Rating Group: American Public Health Association

1997 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
HI Governor Neil Abercrombie D 100%
Edmond Spencer Abraham 33%
Gary Ackerman 100%
AL U.S. House-4 Robert Aderholt R 0%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 89%
Wayne Allard 11%
Thomas Allen 100%
Rob Andrews 100%
Bill Archer 0%
Richard Armey 0%
John Ashcroft 0%
AL U.S. House-6 Spencer Bachus R 14%
Henry Scott Baesler 43%
Richard Hugh Baker 0%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 100%
Cass Ballenger 0%
James Barcia 14%
Bob Barr, Jr. 0%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 86%
Bill Barrett 14%
Roscoe Bartlett 0%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 14%
Charlie Bass 57%
Herbert Bateman 14%
Max Baucus 78%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 100%
Bob Bennett 11%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 86%
Douglas Bereuter 43%
Howard Berman 100%
Marion Berry 71%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 67%
Brian Bilbray 29%
Michael Bilirakis 29%
Jeff Bingaman 100%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 71%
Rod Blagojevich 100%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 0%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 100%
MO U.S. Senate-Jr Roy Blunt R 0%
Sherwood Boehlert 86%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 0%
Kit Bond 22%
Henry Bonilla 0%
David Edward Bonior 86%
Sonny Bono 0%
Robert Borski, Jr. 71%
Leonard Boswell 57%
Rick Boucher 86%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 100%
Allen Boyd, Jr. 43%
TX U.S. House-8 Kevin Brady R 0%
John Breaux 44%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 100%
George Brown, Jr. 100%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 100%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 0%
Richard Bryan 67%
Ed Bryant 14%
Dale Bumpers 89%
Jim Bunning 0%
Conrad Burns 0%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 0%
Dan Burton 0%
Steve Buyer 14%
Robert Byrd 67%
Herbert Callahan 0%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 14%
MI U.S. House-4 Dave Camp R 14%
Ben Campbell 33%
Thomas Campbell 100%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 14%
Chris Cannon 14%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 100%
Julia Carson 57%
Mike Castle 71%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 29%
John Chafee 67%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Saxby Chambliss R 0%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 0%
Jon Lynn Christensen 14%
William Clay, Sr. 71%
Eva Clayton 100%
Joseph Maxwell Cleland 78%
Robert Clement 71%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 86%
IN U.S. Senate-Sr Daniel Coats R 11%
NC U.S. House-6 Howard Coble R 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Jr Thomas Coburn R 0%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 11%
Michael Collins 0%
ME U.S. Senate-Sr Susan Collins R 56%
Larry Combest 0%
Gary Condit 57%
Kent Conrad 78%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 100%
Merrill Cook 14%
John Cooksey 14%
Jerry Costello 43%
Paul Coverdell 11%
Christopher Cox 0%
William Coyne 100%
Larry Craig 11%
Robert Cramer 57%
Philip Crane 0%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 14%
Barbara Cubin 0%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 100%
Randall Cunningham 0%
Alfonse D'Amato 33%
Patsy Ann Danner 57%
Thomas Daschle 89%
IL U.S. House-7 Danny Davis D 100%
James Davis 71%
Thomas Davis III 71%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 0%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 100%
CO U.S. House-1 Diana DeGette D 100%
Bill Delahunt 100%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 100%
Thomas DeLay 0%
Ronald Dellums 57%
Peter Deutsch 100%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 33%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 43%
Jay Dickey 14%
Norm Dicks 100%
MI U.S. House-12 John Dingell D 57%
Julian Dixon 86%
Chris Dodd 89%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 100%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 11%
Calvin Dooley 100%
John Doolittle 0%
Byron Dorgan 89%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle, Jr. D 43%
David Dreier 0%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 14%
Jennifer Dunn 14%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 100%
Chet Edwards 71%
Vern Ehlers 29%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 43%
Jo Ann Emerson 14%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 100%
Philip English 29%
John Ensign 29%
WY U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Enzi R 11%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 100%
Bob Etheridge 43%
Lane Evans 100%
Terry Everett 0%
Thomas Ewing 29%
Duncan McLauchlin Faircloth 0%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 86%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 100%
Harris Fawell 71%
Victor Fazio 86%
Russ Feingold 89%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 100%
Bob Filner 100%
Thomas Foglietta 86%
Mark Foley 57%
Michael Patrick Forbes 29%
Harold Ford, Jr. 86%
Wendell Ford 56%
Tillie Fowler 43%
Jon David Fox 57%
Barney Frank 100%
Robert Franks 71%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 71%
William Frist 11%
Jonas Frost III 86%
