Rating Group: National Education Association

1996 Positions

State Office Name Party Rating
AK U.S. House-At-Large Don Young R 0%
AL U.S. House-6 Spencer Bachus R 0%
AL U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Shelby R 19%
AZ U.S. House-5 Matt Salmon R 0%
AZ U.S. House-7 Ed Pastor D 95%
AZ U.S. Senate-Sr John McCain III R 0%
CA U.S. House-11 George Miller D 95%
CA U.S. House-12 Nancy Pelosi D 95%
CA U.S. House-18 Anna Eshoo D 95%
CA U.S. House-19 Zoe Lofgren D 100%
CA U.S. House-20 Sam Farr D 100%
CA U.S. House-25 Buck McKeon R 0%
CA U.S. House-33 Henry Waxman D 100%
CA U.S. House-34 Xavier Becerra D 100%
CA U.S. House-39 Ed Royce R 0%
CA U.S. House-40 Lucille Roybal-Allard D 100%
CA U.S. House-42 Ken Calvert R 0%
CA U.S. House-43 Maxine Waters D 94%
CA U.S. House-48 Dana Rohrabacher R 0%
CA U.S. Senate-Sr Dianne Feinstein D 94%
CA U.S. Senate-Jr Barbara Boxer D 94%
CT U.S. House-3 Rosa DeLauro D 95%
FL U.S. House-5 Corrine Brown D 100%
FL U.S. House-7 John Mica R 0%
FL U.S. House-20 Alcee Hastings, Sr. D 100%
FL U.S. House-27 Ileana Ros-Lehtinen R 19%
FL Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Canady 0%
GA U.S. House-1 Jack Kingston R 0%
GA U.S. House-2 Sanford Bishop, Jr. D 95%
GA U.S. House-5 John Lewis D 100%
GA U.S. Senate-Sr Saxby Chambliss R 0%
GA Governor Nathan Deal R 5%
HI Governor Neil Abercrombie D 100%
IA U.S. House-3 Tom Latham R 0%
IA U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Grassley R 11%
IA U.S. Senate-Jr Tom Harkin D 100%
ID U.S. Senate-Sr Mike Crapo R 0%
IL U.S. House-1 Bobby Rush D 100%
IL U.S. House-4 Luis Gutierrez D 95%
IL U.S. Senate-Sr Dick Durbin D 100%
IN U.S. House-1 Pete Visclosky D 77%
IN U.S. Senate-Sr Daniel Coats R 6%
IN Council Member-At-Large John Myers R 0%
KS U.S. Senate-Sr Pat Roberts R 0%
KS Governor Sam Brownback R 0%
KY U.S. House-1 Ed Whitfield R 0%
KY U.S. House-5 Hal Rogers R 0%
KY U.S. Senate-Sr Mitch McConnell R 11%
MA U.S. House-1 Richard Neal D 100%
MA U.S. Senate-Jr Ed Markey D 100%
MD U.S. House-5 Steny Hoyer D 100%
MD U.S. House-7 Elijah Cummings D 100%
MD U.S. Senate-Sr Barbara Mikulski D 94%
MD U.S. Senate-Jr Ben Cardin D 86%
ME Councilor-At-Large John Baldacci D 91%
MI U.S. House-4 Dave Camp R 0%
MI U.S. House-6 Fred Upton R 0%
MI U.S. House-9 Sandy Levin D 95%
MI U.S. House-12 John Dingell D 100%
MI U.S. House-13 John Conyers, Jr. D 100%
MI U.S. Senate-Sr Carl Levin D 100%
MN U.S. House-7 Collin Peterson DFL 71%
MS U.S. House-2 Bennie Thompson D 100%
MS U.S. Senate-Sr Thad Cochran R 17%
MS U.S. Senate-Jr Roger Wicker R 0%
NA Vice President Joe Biden, Jr. D 94%
NA U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry D 100%
NC U.S. House-3 Walter Jones, Jr. R 0%
NC U.S. House-6 Howard Coble R 0%
NC U.S. Senate-Sr Richard Burr R 0%
NJ U.S. House-2 Frank LoBiondo R 32%
NJ U.S. House-4 Chris Smith R 14%
NJ U.S. House-6 Frank Pallone, Jr. D 100%
NJ U.S. House-11 Rodney Frelinghuysen R 5%
NJ U.S. Senate-Sr Bob Menendez D 100%
NV U.S. Senate-Sr Harry Reid D 89%
NY U.S. House-2 Pete King R 0%
NY U.S. House-7 Nydia Velázquez D 100%
NY U.S. House-10 Jerry Nadler D 100%
NY U.S. House-12 Carolyn Maloney D 95%
NY U.S. House-13 Charlie Rangel D 95%
NY U.S. House-15 José Serrano D 100%
NY U.S. House-16 Eliot Engel D 100%
NY U.S. House-17 Nita Lowey D 95%
NY U.S. House-25 Louise Slaughter D 100%
NY U.S. Senate-Sr Chuck Schumer D 95%
OH U.S. House-1 Steve Chabot R 0%
OH U.S. House-8 John Boehner R 0%
OH U.S. House-9 Marcy Kaptur D 82%
OH State Senate-28 Thomas Sawyer D 95%
