State Office Name Party Rating
AK U.S. Senate-Sr Lisa Murkowski R 83%
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 83%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 96%
AL U.S. Senate-Jr Jeff Sessions III R 100%
AL U.S. House-3 Mike Rogers R 100%
AL U.S. House-4 Robert Aderholt R 94%
AR U.S. Senate-Sr John Boozman R 100%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 96%
AZ U.S. Senate-Jr Jeff Flake R 94%
AZ U.S. House-1 Ann Kirkpatrick D 11%
AZ U.S. House-3 Raúl Grijalva D 5%
AZ U.S. House-8 Trent Franks R 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 0%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 0%
CA U.S. House-3 John Garamendi D 11%
CA U.S. House-4 Tom McClintock R 94%
CA U.S. House-5 Mike Thompson D 0%
CA U.S. House-6 Doris Matsui D 0%
CA U.S. House-9 Jerry McNerney D 0%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 0%
CA U.S. House-13 Barbara Lee D 0%
CA U.S. House-14 Jackie Speier D 0%
CA U.S. House-16 Jim Costa D 5%
CA U.S. House-17 Mike Honda D 5%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 0%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 5%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 0%
CA U.S. House-22 Devin Nunes R 100%
CA U.S. House-23 Kevin McCarthy R 94%
CA U.S. House-24 Lois Capps D 0%
CA U.S. House-27 Judy Chu D 12%
CA U.S. House-28 Adam Schiff D 0%
CA U.S. House-30 Brad Sherman D 0%
CA U.S. House-32 Grace Napolitano D 5%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 0%
CA U.S. House-38 Linda Sánchez D 0%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 100%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 0%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 88%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 5%
CA U.S. House-46 Loretta Sanchez D 0%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 94%
CA U.S. House-49 Darrell Issa R 94%
CA U.S. House-50 Duncan Hunter R 94%
CA U.S. House-53 Susan Davis D 0%
CA Supervisor-1 Hilda Solis 100%
CO U.S. Senate-Sr Michael Bennet D 0%
CO U.S. House-1 Diana DeGette D 0%
CO U.S. House-2 Jared Polis D 0%
CO U.S. House-5 Doug Lamborn R 100%
CO U.S. House-6 Michael Coffman R 94%
CO U.S. House-7 Ed Perlmutter D 0%
CT U.S. Senate-Jr Chris Murphy D 0%
CT U.S. House-1 John Larson D 5%
CT U.S. House-2 Joe Courtney D 5%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 5%
CT U.S. House-4 Jim Himes D 5%
DE U.S. Senate-Sr Tom Carper D 0%
FL U.S. Senate-Sr Bill Nelson, Sr. D 0%
FL U.S. House-1 Jeff Miller R 100%
FL U.S. House-4 Ander Crenshaw R 88%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 5%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 94%
FL U.S. House-8 Bill Posey R 94%
FL U.S. House-9 Alan Grayson D 5%
FL U.S. House-12 Gus Bilirakis R 94%
FL U.S. House-14 Kathy Castor D 0%
FL U.S. House-16 Vern Buchanan R 88%
FL U.S. House-17 Tom Rooney R 88%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 6%
FL U.S. House-21 Ted Deutch D 0%
FL U.S. House-23 Debbie Wasserman Schultz D 0%
FL U.S. House-25 Mario Diaz-Balart R 82%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 68%
FL Commissioner of Agriculture Adam Putnam R 94%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Johnny Isakson R 100%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 16%
GA U.S. House-3 Lynn Westmoreland R 100%
GA U.S. House-4 Hank Johnson, Jr. D 0%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 0%
GA U.S. House-6 Tom Price R 100%
GA U.S. House-13 David Scott D 0%
