Rating Group: United States Chamber of Commerce

1996 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
Edmond Spencer Abraham 92%
Gary Ackerman 31%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 31%
Wayne Allard 100%
Rob Andrews 31%
Bill Archer 94%
Richard Armey 94%
John Ashcroft 100%
Henry Scott Baesler 40%
Richard Hugh Baker 100%
William Baker 96%
Cass Ballenger 100%
James Barcia 60%
Bob Barr, Jr. 94%
Bill Barrett 94%
Roscoe Bartlett 100%
Charlie Bass 100%
Herbert Bateman 94%
Max Baucus 46%
Anthony Beilenson 17%
Bob Bennett 92%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 31%
Douglas Bereuter 81%
Howard Berman 19%
Tom Bevill 67%
Brian Bilbray 94%
Michael Bilirakis 94%
Jeff Bingaman 15%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 100%
Peter Blute 92%
Sherwood Boehlert 69%
Kit Bond 100%
Henry Bonilla 94%
David Edward Bonior 19%
Sonny Bono 94%
Robert Borski, Jr. 20%
Rick Boucher 44%
Bill Bradley 21%
John Breaux 62%
George Brown, Jr. 25%
Hank Brown 100%
Richard Bryan 38%
Ed Bryant 100%
John Bryant 30%
Dale Bumpers 17%
Jim Bunn 96%
Jim Bunning 81%
Conrad Burns 85%
Dan Burton 94%
Steve Buyer 94%
Robert Byrd 23%
Herbert Callahan 100%
Ben Campbell 82%
Thomas Campbell 88%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 94%
Mike Castle 88%
John Chafee 92%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 88%
Jon Lynn Christensen 88%
Dick Chrysler 100%
William Clay, Sr. 19%
Eva Clayton 13%
Robert Clement 50%
William Cohen 61%
Ronald Coleman 29%
Barbara-Rose Collins 5%
Cardiss Collins 10%
Michael Collins 94%
Larry Combest 100%
Gary Condit 63%
Kent Conrad 23%
Wes Cooley 96%
Jerry Costello 25%
Paul Coverdell 92%
Christopher Cox 88%
William Coyne 19%
Larry Craig 100%
Robert Cramer 63%
Philip Crane 100%
Frank Arnold Cremeans 100%
Barbara Cubin 100%
Randall Cunningham 81%
Alfonse D'Amato 69%
Patsy Ann Danner 56%
Thomas Daschle 38%
Thomas Davis III 94%
E. Kika de la Garza 45%
Thomas DeLay 93%
Ronald Dellums 0%
Peter Deutsch 53%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 60%
Jay Dickey 100%
Norm Dicks 19%
Julian Dixon 19%
Chris Dodd 38%
Robert Dole 100%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 83%
Calvin Dooley 44%
John Doolittle 94%
Byron Dorgan 38%
Robert Dornan 96%
David Dreier 100%
Jennifer Dunn 100%
Chet Edwards 50%
Vern Ehlers 94%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 94%
Bill Emerson 100%
Philip English 88%
John Ensign 88%
Lane Evans 19%
Terry Everett 94%
Thomas Ewing 100%
Jim Exon 63%
Duncan McLauchlin Faircloth 92%
Harris Fawell 100%
Victor Fazio 25%
Russ Feingold 31%
Cleo Fields 15%
Jack Fields, Jr. 100%
Bob Filner 29%
Floyd Flake 8%
Michael Patrick Flanagan 92%
Thomas Foglietta 20%
Mark Foley 94%
Michael Patrick Forbes 73%
Wendell Ford 38%
Tillie Fowler 92%
Jon David Fox 81%
Barney Frank 13%
Gary Franks 96%
Robert Franks 81%
Dan Frisa 96%
William Frist 100%
Jonas Frost III 38%
David Funderburk 96%
Elizabeth Furse 33%
Elton Gallegly 100%
John Ganske 94%
Sam Gejdenson 20%
George Gekas 100%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 27%
Pete Geren 88%
Sam Gibbons 26%
Wayne Gilchrest 100%
Paul Gillmor 73%
Benjamin Gilman 63%
Newt Gingrich 100%
John Glenn 23%
Henry Gonzalez 38%
William Goodling 94%
Bart Gordon 56%
Slade Gorton 100%
Porter Goss 88%
Daniel Graham 46%
William Phillip Gramm 100%
Rodney Grams 92%
Enid Greene 96%
James Greenwood 88%
Judd Gregg 92%
Steven Gunderson 96%
Gilbert Gutknecht 94%
Tony Hall 33%
Lee Hamilton 56%
Melton Hancock 100%
James Hansen 100%
Jane Harman 60%
J. Dennis Hastert 100%
Mark Hatfield 89%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 94%
Joel Hefley 94%
W.G. Hefner 38%
Fredrick Kenneth Fred' Heineman 96%
Jesse Helms 85%
Wally Herger, Jr. 100%
Van Hilleary 94%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 31%
Maurice Hinchey 19%
David Lee Hobson 88%
Pete Hoekstra 88%
Thomas Holden 63%
Ernest Hollings 46%
Stephen Horn 80%
John Nathan Hostettler 88%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 63%
Duncan Hunter 94%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 94%
Kay Hutchison 92%
Henry Hyde 100%
Bob Inglis, Sr. 87%
Daniel Inouye 33%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 94%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 19%
Andrew Jacobs, Jr. 38%
William Jefferson 31%
James Merrill Jeffords 62%
Nancy Johnson 81%
Harry Johnston 17%
J. Bennett Johnston 47%
Paul Kanjorski 25%
Nancy Landon Kassebaum 89%
Sue Kelly 88%
Dirk Kempthorne 100%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 38%
Joseph Kennedy II 13%
Patrick Kennedy 13%
Barbara Bailey Kennelly 25%
Bob Kerrey 23%
Dale Kildee 31%
Jay Kim 100%
Gerald Kleczka 44%
Ronald Klink 20%
Scott Klug 81%
Joseph Knollenberg 94%
Herb Kohl 69%
James Kolbe 94%
Jon Kyl 100%
John LaFalce 25%
Ray LaHood 88%
Tom Lantos 13%
Stephen Largent 86%
Steve LaTourette 88%
Greg Laughlin 91%
Frank Lautenberg 15%
Rick Lazio 87%
James Leach 69%
Jerry Lewis 94%
Ron Lewis 94%
Joe Lieberman 54%
Jim Lightfoot 96%
Blanche Lincoln 63%
John Linder 100%
William Lipinski 38%
Robert Livingston 88%
James Longley, Jr. 96%
Trent Lott, Sr. 85%
Dick Lugar 85%
William Luther 19%