Elizabeth Furse 100%
Elton Gallegly 0%
John Ganske 57%
Sam Gejdenson 100%
George Gekas 43%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 71%
Jim Gibbons 57%
Wayne Gilchrest 57%
Paul Gillmor 14%
Benjamin Gilman 86%
Newt Gingrich 0%
John Glenn 89%
Henry Gonzalez 14%
Virgil Goode, Jr. 0%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 0%
William Goodling 29%
Bart Gordon 57%
Slade Gorton 22%
Porter Goss 14%
Daniel Graham 78%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 0%
William Phillip Gramm 0%
Rodney Grams 0%
TX U.S. House-12 Kay Granger R 0%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 11%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 86%
James Greenwood 86%
Judd Gregg 44%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutierrez D 100%
Gilbert Gutknecht 14%
NA U.S. Secretary of Defense Charles Hagel R 11%
TX U.S. House-4 Ralph Hall R 14%
Tony Hall 43%
Lee Hamilton 57%
James Hansen 14%
IA U.S. Senate-Jr Tom Harkin D 89%
Jane Harman 100%
J. Dennis Hastert 14%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 86%
WA U.S. House-4 Doc Hastings R 0%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 22%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 14%
Joel Hefley 0%
W.G. Hefner 57%
Jesse Helms 0%
Wally Herger, Jr. 0%
Rick Hill 14%
Van Hilleary 0%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 57%
Maurice Hinchey 100%
TX U.S. House-15 Rubén Hinojosa, Sr. D 57%
David Lee Hobson 43%
Pete Hoekstra 14%
Thomas Holden 29%
Ernest Hollings 78%
Darlene Hooley 86%
Stephen Horn 100%
John Nathan Hostettler 0%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 71%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 100%
Kenny Hulshof 14%
Duncan Hunter 0%
Asa Hutchinson 14%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 0%
Kay Hutchison 22%
Henry Hyde 14%
Bob Inglis, Sr. 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 0%
Daniel Inouye 78%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 14%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 100%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 86%
William Jefferson 57%
James Merrill Jeffords 67%
William Lewis Jenkins 0%
Christopher John 43%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 100%
Jay Johnson 71%
Nancy Johnson 100%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 0%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr Timothy Johnson D 89%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 0%
Paul Kanjorski 86%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 71%
OH Governor John Kasich R 14%
Sue Kelly 71%
Dirk Kempthorne 11%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 89%
Joseph Kennedy II 100%
Patrick Kennedy 71%
Barbara Bailey Kennelly 100%
Bob Kerrey 78%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 100%
Dale Kildee 43%
Carolyn Kilpatrick 100%
Jay Kim 14%
WI U.S. House-3 Ron Kind D 86%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 29%
GA U.S. House-1 Jack Kingston R 0%
Gerald Kleczka 71%
Ronald Klink 57%
Scott Klug 43%
Joseph Knollenberg 0%
Herb Kohl 78%
James Kolbe 71%
Dennis Kucinich 71%
Jon Kyl 11%
John LaFalce 43%
Ray LaHood 29%
Nicholas Lampson 86%
LA U.S. Senate-Sr Mary Landrieu D 56%
Tom Lantos 86%
Stephen Largent 0%
IA U.S. House-3 Tom Latham R 0%
Steve LaTourette 43%
Frank Lautenberg 89%
Rick Lazio 57%
James Leach 71%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 89%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Carl Levin D 100%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 100%
Jerry Lewis 43%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 86%
Ron Lewis 0%
Joe Lieberman 89%
John Linder 14%
William Lipinski 43%
Robert Livingston 14%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 43%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 100%
Trent Lott, Sr. 11%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 100%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 0%
Dick Lugar 33%
William Luther 86%
Connie Mack 11%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 100%
James Maloney 86%
Thomas Manton 71%
Don Manzullo 14%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 100%
Matthew Martinez 86%
Frank Mascara 57%
Robert Matsui 100%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 33%
NY U.S. House-4 Carolyn McCarthy D 100%
Karen McCarthy 71%
Bill McCollum 0%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 11%
James McCrery III 29%
Joseph McDade 29%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 100%
MA U.S. House-2 Jim McGovern D 100%
Paul McHale 86%
John McHugh 29%
Scott McInnis 0%
David McIntosh 0%
NC U.S. House-7 Mike McIntyre D 14%
CA U.S. House-25 Buck McKeon R 0%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 100%
Michael McNulty 71%
Martin Meehan 100%
Carrie Meek 86%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 100%
Jack Metcalf 29%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 0%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 100%
Juanita Millender-McDonald 100%
Dan Miller 57%
CA U.S. House-11 George Miller D 86%
David Minge 57%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 100%
John Moakley 86%
Alan Mollohan 29%
VA U.S. House-8 Jim Moran, Jr. D 86%
KS U.S. Senate-Jr Jerry Moran R 14%
Constance Morella 100%
Carol Moseley Braun 78%
Patrick Moynihan 56%