GA U.S. House-14 Tom Graves, Jr. R 100%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 100%
HI U.S. Senate-Jr Mazie Hirono D 11%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 100%
IA U.S. House-2 Dave Loebsack D 0%
IA U.S. House-4 Steve King R 100%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 96%
ID U.S. Senate-Jr James Risch R 100%
ID U.S. House-2 Mike Simpson R 94%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 0%
IL U.S. Senate-Jr Mark Kirk R 61%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 11%
IL U.S. House-3 Daniel Lipinski D 50%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutiérrez D 5%
IL U.S. House-5 Mike Quigley D 5%
IL U.S. House-6 Peter Roskam R 94%
IL U.S. House-7 Danny Davis D 11%
IL U.S. House-9 Jan Schakowsky D 5%
IL U.S. House-11 Bill Foster D 0%
IL U.S. House-15 John Shimkus R 94%
IN U.S. Senate-Jr Joe Donnelly, Sr. D 61%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 0%
IN U.S. House-3 Marlin Stutzman R 100%
IN U.S. House-7 André Carson D 5%
IN Governor Mike Pence R 93%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 96%
KS U.S. Senate-Jr Jerry Moran R 100%
KS U.S. House-2 Lynn Jenkins R 88%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 96%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 100%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 94%
KY U.S. House-2 Brett Guthrie R 88%
KY U.S. House-3 John Yarmuth D 0%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 94%
LA U.S. Senate-Sr David Vitter R 96%
LA U.S. Senate-Jr Bill Cassidy R 77%
LA U.S. House-1 Steve Scalise R 94%
LA U.S. House-3 Charles Boustany, Jr. R 94%
LA U.S. House-4 John Fleming, Jr. R 100%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 5%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 5%
MA U.S. House-2 Jim McGovern D 0%
MA U.S. House-3 Niki Tsongas D 0%
MA U.S. House-7 Mike Capuano D 5%
MA U.S. House-8 Stephen Lynch D 16%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 0%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 0%
MD U.S. House-2 Dutch Ruppersberger D 0%
MD U.S. House-3 John Sarbanes D 0%
MD U.S. House-4 Donna Edwards D 11%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 0%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 5%
MD U.S. House-8 Chris Van Hollen, Jr. D 0%
ME U.S. Senate-Sr Susan Collins R 32%
ME U.S. House-1 Chellie Pingree D 0%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Debbie Stabenow D 0%
MI U.S. Senate-Jr Gary Peters D 0%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 83%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 5%
MI U.S. House-10 Candice Miller R 88%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 11%
MN U.S. Senate-Sr Amy Klobuchar DFL 0%
MN U.S. Senate-Jr Al Franken DFL 0%
MN U.S. House-1 Tim Walz DFL 0%
MN U.S. House-2 John Kline R 94%
MN U.S. House-3 Erik Paulsen R 88%
MN U.S. House-4 Betty McCollum DFL 0%
MN U.S. House-5 Keith Ellison DFL 11%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 77%
MO U.S. Senate-Sr Claire McCaskill D 4%
MO U.S. Senate-Jr Roy Blunt R 100%
MO U.S. House-1 Lacy Clay, Jr. D 0%
MO U.S. House-3 Blaine Luetkemeyer R 94%
MO U.S. House-5 Emanuel Cleaver II D 0%
MO U.S. House-6 Sam Graves R 100%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 95%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 100%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 5%
MS U.S. House-3 Gregg Harper R 100%
MT U.S. Senate-Sr Jon Tester D 0%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 0%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 100%
