Rating Group: Children's Defense Fund

1996 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 7%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 20%
AL U.S. House-6 Spencer Bachus R 7%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 13%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matt Salmon R 0%
AZ U.S. House-7 Ed Pastor D 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 100%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 100%
CA U.S. House-11 George Miller D 79%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 100%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 86%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 93%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 93%
CA U.S. House-25 Buck McKeon R 0%
CA U.S. House-33 Henry Waxman D 93%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 93%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 0%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 100%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 0%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 86%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 0%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 93%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 93%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 0%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 86%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 36%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 14%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Saxby Chambliss R 0%
GA U.S. House-1 Jack Kingston R 0%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 71%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 100%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 7%
HI Governor Neil Abercrombie D 93%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 20%
IA U.S. Senate-Jr Tom Harkin D 80%
IA U.S. House-3 Tom Latham R 0%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 0%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 79%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 93%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutierrez D 100%
IN U.S. Senate-Sr Daniel Coats R 13%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 79%
IN Council Member-At-Large John Myers R 0%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 14%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 0%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 20%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 7%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 7%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 100%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 71%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 93%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 71%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 79%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 100%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 71%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Carl Levin D 87%
MI U.S. House-4 Dave Camp R 7%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 14%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 86%
MI U.S. House-12 John Dingell D 86%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 100%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 50%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 20%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 0%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 93%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 73%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 87%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 0%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 0%
NC U.S. House-6 Howard Coble R 0%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 93%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 21%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 21%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 86%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 21%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 87%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 79%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 14%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 93%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 86%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 93%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 100%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano D 100%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 100%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 86%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 93%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 100%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 0%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 0%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 0%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 79%
OH Governor John Kasich R 7%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 79%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 20%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 13%