Frank Murkowski 11%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 100%
Jack Murtha 29%
Sue Myrick 0%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 86%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 71%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 0%
Mark Neumann 14%
Robert William Ney 43%
Don Nickles 11%
Anne Northup 14%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 0%
James Nussle 14%
Jim Oberstar 43%
Dave Obey 71%
John Olver 100%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 43%
Major Owens 100%
Michael Oxley 29%
Ronald Packard 0%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 100%
Michael Pappas 43%
Mike Parker 0%
NJ U.S. House-9 Bill Pascrell, Jr. D 71%
AZ U.S. House-7 Ed Pastor D 100%
Ron Paul 0%
William Paxon 0%
Donald Payne 71%
Edward Pease 14%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 100%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 29%
John Peterson 14%
WI U.S. House-6 Tom Petri R 29%
Charles Pickering, Jr. 0%
Owen Pickett 71%
Richard Pombo 0%
Earl Pomeroy 71%
John Edward Porter 71%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 14%
Glenn Poshard 43%
NC U.S. House-4 David Price D 86%
Deborah Pryce 43%
Jack Quinn 29%
George Radanovich 0%
WV U.S. House-3 Nick Rahall II D 57%
James Ramstad 57%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 71%
Bill Redmond 0%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 100%
Ralph Regula 57%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 89%
Silvestre Reyes 71%
Frank Riggs 43%
Bob Riley 0%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 100%
Charles Robb 67%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 11%
WV U.S. Senate-Sr Jay Rockefeller IV D 89%
Ciro Rodriguez 83%
Timothy Roemer 57%
James Rogan 0%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 0%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 0%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 43%
William Roth, Jr. 33%
Steve Rothman 100%
Marge Roukema 71%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 100%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 14%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 86%
Jim Ryun 0%
Martin Olav Sabo 100%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matt Salmon R 29%
CA U.S. House-46 Loretta Sanchez D 100%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 100%
Max Sandlin, Jr. 57%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 0%
Rick Santorum 22%
Paul Sarbanes 100%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 100%
Jim Saxton 43%
Joe Scarborough 0%
Daniel Schaefer 0%
Robert Schaffer 0%
Steven Schiff 14%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 100%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 100%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 14%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano D 71%
AL U.S. Senate-Jr Jeff Sessions III R 0%
TX U.S. House-32 Pete Sessions R 0%
John Shadegg 0%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 29%
Christopher Shays 86%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 22%
CA U.S. House-30 Brad Sherman D 100%
IL U.S. House-15 John Shimkus R 29%
E.G. Shuster 14%
Norman Sisisky 57%
David Skaggs 100%
Joseph Skeen 14%
Ike Skelton 29%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 100%
WA U.S. House-9 Adam Smith D 100%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 29%
Gordon Smith 33%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 14%
Linda Smith 0%
Nick Smith 29%
Robert Smith 0%
Bob Smith 0%
Vincent Snowbarger 0%
Olympia Snowe 44%
Vic Snyder 86%
Gerald B.H. Solomon 0%
Mark Souder 0%
Arlen Specter 67%
Floyd Spence 0%
John Spratt, Jr. 57%
MI U.S. Senate-Jr Debbie Stabenow D 86%
Pete Stark 86%
Cliff Stearns 0%
Charles Stenholm 14%
Ted Stevens 22%
Louis Stokes 100%
Ted Strickland 71%
Bob Stump 0%
Bart Stupak 57%
John Sununu 29%
James Talent 14%
John Tanner 43%
Ellen Tauscher 100%
William Tauzin 29%
Charles Taylor 0%
Gene Taylor 14%
Craig Thomas 11%
William Thomas 43%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 86%
Fred Thompson 11%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 14%
SD U.S. Senate-Jr John Thune R 14%
Karen Thurman 100%
Strom Thurmond 0%
Todd Tiahrt 14%
MA U.S. House-6 John Tierney D 100%
Esteban Edward Torres 100%
Robert Torricelli 100%
Ed Towns 57%
James Traficant, Jr. 43%
James Turner 57%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 43%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 71%
Bruce Vento 100%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 57%
James Walsh 14%
Zach Wamp 14%
John Warner 22%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 100%
Wesley Watkins 0%
Mel Watt 100%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 0%
CA U.S. House-33 Henry Waxman D 100%
David Weldon 0%
W. Curtis Weldon 43%
Gerald Weller 0%
Paul Wellstone 100%
Robert Wexler 100%
Bob Weygand 57%
Rick White 0%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 0%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 0%
Bob Wise, Jr. 86%
VA U.S. House-10 Frank Wolf R 14%
Lynn Woolsey 100%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 89%
Albert Wynn 100%
Sidney Yates 100%
Bill Young 43%
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 0%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.