NC U.S. House-1 G.K. Butterfield, Jr. D 6%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 87%
NC U.S. House-4 David Price D 0%
NC U.S. House-5 Virginia Foxx R 100%
NC U.S. House-10 Patrick McHenry R 100%
NE U.S. House-1 Jeff Fortenberry R 100%
NE U.S. House-3 Adrian Smith R 94%
NH U.S. Senate-Sr Jeanne Shaheen D 0%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 0%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 83%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 94%
NJ U.S. House-5 Scott Garrett R 94%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 0%
NJ U.S. House-7 Leonard Lance R 72%
NJ U.S. House-8 Albio Sires D 0%
NJ U.S. House-9 Bill Pascrell, Jr. D 0%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 77%
NM U.S. Senate-Sr Tom Udall D 0%
NM U.S. Senate-Jr Martin Heinrich D 0%
NM U.S. House-3 Ben Lujan, Jr. D 0%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 8%
NV U.S. Senate-Jr Dean Heller R 94%
NV U.S. House-1 Dina Titus D 0%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 0%
NY U.S. Senate-Jr Kirsten Gillibrand D 0%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 88%
NY U.S. House-3 Steve Israel D 0%
NY U.S. House-5 Gregory Meeks D 0%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 5%
NY U.S. House-9 Yvette Clarke D 11%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 0%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 0%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 5%
NY U.S. House-14 Joe Crowley D 0%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano Other 0%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 0%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 0%
NY U.S. House-20 Paul Tonko D 0%
NY U.S. House-23 Tom Reed II R 100%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 5%
NY U.S. House-26 Brian Higgins D 0%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 0%
OH U.S. House-4 Jim Jordan R 100%
OH U.S. House-5 Bob Latta R 100%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 100%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 5%
OH U.S. House-10 Mike Turner R 88%
OH U.S. House-11 Marcia Fudge D 5%
OH U.S. House-12 Pat Tiberi R 88%
OH U.S. House-13 Tim Ryan D 5%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 100%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 100%
OK U.S. House-4 Tom Cole R 88%
OK Governor Mary Fallin R 100%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 0%
OR U.S. Senate-Jr Jeff Merkley D 0%
OR U.S. House-2 Greg Walden R 72%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 0%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 0%
OR U.S. House-5 Kurt Schrader D 0%
PA U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Casey, Jr. D 20%
PA U.S. House-1 Bob Brady D 0%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 5%
PA U.S. House-5 G.T. Thompson, Jr. R 94%
PA U.S. House-9 Bill Shuster R 94%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle D 11%
PA U.S. House-15 Charlie Dent R 55%
PA U.S. House-16 Joe Pitts R 100%
PA U.S. House-18 Tim Murphy R 88%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 0%
RI U.S. Senate-Jr Sheldon Whitehouse D 0%
RI U.S. House-2 Jim Langevin D 5%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 86%
SC U.S. House-2 Joe Wilson, Sr. R 94%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 0%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr John Thune R 100%
TN U.S. Senate-Sr Lamar Alexander R 87%