OK U.S. Senate-Jr Thomas Coburn R 7%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 0%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 87%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 86%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 93%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 100%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle D 71%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 86%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 0%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 7%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 93%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr Timothy Johnson D 57%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 29%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 0%
TX U.S. House-4 Ralph Hall R 14%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 7%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 0%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 93%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 0%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 79%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 93%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 79%
TX U.S. House-36 Steve Stockman R 0%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 20%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 100%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 0%
VA U.S. House-8 Jim Moran, Jr. D 79%
VA U.S. House-10 Frank Wolf R 0%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 100%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 100%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 100%
WA U.S. House-4 Doc Hastings R 0%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 100%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 0%
WI U.S. House-6 Tom Petri R 0%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 100%
WV U.S. Senate-Sr Jay Rockefeller IV D 80%
WV U.S. House-3 Nick Rahall II D 86%
Edmond Spencer Abraham 20%
Gary Ackerman 86%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 100%
Wayne Allard 0%
Rob Andrews 79%
Bill Archer 0%
Richard Armey 0%
John Ashcroft 13%
Henry Scott Baesler 71%
Richard Hugh Baker 0%
William Baker 9%
Cass Ballenger 0%
James Barcia 71%
Bob Barr, Jr. 0%
Bill Barrett 0%
Roscoe Bartlett 0%
Charlie Bass 0%
Herbert Bateman 7%
Max Baucus 80%
Anthony Beilenson 100%
Bob Bennett 20%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 79%
Douglas Bereuter 14%
Howard Berman 86%
Tom Bevill 91%
Brian Bilbray 29%
Michael Bilirakis 7%
Jeff Bingaman 93%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 0%
Peter Blute 36%
Sherwood Boehlert 43%
Kit Bond 13%
Henry Bonilla 0%
David Edward Bonior 100%
Sonny Bono 7%
Robert Borski, Jr. 86%
Rick Boucher 79%
Bill Bradley 94%
John Breaux 67%
Bill Brewster 36%
Glen Browder 82%
George Brown, Jr. 93%
Hank Brown 6%
Richard Bryan 80%
Ed Bryant 0%
John Bryant 73%
Dale Bumpers 93%
Jim Bunn 36%
Jim Bunning 0%
Conrad Burns 20%
Dan Burton 0%
Steve Buyer 7%
Robert Byrd 73%
Herbert Callahan 0%
Ben Campbell 40%
Thomas Campbell 29%
Mike Castle 29%
John Chafee 33%
Jim Chapman 73%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 0%
Jon Lynn Christensen 0%
Dick Chrysler 0%
William Clay, Sr. 86%
Eva Clayton 100%
Robert Clement 64%
William Clinger 18%
William Cohen 33%
Ronald Coleman 100%
Barbara-Rose Collins 100%
Cardiss Collins 82%
Michael Collins 0%
Larry Combest 0%
Gary Condit 43%
Kent Conrad 87%
Wes Cooley 9%
Jerry Costello 71%
Paul Coverdell 20%
Christopher Cox 0%
William Coyne 100%
Larry Craig 13%
Robert Cramer 57%
Philip Crane 0%
Frank Arnold Cremeans 9%
Barbara Cubin 0%
Randall Cunningham 0%
Alfonse D'Amato 27%
Patsy Ann Danner 64%
Thomas Daschle 93%
Thomas Davis III 14%
E. Kika de la Garza 91%
Thomas DeLay 0%
Ronald Dellums 100%
Peter Deutsch 57%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 29%
Jay Dickey 0%
Norm Dicks 79%
Julian Dixon 93%
Chris Dodd 87%
Robert Dole 11%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 20%
Calvin Dooley 71%
John Doolittle 0%
Byron Dorgan 87%
Robert Dornan 0%
David Dreier 0%
Jennifer Dunn 0%
Chet Edwards 71%
Vern Ehlers 7%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 0%
Bill Emerson 9%
Philip English 21%
John Ensign 14%
Lane Evans 100%
Terry Everett 0%
Thomas Ewing 0%
Jim Exon 83%
Duncan McLauchlin Faircloth 20%
Harris Fawell 7%
Victor Fazio 79%
Russ Feingold 87%
Cleo Fields 82%
Jack Fields, Jr. 0%
Bob Filner 100%
Floyd Flake 93%
Michael Patrick Flanagan 27%
Thomas Foglietta 100%
Mark Foley 7%
Michael Patrick Forbes 14%
Harold Ford, Sr. 91%
Wendell Ford 80%
Tillie Fowler 0%
Jon David Fox 36%
Barney Frank 100%
Gary Franks 27%
Robert Franks 29%
Dan Frisa 9%
William Frist 13%
Jonas Frost III 71%
David Funderburk 9%
Elizabeth Furse 79%
Elton Gallegly 0%
John Ganske 21%
Sam Gejdenson 79%
George Gekas 0%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 93%
Pete Geren 27%
Sam Gibbons 91%
Wayne Gilchrest 21%
Paul Gillmor 7%
Benjamin Gilman 57%
Newt Gingrich 0%
John Glenn 100%
