Rating Group: Children's Defense Fund

1998 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
Edmond Spencer Abraham 44%
Gary Ackerman 75%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 100%
Wayne Allard 22%
Thomas Allen 100%
Rob Andrews 88%
Bill Archer 50%
Richard Armey 63%
John Ashcroft 11%
Richard Hugh Baker 50%
Cass Ballenger 50%
James Barcia 88%
Bob Barr, Jr. 25%
Bill Barrett 63%
Roscoe Bartlett 50%
Charlie Bass 50%
Herbert Bateman 50%
Max Baucus 89%
Bob Bennett 56%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 88%
Douglas Bereuter 63%
Howard Berman 100%
Marion Berry 88%
Brian Bilbray 63%
Michael Bilirakis 38%
Jeff Bingaman 100%
Rod Blagojevich 75%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 50%
Sherwood Boehlert 75%
Kit Bond 56%
Henry Bonilla 63%
David Edward Bonior 100%
Mary Bono Mack 67%
Robert Borski, Jr. 75%
Leonard Boswell 88%
Rick Boucher 75%
Allen Boyd, Jr. 75%
John Breaux 100%
George Brown, Jr. 100%
Richard Bryan 100%
Ed Bryant 63%
Jim Bunning 63%
Conrad Burns 44%
Dan Burton 63%
Steve Buyer 63%
Robert Byrd 89%
Herbert Callahan 63%
Ben Campbell 67%
Thomas Campbell 75%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 63%
Chris Cannon 50%
Julia Carson 88%
Mike Castle 50%
John Chafee 67%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 63%
William Clay, Sr. 88%
Eva Clayton 88%
Joseph Maxwell Cleland 100%
Robert Clement 100%
Michael Collins 25%
Larry Combest 63%
Gary Condit 88%
Kent Conrad 100%
Merrill Cook 38%
John Cooksey 63%
Jerry Costello 75%
Paul Coverdell 44%
Christopher Cox 63%
William Coyne 100%
Larry Craig 33%
Robert Cramer 88%
Philip Crane 25%
Barbara Cubin 63%
Randall Cunningham 63%
Patsy Ann Danner 63%
Thomas Daschle 100%
James Davis 100%
Thomas Davis III 88%
Bill Delahunt 100%
Thomas DeLay 38%
Peter Deutsch 88%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 63%
Jay Dickey 75%
Norm Dicks 100%
Julian Dixon 88%
Chris Dodd 100%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 44%
Calvin Dooley 100%
John Doolittle 25%
Byron Dorgan 100%
David Dreier 50%
Jennifer Dunn 63%
Chet Edwards 100%
Vern Ehlers 63%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 50%
Jo Ann Emerson 75%
Philip English 75%
Bob Etheridge 88%
Lane Evans 75%
Terry Everett 63%
Thomas Ewing 63%
Russ Feingold 78%
Bob Filner 75%
Mark Foley 63%
Michael Patrick Forbes 75%
Harold Ford, Jr. 75%
Vito Fossella, Jr. 63%
Tillie Fowler 63%
Barney Frank 88%
Robert Franks 75%
William Frist 22%
Jonas Frost III 88%
Elton Gallegly 63%
John Ganske 50%
Sam Gejdenson 88%
George Gekas 63%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 75%
Jim Gibbons 63%
Wayne Gilchrest 75%
Paul Gillmor 75%
Benjamin Gilman 100%
Newt Gingrich 13%
Virgil Goode, Jr. 38%
William Goodling 63%
Bart Gordon 88%
Slade Gorton 33%
Porter Goss 38%
Daniel Graham 89%
William Phillip Gramm 11%
Rodney Grams 11%
James Greenwood 63%
Judd Gregg 22%
Gilbert Gutknecht 63%
Tony Hall 100%
James Hansen 38%
J. Dennis Hastert 63%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 63%
Joel Hefley 38%
Jesse Helms 0%
Wally Herger, Jr. 50%
Rick Hill 63%
Van Hilleary 50%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 88%
Maurice Hinchey 100%
David Lee Hobson 63%
Pete Hoekstra 50%
Thomas Holden 63%
Ernest Hollings 78%
Darlene Hooley 75%
Stephen Horn 63%
John Nathan Hostettler 38%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 75%
Kenny Hulshof 75%
Duncan Hunter 50%
Asa Hutchinson 75%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 22%
Kay Hutchison 56%
Henry Hyde 50%
Daniel Inouye 89%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 25%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 100%
William Jefferson 63%
James Merrill Jeffords 78%
William Lewis Jenkins 63%
Christopher John 63%
Nancy Johnson 75%
Paul Kanjorski 75%
Sue Kelly 75%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 100%
Patrick Kennedy 100%
Bob Kerrey 89%
Dale Kildee 100%
Carolyn Kilpatrick 50%
Gerald Kleczka 88%
Ronald Klink 50%
Joseph Knollenberg 63%
Herb Kohl 89%
James Kolbe 63%
Dennis Kucinich 88%
Jon Kyl 11%
John LaFalce 88%
Ray LaHood 50%
Nicholas Lampson 100%
Tom Lantos 100%
Stephen Largent 38%
Steve LaTourette 75%
Frank Lautenberg 100%
Rick Lazio 75%
James Leach 88%
Jerry Lewis 63%
Ron Lewis 63%
Joe Lieberman 100%
John Linder 63%
William Lipinski 75%
Robert Livingston 63%
Trent Lott, Sr. 22%
Dick Lugar 11%
William Luther 75%
Connie Mack 22%
James Maloney 63%
Don Manzullo 25%
Matthew Martinez 75%
Frank Mascara 88%
Robert Matsui 100%
Karen McCarthy 75%
Bill McCollum 63%
James McCrery III 63%
John McHugh 88%
Scott McInnis 63%
David McIntosh 38%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 100%
Michael McNulty 88%
Martin Meehan 88%
Carrie Meek 88%
Jack Metcalf 63%
Juanita Millender-McDonald 63%
Dan Miller 25%
David Minge 75%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 100%
John Moakley 63%
Alan Mollohan 75%
Constance Morella 100%
Patrick Moynihan 89%
Frank Murkowski 33%
Jack Murtha 88%
Sue Myrick 50%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 63%
Robert William Ney 63%
Don Nickles 0%