TN U.S. Senate-Jr Robert Corker R 100%
TN U.S. House-1 Phil Roe R 94%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 94%
TN U.S. House-5 Jim Cooper D 5%
TN U.S. House-7 Marsha Blackburn R 94%
TN U.S. House-9 Steve Cohen D 0%
TX U.S. Senate-Sr John Cornyn R 100%
TX U.S. House-1 Louie Gohmert R 100%
TX U.S. House-2 Ted Poe R 94%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 93%
TX U.S. House-5 Jeb Hensarling R 94%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 94%
TX U.S. House-7 John Culberson R 94%
TX U.S. House-8 Kevin Brady R 94%
TX U.S. House-9 Al Green D 5%
TX U.S. House-10 Michael McCaul R 88%
TX U.S. House-11 Mike Conaway R 94%
TX U.S. House-12 Kay Granger R 100%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 94%
TX U.S. House-15 Rubén Hinojosa, Sr. D 0%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 5%
TX U.S. House-19 Randy Neugebauer R 94%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 94%
TX U.S. House-22 Pete Olson R 94%
TX U.S. House-24 Kenny Marchant R 100%
TX U.S. House-26 Michael Burgess R 94%
TX U.S. House-28 Henry Cuellar D 5%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 5%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 0%
TX U.S. House-31 John Carter R 94%
TX U.S. House-32 Pete Sessions R 94%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 0%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 92%
UT U.S. House-1 Rob Bishop R 93%
UT U.S. House-3 Jason Chaffetz R 94%
VA U.S. Senate-Sr Mark Warner D 4%
VA U.S. House-1 Rob Wittman R 100%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 11%
VA U.S. House-4 Randy Forbes R 100%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 94%
VA U.S. House-11 Gerry Connolly D 0%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 0%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 0%
VT U.S. House-At-Large Peter Welch D 11%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 0%
WA U.S. Senate-Jr Maria Cantwell D 0%
WA U.S. House-2 Rick Larsen D 0%
WA U.S. House-5 Cathy McMorris Rodgers R 100%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 11%
WA U.S. House-8 Dave Reichert R 58%
WA U.S. House-9 Adam Smith D 0%
WA Governor Jay Inslee D 0%
WI U.S. Senate-Jr Tammy Baldwin D 0%
WI U.S. House-1 Paul Ryan R 93%
WI U.S. House-3 Ron Kind D 5%
WI U.S. House-4 Gwen Moore D 11%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 94%
WV U.S. Senate-Jr Shelley Capito R 76%
WY U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Enzi R 100%
WY U.S. Senate-Jr John Barrasso R 100%
WY U.S. House-At-Large Cynthia Lummis R 100%
Neil Abercrombie 0%
Gary Ackerman 0%
John Adler 16%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 0%
Todd Akin 100%
Rodney Alexander 94%
Jason Altmire 27%
Rob Andrews 5%
Michael Arcuri 11%
Steve Austria 88%
Joe Baca, Sr. 5%
Michele Bachmann 100%
Spencer Bachus 100%
Brian Baird 11%
J. Gresham Barrett 100%
John Barrow 27%
Roscoe Bartlett 88%
Max Baucus 0%
Evan Bayh 16%
Melissa Bean 5%
Mark Begich 0%
Bob Bennett 100%
Shelley Berkley 0%
Howard Berman 0%
Marion Berry 29%
Judy Biggert 55%
Brian Bilbray 94%
Jeff Bingaman 0%
Tim Bishop 0%
John Boccieri 16%
Kit Bond 86%
Jo Bonner, Jr. 100%
Mary Bono Mack 76%
Dan Boren 86%
Leonard Boswell 0%
Rick Boucher 17%
Allen Boyd, Jr. 5%
Bruce Braley 0%
Bobby Bright 88%
Paul Broun 100%
Henry Brown, Jr. 100%
Scott Brown 100%
Ginny Brown-Waite 86%
Jim Bunning 100%
Roland Burris 0%
Dan Burton 94%
Steve Buyer 94%
Robert Byrd 6%
Dave Camp 94%
John Campbell III 94%
Eric Cantor 100%
Joseph Cao 50%