Connie Mack 100%
Thomas Manton 33%
Don Manzullo 94%
Matthew Martinez 31%
Bill Martini 79%
Frank Mascara 38%
Robert Matsui 19%
Karen McCarthy 25%
Bill McCollum 100%
James McCrery III 100%
Joseph McDade 67%
Paul McHale 38%
John McHugh 81%
Scott McInnis 88%
David McIntosh 100%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 20%
Michael McNulty 33%
Martin Meehan 19%
Carrie Meek 33%
Jack Metcalf 75%
Jan Meyers 88%
Juanita Millender-McDonald 20%
Dan Miller 88%
David Minge 38%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 25%
John Moakley 25%
Susan Molinari 92%
Alan Mollohan 25%
G.V. Montgomery 96%
Carlos Moorhead 100%
Constance Morella 60%
Carol Moseley Braun 46%
Patrick Moynihan 31%
Frank Murkowski 92%
Jack Murtha 25%
Sue Myrick 88%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 93%
Mark Neumann 69%
Robert William Ney 88%
Don Nickles 100%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 100%
Sam Nunn 63%
James Nussle 94%
Jim Oberstar 20%
Dave Obey 19%
John Olver 19%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 43%
Bill Orton 54%
Major Owens 19%
Michael Oxley 100%
Ronald Packard 93%
Mike Parker 100%
William Paxon 100%
Donald Payne 19%
Lewis Payne, Jr. 58%
Clay Pell 38%
Pete Peterson 48%
Owen Pickett 63%
Richard Pombo 94%
Earl Pomeroy 31%
John Edward Porter 75%
Glenn Poshard 44%
Larry Pressler 100%
Deborah Pryce 94%
David Pryor 39%
Jack Quinn 81%
George Radanovich 94%
James Ramstad 88%
Ralph Regula 81%
Bill Richardson 40%
Frank Riggs 81%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 19%
Charles Robb 46%
Timothy Roemer 56%
Charles Rose III 58%
Toby Roth 100%
William Roth, Jr. 85%
Marge Roukema 56%
Martin Olav Sabo 13%
Rick Santorum 77%
Paul Sarbanes 23%
Jim Saxton 94%
Joe Scarborough 94%
Daniel Schaefer 100%
Steven Schiff 80%
Pat Schroeder 17%
Andrea Seastrand 92%
John Shadegg 88%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 94%
Christopher Shays 69%
E.G. Shuster 100%
Paul Simon 21%
Alan Simpson 89%
Norman Sisisky 67%
David Skaggs 19%
Joseph Skeen 100%
Ike Skelton 60%
Linda Smith 79%
Nick Smith 93%
Bob Smith 92%
Olympia Snowe 77%
Gerald B.H. Solomon 81%
Mark Souder 75%
Arlen Specter 77%
Floyd Spence 88%
John Spratt, Jr. 31%
Pete Stark 6%
Cliff Stearns 88%
Charles Stenholm 63%
Ted Stevens 85%
Louis Stokes 17%
Gerry Studds 22%
Bob Stump 94%
Bart Stupak 25%
James Talent 100%
John Tanner 56%
Randy Tate 100%
William Tauzin 93%
Charles Taylor 87%
Gene Taylor 63%
Frank Tejeda 38%
Craig Thomas 92%
William Thomas 94%
Fred Thompson 100%
Ray Thornton 39%
Karen Thurman 25%
Strom Thurmond 92%
Todd Tiahrt 94%
Peter Torkildsen 88%
Esteban Edward Torres 14%
Robert Torricelli 31%
Ed Towns 20%
James Traficant, Jr. 44%
Bruce Vento 13%
Harold Volkmer 38%
Barbara Vucanovich 100%
James Walsh 81%
Zach Wamp 88%
Michael Ward 29%
John Warner 85%
Mel Watt 19%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 100%
David Weldon 100%
W. Curtis Weldon 85%
Gerald Weller 87%
Paul Wellstone 31%
Rick White 88%
Pat Williams 26%
Charles Wilson 58%
Bob Wise, Jr. 25%
Lynn Woolsey 19%
Albert Wynn 31%
Sidney Yates 7%
Bill Young 85%
Bill Zeliff 100%
Richard Zimmer 75%
HI Governor Neil Abercrombie D 25%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 31%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 25%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 23%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 46%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 44%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 20%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 23%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 31%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 13%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 25%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 25%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 13%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 22%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 19%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 19%
MI U.S. House-12 John Dingell D 31%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 19%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle, Jr. D 44%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 27%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 25%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 29%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 31%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 25%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 38%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 38%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutierrez D 14%