Anne Northup 63%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 50%
James Nussle 75%
Jim Oberstar 88%
Dave Obey 100%
John Olver 100%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 75%
Major Owens 75%
Michael Oxley 63%
Ronald Packard 63%
Ron Paul 0%
Donald Payne 88%
Edward Pease 75%
John Peterson 63%
Charles Pickering, Jr. 50%
Owen Pickett 100%
Richard Pombo 63%
Earl Pomeroy 75%
John Edward Porter 63%
Deborah Pryce 25%
Jack Quinn 75%
George Radanovich 50%
James Ramstad 88%
Ralph Regula 63%
Silvestre Reyes 75%
Bob Riley 63%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 75%
Charles Robb 100%
Ciro Rodriguez 100%
Timothy Roemer 88%
James Rogan 63%
William Roth, Jr. 44%
Steve Rothman 75%
Marge Roukema 38%
Jim Ryun 50%
Martin Olav Sabo 100%
Max Sandlin, Jr. 100%
Rick Santorum 22%
Paul Sarbanes 100%
Jim Saxton 38%
Joe Scarborough 25%
Robert Schaffer 50%
John Shadegg 50%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 75%
Christopher Shays 63%
E.G. Shuster 63%
Norman Sisisky 100%
Joseph Skeen 75%
Ike Skelton 100%
Gordon Smith 44%
Nick Smith 50%
Bob Smith 11%
Olympia Snowe 67%
Vic Snyder 88%
Mark Souder 75%
Arlen Specter 78%
Floyd Spence 63%
John Spratt, Jr. 75%
Pete Stark 88%
Cliff Stearns 25%
Charles Stenholm 100%
Ted Stevens 56%
Ted Strickland 88%
Bob Stump 25%
Bart Stupak 63%
John Sununu 50%
James Talent 50%
John Tanner 75%
Ellen Tauscher 88%
William Tauzin 50%
Charles Taylor 50%
Gene Taylor 50%
Craig Thomas 22%
William Thomas 50%
Fred Thompson 22%
Karen Thurman 75%
Strom Thurmond 22%
Todd Tiahrt 38%
Robert Torricelli 100%
Ed Towns 63%
James Traficant, Jr. 88%
James Turner 100%
Bruce Vento 100%
James Walsh 63%
Zach Wamp 50%
John Warner 67%
Wesley Watkins 63%
Mel Watt 88%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 63%
David Weldon 38%
W. Curtis Weldon 63%
Gerald Weller 75%
Paul Wellstone 89%
Robert Wexler 75%
Bob Weygand 100%
Heather Wilson 60%
Bob Wise, Jr. 88%
Lynn Woolsey 100%
Albert Wynn 100%
Bill Young 50%
HI Governor Neil Abercrombie D 100%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 100%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 75%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 100%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 100%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 100%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 75%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 100%
PA U.S. House-1 Bob Brady D 100%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 88%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 100%
CA U.S. House-24 Lois Capps D 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 88%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 100%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 88%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 100%
IL U.S. House-7 Danny Davis D 100%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 88%
CO U.S. House-1 Diana DeGette D 88%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 88%
MI U.S. House-12 John Dingell D 63%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 75%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle, Jr. D 88%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 100%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 75%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 100%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 100%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 88%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 100%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 88%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutierrez D 88%
IA U.S. Senate-Jr Tom Harkin D 100%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 75%
TX U.S. House-15 Rubén Hinojosa, Sr. D 100%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 100%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 100%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 100%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr Timothy Johnson D 100%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 88%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 100%
WI U.S. House-3 Ron Kind D 88%
LA U.S. Senate-Sr Mary Landrieu D 100%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 100%
CA U.S. House-13 Barbara Lee D 83%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Carl Levin D 89%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 88%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 50%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 100%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 75%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 75%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 100%
NY U.S. House-4 Carolyn McCarthy D 88%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 75%
MA U.S. House-2 Jim McGovern D 100%
NC U.S. House-7 Mike McIntyre D 75%
NY U.S. House-5 Gregory Meeks D 88%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 75%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 89%
CA U.S. House-11 George Miller D 88%