Dennis Cardoza 5%
Russ Carnahan 0%
Christopher Carney 37%
Mike Castle 44%
Saxby Chambliss 100%
Ben Chandler III 22%
Travis Childers 77%
Howard Coble 94%
Thomas Coburn 95%
Kent Conrad 12%
Jerry Costello 47%
Mark Critz 50%
Kathy Dahlkemper 35%
Artur Davis 50%
Geoff Davis 93%
Lincoln Davis 77%
Bill Delahunt 0%
James DeMint 100%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 82%
Norm Dicks 0%
John Dingell 5%
Charles Djou 33%
Chris Dodd 0%
Byron Dorgan 8%
David Dreier 94%
Steve Driehaus 22%
Chet Edwards 22%
Vern Ehlers 83%
Brad Ellsworth 44%
Jo Ann Emerson 94%
John Ensign 100%
Bob Etheridge 11%
Russ Feingold 8%
Bob Filner 11%
Barney Frank 5%
Elton Gallegly 88%
Jim Gerlach 82%
Gabrielle Giffords 5%
Phil Gingrey 100%
Charlie Gonzalez 0%
Carte Goodwin 0%
Bart Gordon 29%
Judd Gregg 73%
Parker Griffith, Jr. 88%
Kay Hagan 0%
John Hall 0%
Ralph Hall 88%
Debbie Halvorson 0%
Phil Hare 0%
Tom Harkin 0%
Jane Harman 0%
Doc Hastings 100%
Wally Herger, Jr. 94%
Stephanie Herseth Sandlin 16%
Baron Hill 23%
Maurice Hinchey 0%
Paul Hodes 0%
Pete Hoekstra 100%
Thomas Holden 33%
Rush Holt, Jr. 0%
Kay Hutchison 100%
Bob Inglis, Sr. 100%
Daniel Inouye 0%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 11%
Mike Johanns 100%
Tim Johnson 88%
Timothy Johnson 0%
Steve Kagen 0%
Paul Kanjorski 11%
Ted Kaufman 4%
Patrick Kennedy 0%
Dale Kildee 16%
Carolyn Kilpatrick 5%
Mary Jo Kilroy 0%
Jack Kingston 100%
Paul Kirk, Jr. 0%
Larry Kissell 5%
Ron Klein 0%
Herb Kohl 0%
Suzanne Kosmas 0%
Frank Kratovil, Jr. 27%
Dennis Kucinich 27%
Jon Kyl 92%
Mary Landrieu 0%
Tom Latham 94%
Steve LaTourette 83%
Frank Lautenberg 0%
Chris Lee 88%
George LeMieux 100%
Carl Levin 0%
Jerry Lewis 88%
Joe Lieberman 8%
Blanche Lincoln 4%
John Linder 100%
Dick Lugar 64%
Dan Lungren 88%
Connie Mack IV 94%
Dan Maffei 0%
Don Manzullo 94%
Betsy Markey 5%
Jim Marshall 72%
Melquiades Martinez 75%
Eric Massa 10%
Jim Matheson 33%
Carolyn McCarthy 5%
Thaddeus McCotter 88%
John McHugh 50%
Mike McIntyre 77%
Buck McKeon 94%
Michael McMahon 11%
Kendrick Meek, Sr. 0%
Charlie Melancon, Sr. 71%
Mike Michaud 27%
Gary Miller 100%
George Miller 5%
Brad Miller 0%
Walt Minnick 22%
Harry Mitchell 27%
Alan Mollohan 29%
Dennis Moore 0%
Jim Moran, Jr. 0%
Patrick Murphy 0%
Scott Murphy 11%
Jack Murtha 28%
Sue Myrick 100%
Ben Nelson 32%
Glenn Nye III 27%
Jim Oberstar 22%
Dave Obey 11%
John Olver 5%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 11%
Bill Owens 18%
Ed Pastor 0%
Ron Paul 93%
Donald Payne 11%
Tom Perriello 11%
Tom Petri 94%
Todd Platts 77%
Earl Pomeroy 11%
Mark Pryor 8%
George Radanovich 93%
Nick Rahall II 33%
Denny Rehberg 88%
Silvestre Reyes 5%
Laura Richardson 0%
Jay Rockefeller IV 0%
Ciro Rodriguez 5%
Mike Rogers 94%
Mike Ross 50%
Steve Rothman 0%
John Salazar 11%
Mark Schauer 0%
Jean Schmidt 100%
Aaron Schock 94%
Allyson Schwartz 0%
Joe Sestak, Jr. 0%
John Shadegg 88%
Carol Shea-Porter 0%
Heath Shuler 80%
Ike Skelton 55%
Olympia Snowe 32%
Vic Snyder 5%
Mark Souder 100%
Zack Space 16%
Arlen Specter 12%
John Spratt, Jr. 11%
Pete Stark 12%
Cliff Stearns 94%
Bart Stupak 25%
John Sullivan 100%
Betty Sutton 0%
John Tanner 33%
Ellen Tauscher 0%
Gene Taylor 77%
Harry Teague 18%
Lee Terry 88%
Todd Tiahrt 100%
John Tierney 0%
Ed Towns 5%
Mark Udall 0%
George Voinovich 72%
Zach Wamp 93%
Diane Watson 0%
Mel Watt 16%
Henry Waxman 5%
Jim Webb, Jr. 0%
Anthony Weiner 5%
Robert Wexler 0%
Charlie Wilson, Jr. 23%
Frank Wolf 88%
Lynn Woolsey 11%
David Wu 0%
Bill Young 88%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.