IA U.S. Senate-Jr Tom Harkin D 38%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 20%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 13%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 27%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 25%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr Timothy Johnson D 33%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 33%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 31%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 23%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Carl Levin D 23%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 19%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 19%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 31%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 31%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 20%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 6%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 27%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 19%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 23%
CA U.S. House-11 George Miller D 13%
VA U.S. House-8 Jim Moran, Jr. D 31%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 17%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 7%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 20%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 25%
AZ U.S. House-7 Ed Pastor D 38%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 13%
WV U.S. House-3 Nick Rahall II D 19%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 13%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 31%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 31%
WV U.S. Senate-Sr Jay Rockefeller IV D 46%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 25%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 25%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 25%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 31%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 31%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano D 19%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 25%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 25%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 6%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 19%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 19%
CA U.S. House-33 Henry Waxman D 13%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 38%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 63%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 19%
AL U.S. House-6 Spencer Bachus R 94%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 88%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 94%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 93%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 88%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 100%
MI U.S. House-4 Dave Camp R 100%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 88%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Saxby Chambliss R 100%
IN U.S. Senate-Sr Daniel Coats R 100%
NC U.S. House-6 Howard Coble R 88%
OK U.S. Senate-Jr Thomas Coburn R 80%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 91%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 100%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 81%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 85%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 88%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 87%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 100%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 100%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 92%
TX U.S. House-4 Ralph Hall R 94%
WA U.S. House-4 Doc Hastings R 100%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 92%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 100%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 94%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 94%
OH Governor John Kasich R 94%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 69%
GA U.S. House-1 Jack Kingston R 86%
IA U.S. House-3 Tom Latham R 100%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 81%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 100%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 100%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 85%
CA U.S. House-25 Buck McKeon R 100%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 100%
IN Council Member-At-Large John Myers R 91%
WI U.S. House-6 Tom Petri R 88%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 94%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 94%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 81%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 93%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 73%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 88%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matt Salmon R 88%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 81%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 81%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 77%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 75%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 93%
TX U.S. House-36 Steve Stockman R 91%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 94%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 94%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 94%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 100%
VA U.S. House-10 Frank Wolf R 81%
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 81%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.