
John Shadegg 0%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 29%
Christopher Shays 86%
E.G. Shuster 14%
Norman Sisisky 57%
David Skaggs 100%
Joseph Skeen 14%
Ike Skelton 29%
Gordon Smith 33%
Linda Smith 0%
Nick Smith 29%
Robert Smith 0%
Bob Smith 0%
Vincent Snowbarger 0%
Olympia Snowe 44%
Vic Snyder 86%
Gerald B.H. Solomon 0%
Mark Souder 0%
Arlen Specter 67%
Floyd Spence 0%
John Spratt, Jr. 57%
Pete Stark 86%
Cliff Stearns 0%
Charles Stenholm 14%
Ted Stevens 22%
Louis Stokes 100%
Ted Strickland 71%
Bob Stump 0%
Bart Stupak 57%
John Sununu 29%
James Talent 14%
John Tanner 43%
Ellen Tauscher 100%
William Tauzin 29%
Charles Taylor 0%
Gene Taylor 14%
Craig Thomas 11%
William Thomas 43%
Fred Thompson 11%
Karen Thurman 100%
Strom Thurmond 0%
Todd Tiahrt 14%
Esteban Edward Torres 100%
Robert Torricelli 100%
Ed Towns 57%
James Traficant, Jr. 43%
James Turner 57%
Bruce Vento 100%
James Walsh 14%
Zach Wamp 14%
John Warner 22%
Wesley Watkins 0%
Mel Watt 100%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 0%
David Weldon 0%
W. Curtis Weldon 43%
Gerald Weller 0%
Paul Wellstone 100%
Robert Wexler 100%
Bob Weygand 57%
Rick White 0%
Bob Wise, Jr. 86%
Lynn Woolsey 100%
Albert Wynn 100%
Sidney Yates 100%
Bill Young 43%
HI Governor Neil Abercrombie D 100%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 100%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 86%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 100%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 67%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 71%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 100%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 100%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 100%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 86%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 100%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 100%
IL U.S. House-7 Danny Davis D 100%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 100%
CO U.S. House-1 Diana DeGette D 100%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 100%
MI U.S. House-12 John Dingell D 57%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 100%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle, Jr. D 43%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 100%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 100%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 100%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 86%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 100%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 86%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutierrez D 100%
IA U.S. Senate-Jr Tom Harkin D 89%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 86%
TX U.S. House-15 Rubén Hinojosa, Sr. D 57%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 100%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 86%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 100%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr Timothy Johnson D 89%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 71%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 100%
WI U.S. House-3 Ron Kind D 86%
LA U.S. Senate-Sr Mary Landrieu D 56%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 89%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Carl Levin D 100%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 100%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 86%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 100%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 100%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 100%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 100%
NY U.S. House-4 Carolyn McCarthy D 100%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 100%
MA U.S. House-2 Jim McGovern D 100%
NC U.S. House-7 Mike McIntyre D 14%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 100%
CA U.S. House-11 George Miller D 86%
VA U.S. House-8 Jim Moran, Jr. D 86%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 100%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 86%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 71%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 100%
NJ U.S. House-9 Bill Pascrell, Jr. D 71%
AZ U.S. House-7 Ed Pastor D 100%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 100%
NC U.S. House-4 David Price D 86%
WV U.S. House-3 Nick Rahall II D 57%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 71%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 100%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 89%
WV U.S. Senate-Sr Jay Rockefeller IV D 89%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 100%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 86%
CA U.S. House-46 Loretta Sanchez D 100%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 100%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 100%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 100%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano D 71%
CA U.S. House-30 Brad Sherman D 100%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 100%
WA U.S. House-9 Adam Smith D 100%
MI U.S. Senate-Jr Debbie Stabenow D 86%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 86%
MA U.S. House-6 John Tierney D 100%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 71%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 57%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 100%
CA U.S. House-33 Henry Waxman D 100%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 89%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 29%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 100%
AL U.S. House-4 Robert Aderholt R 0%
AL U.S. House-6 Spencer Bachus R 14%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 14%
MO U.S. Senate-Jr Roy Blunt R 0%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 0%
TX U.S. House-8 Kevin Brady R 0%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 0%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 0%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 14%
MI U.S. House-4 Dave Camp R 14%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 29%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Saxby Chambliss R 0%
IN U.S. Senate-Sr Daniel Coats R 11%
NC U.S. House-6 Howard Coble R 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Jr Thomas Coburn R 0%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 11%
ME U.S. Senate-Sr Susan Collins R 56%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 14%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 0%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 33%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 14%
WY U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Enzi R 11%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 71%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 0%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 0%
TX U.S. House-12 Kay Granger R 0%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 11%
NA U.S. Secretary of Defense Charles Hagel R 11%
TX U.S. House-4 Ralph Hall R 14%
WA U.S. House-4 Doc Hastings R 0%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 22%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 0%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 0%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 0%
OH Governor John Kasich R 14%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 29%
GA U.S. House-1 Jack Kingston R 0%
IA U.S. House-3 Tom Latham R 0%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 43%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 0%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 33%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 11%
CA U.S. House-25 Buck McKeon R 0%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 0%
KS U.S. Senate-Jr Jerry Moran R 14%
WI U.S. House-6 Tom Petri R 29%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 14%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 11%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 0%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 0%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 43%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 14%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matt Salmon R 29%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 0%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 14%
AL U.S. Senate-Jr Jeff Sessions III R 0%
TX U.S. House-32 Pete Sessions R 0%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 22%
IL U.S. House-15 John Shimkus R 29%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 29%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 14%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 14%
SD U.S. Senate-Jr John Thune R 14%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 43%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 0%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 0%
VA U.S. House-10 Frank Wolf R 14%
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 0%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.