Henry Gonzalez 100%
William Goodling 0%
Bart Gordon 50%
Slade Gorton 13%
Porter Goss 0%
Daniel Graham 80%
William Phillip Gramm 13%
Rodney Grams 13%
Enid Greene 9%
James Greenwood 21%
Judd Gregg 13%
Steven Gunderson 18%
Gilbert Gutknecht 0%
Tony Hall 79%
Lee Hamilton 57%
Melton Hancock 0%
James Hansen 0%
Jane Harman 64%
J. Dennis Hastert 0%
Mark Hatfield 44%
James Hayes 45%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 0%
Joel Hefley 0%
W.G. Hefner 71%
Fredrick Kenneth Fred' Heineman 18%
Jesse Helms 20%
Wally Herger, Jr. 0%
Van Hilleary 14%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 93%
Maurice Hinchey 93%
David Lee Hobson 7%
Pete Hoekstra 0%
Martin Hoke 0%
Thomas Holden 64%
Ernest Hollings 80%
Stephen Horn 14%
John Nathan Hostettler 0%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 29%
Duncan Hunter 0%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 0%
Kay Hutchison 20%
Henry Hyde 7%
Bob Inglis, Sr. 0%
Daniel Inouye 87%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 0%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 100%
Andrew Jacobs, Jr. 91%
William Jefferson 93%
James Merrill Jeffords 60%
Nancy Johnson 14%
Harry Johnston 91%
J. Bennett Johnston 83%
Paul Kanjorski 64%
Nancy Landon Kassebaum 22%
Sue Kelly 14%
Dirk Kempthorne 13%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 93%
Joseph Kennedy II 93%
Patrick Kennedy 100%
Barbara Bailey Kennelly 79%
Bob Kerrey 87%
Dale Kildee 93%
Jay Kim 0%
Gerald Kleczka 79%
Ronald Klink 79%
Scott Klug 14%
Joseph Knollenberg 0%
Herb Kohl 73%
James Kolbe 7%
Jon Kyl 13%
John LaFalce 100%
Ray LaHood 14%
Tom Lantos 100%
Stephen Largent 0%
Steve LaTourette 14%
Greg Laughlin 18%
Frank Lautenberg 100%
Rick Lazio 21%
James Leach 43%
Jerry Lewis 14%
Ron Lewis 0%
Joe Lieberman 80%
Jim Lightfoot 9%
Blanche Lincoln 64%
John Linder 0%
William Lipinski 57%
Robert Livingston 0%
James Longley, Jr. 9%
Trent Lott, Sr. 20%
Dick Lugar 20%
William Luther 86%
Connie Mack 13%
Thomas Manton 79%
Don Manzullo 0%
Matthew Martinez 86%
Bill Martini 27%
Frank Mascara 57%
Robert Matsui 93%
Karen McCarthy 86%
Bill McCollum 0%
James McCrery III 0%
Joseph McDade 14%
Paul McHale 71%
John McHugh 21%
Scott McInnis 0%
David McIntosh 0%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 100%
Michael McNulty 93%
Martin Meehan 93%
Carrie Meek 93%
Jack Metcalf 7%
Jan Meyers 18%
Juanita Millender-McDonald 100%
Dan Miller 7%
David Minge 79%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 100%
John Moakley 79%
Susan Molinari 21%
Alan Mollohan 79%
G.V. Montgomery 18%
Carlos Moorhead 0%
Constance Morella 43%
Carol Moseley Braun 93%
Patrick Moynihan 100%
Frank Murkowski 20%
Jack Murtha 64%
Sue Myrick 0%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 0%
Mark Neumann 7%
Robert William Ney 7%
Don Nickles 13%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 0%
Sam Nunn 72%
James Nussle 0%
Jim Oberstar 86%
Dave Obey 79%
John Olver 100%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 86%
Bill Orton 91%
Major Owens 100%
Michael Oxley 0%
Ronald Packard 0%
Mike Parker 0%
William Paxon 0%
Donald Payne 100%
Lewis Payne, Jr. 91%
Clay Pell 89%
Pete Peterson 91%
Owen Pickett 50%
Richard Pombo 0%
Earl Pomeroy 86%
John Edward Porter 7%
Glenn Poshard 64%
Larry Pressler 11%
Deborah Pryce 7%
David Pryor 94%
James Quillen 0%
Jack Quinn 50%
George Radanovich 0%
James Ramstad 29%
Ralph Regula 7%
Bill Richardson 82%
Frank Riggs 7%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 86%
Charles Robb 67%
Timothy Roemer 64%
Charles Rose III 82%
Toby Roth 9%
William Roth, Jr. 13%
Marge Roukema 57%
Martin Olav Sabo 100%
Rick Santorum 20%
Paul Sarbanes 100%
Jim Saxton 14%
Joe Scarborough 0%
Daniel Schaefer 0%
Steven Schiff 21%
Pat Schroeder 100%
Andrea Seastrand 0%
John Shadegg 0%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 7%
Christopher Shays 29%
E.G. Shuster 0%
Paul Simon 89%
Alan Simpson 17%
Norman Sisisky 57%
David Skaggs 86%
Joseph Skeen 0%
Ike Skelton 64%
Linda Smith 7%
Nick Smith 0%
Bob Smith 13%
Olympia Snowe 47%
Gerald B.H. Solomon 7%
Mark Souder 0%
Arlen Specter 53%
Floyd Spence 0%
John Spratt, Jr. 71%
Pete Stark 86%
Cliff Stearns 0%
Charles Stenholm 43%
Ted Stevens 20%
Louis Stokes 71%
Gerry Studds 100%
Bob Stump 0%
Bart Stupak 71%
James Talent 0%
John Tanner 57%
Randy Tate 0%
William Tauzin 7%
Charles Taylor 0%
Gene Taylor 29%
Frank Tejeda 91%
Craig Thomas 20%
William Thomas 0%
Fred Thompson 13%
Ray Thornton 100%
Karen Thurman 71%
Strom Thurmond 20%
Todd Tiahrt 0%
Peter Torkildsen 45%
Esteban Edward Torres 93%
Robert Torricelli 64%
Ed Towns 93%
James Traficant, Jr. 64%
Bruce Vento 93%
Harold Volkmer 82%
Barbara Vucanovich 9%
Robert Walker 0%
James Walsh 29%
Zach Wamp 7%
Michael Ward 100%
John Warner 27%
Mel Watt 100%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 0%
David Weldon 0%
W. Curtis Weldon 7%
Gerald Weller 14%
Paul Wellstone 100%
Rick White 7%
Pat Williams 64%
Charles Wilson 91%
Bob Wise, Jr. 71%
Lynn Woolsey 100%
Albert Wynn 93%
Sidney Yates 100%
Bill Young 14%
Bill Zeliff 9%
Richard Zimmer 9%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.