VA U.S. House-8 Jim Moran, Jr. D 88%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 100%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 88%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 88%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 100%
NJ U.S. House-9 Bill Pascrell, Jr. D 88%
AZ U.S. House-7 Ed Pastor D 100%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 88%
NC U.S. House-4 David Price D 88%
WV U.S. House-3 Nick Rahall II D 100%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 75%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 100%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 89%
WV U.S. Senate-Sr Jay Rockefeller IV D 100%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 75%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 88%
CA U.S. House-46 Loretta Sanchez D 100%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 100%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 75%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 100%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano D 100%
CA U.S. House-30 Brad Sherman D 100%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 100%
WA U.S. House-9 Adam Smith D 75%
MI U.S. Senate-Jr Debbie Stabenow D 88%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 88%
MA U.S. House-6 John Tierney D 100%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 88%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 100%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 88%
CA U.S. House-33 Henry Waxman D 88%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 100%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 88%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 100%
AL U.S. House-4 Robert Aderholt R 63%
AL U.S. House-6 Spencer Bachus R 38%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 38%
MO U.S. Senate-Jr Roy Blunt R 50%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 63%
TX U.S. House-8 Kevin Brady R 38%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 22%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 38%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 75%
MI U.S. House-4 Dave Camp R 63%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 38%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Saxby Chambliss R 63%
NC U.S. House-6 Howard Coble R 25%
OK U.S. Senate-Jr Thomas Coburn R 25%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 44%
ME U.S. Senate-Sr Susan Collins R 56%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 50%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 25%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 33%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 50%
WY U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Enzi R 11%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 50%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 50%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 50%
TX U.S. House-12 Kay Granger R 63%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 33%
NA U.S. Secretary of Defense Charles Hagel R 22%
TX U.S. House-4 Ralph Hall R 88%
WA U.S. House-4 Doc Hastings R 63%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 56%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 0%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 38%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 50%
OH Governor John Kasich R 63%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 50%
GA U.S. House-1 Jack Kingston R 63%
IA U.S. House-3 Tom Latham R 63%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 88%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 63%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 44%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 33%
CA U.S. House-25 Buck McKeon R 63%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 50%
KS U.S. Senate-Jr Jerry Moran R 63%
WI U.S. House-6 Tom Petri R 50%
PA U.S. House-16 Joe Pitts R 63%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 50%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 22%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 75%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 38%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 38%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 25%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matt Salmon R 38%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 25%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 25%
AL U.S. Senate-Jr Jeff Sessions III R 0%
TX U.S. House-32 Pete Sessions R 50%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 33%
IL U.S. House-15 John Shimkus R 63%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 75%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 75%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 63%
SD U.S. Senate-Jr John Thune R 63%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 63%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 50%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 75%
VA U.S. House-10 Frank Wolf R 50%
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 63%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.