OH U.S. Senate-Sr Sherrod Brown D 91%
OH U.S. Senate-Jr Rob Portman R 0%
OH Attorney General Mike DeWine R 22%
OH Governor John Kasich R 0%
OK U.S. House-3 Frank Lucas R 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Sr Jim Inhofe R 0%
OK U.S. Senate-Jr Thomas Coburn R 14%
OR U.S. House-3 Earl Blumenauer D 100%
OR U.S. House-4 Peter DeFazio D 95%
OR U.S. Senate-Sr Ron Wyden D 100%
PA U.S. House-2 Chaka Fattah, Sr. D 100%
PA U.S. House-14 Mike Doyle D 86%
RI U.S. Senate-Sr Jack Reed D 91%
SC U.S. House-1 Mark Sanford, Jr. R 9%
SC U.S. House-6 Jim Clyburn D 100%
SC U.S. Senate-Sr Lindsey Graham R 0%
SD U.S. Senate-Sr Timothy Johnson D 76%
TN U.S. House-2 John Duncan, Jr. R 0%
TX U.S. House-3 Sam Johnson R 0%
TX U.S. House-4 Ralph Hall R 27%
TX U.S. House-6 Joe Barton R 11%
TX U.S. House-13 Mac Thornberry R 0%
TX U.S. House-18 Sheila Jackson Lee D 95%
TX U.S. House-21 Lamar Smith R 0%
TX U.S. House-29 Gene Green D 95%
TX U.S. House-30 Eddie Johnson D 100%
TX U.S. House-35 Lloyd Doggett II D 95%
TX U.S. House-36 Steve Stockman R 0%
UT U.S. Senate-Sr Orrin Hatch R 11%
VA U.S. House-3 Bobby Scott D 100%
VA U.S. House-6 Bob Goodlatte R 0%
VA U.S. House-8 Jim Moran, Jr. D 77%
VA U.S. House-10 Frank Wolf R 5%
VT U.S. Senate-Sr Patrick Leahy D 94%
VT U.S. Senate-Jr Bernie Sanders I 100%
WA U.S. House-4 Doc Hastings R 0%
WA U.S. House-7 Jim McDermott D 100%
WA U.S. Senate-Sr Patty Murray D 100%
WI U.S. House-5 Jim Sensenbrenner, Jr. R 0%
WI U.S. House-6 Tom Petri R 5%
WI Mayor-At-Large Tom Barrett D 91%
WV U.S. House-3 Nick Rahall II D 91%
WV U.S. Senate-Sr Jay Rockefeller IV D 100%
Edmond Spencer Abraham 11%
Gary Ackerman 95%
Daniel Akaka, Sr. 100%
Wayne Allard 0%
Rob Andrews 90%
Bill Archer 0%
Richard Armey 0%
John Ashcroft 6%
Henry Scott Baesler 86%
Richard Hugh Baker 0%
William Baker 0%
Cass Ballenger 0%
James Barcia 90%
Bob Barr, Jr. 0%
Bill Barrett 0%
Roscoe Bartlett 0%
Charlie Bass 0%
Herbert Bateman 5%
Max Baucus 83%
Anthony Beilenson 91%
Bob Bennett 12%
Kenneth Bentsen, Jr. 95%
Douglas Bereuter 5%
Howard Berman 95%
Tom Bevill 73%
Brian Bilbray 9%
Michael Bilirakis 0%
Jeff Bingaman 94%
Thomas Bliley, Jr. 0%
Peter Blute 9%
Sherwood Boehlert 32%
Kit Bond 17%
Henry Bonilla 5%
David Edward Bonior 100%
Sonny Bono 0%
Robert Borski, Jr. 95%
Rick Boucher 90%
Bill Bradley 100%
John Breaux 83%
George Brown, Jr. 95%
Hank Brown 0%
Richard Bryan 94%
Ed Bryant 0%
John Bryant 90%
Dale Bumpers 100%
Jim Bunn 18%
Jim Bunning 0%
Conrad Burns 17%
Dan Burton 0%
Steve Buyer 0%
Robert Byrd 83%
Herbert Callahan 0%
Ben Campbell 47%
Thomas Campbell 33%
Mike Castle 14%
John Chafee 44%
Helen Chenoweth-Hage 0%
Jon Lynn Christensen 0%
Dick Chrysler 0%
William Clay, Sr. 95%
Eva Clayton 100%
Robert Clement 82%
William Cohen 42%
Ronald Coleman 91%
Barbara-Rose Collins 100%
Cardiss Collins 100%
Michael Collins 0%
Larry Combest 0%
Gary Condit 59%
Kent Conrad 100%
Wes Cooley 0%
Jerry Costello 90%
Paul Coverdell 11%
Christopher Cox 0%
William Coyne 100%
Larry Craig 6%
Robert Cramer 59%
Philip Crane 0%
Frank Arnold Cremeans 0%
Randall Cunningham 0%
Alfonse D'Amato 18%
Patsy Ann Danner 77%
Thomas Daschle 94%
Thomas Davis III 5%
E. Kika de la Garza 90%
Thomas DeLay 0%
Ronald Dellums 100%
Peter Deutsch 86%
Lincoln Diaz-Balart 18%
Jay Dickey 0%
Norm Dicks 95%
Julian Dixon 100%
Chris Dodd 100%
Robert Dole 0%
Pete Domenici, Jr. 22%
Calvin Dooley 86%
John Doolittle 0%
Byron Dorgan 94%
Robert Dornan 0%
David Dreier 0%
Jennifer Dunn 0%
Chet Edwards 95%
Vern Ehlers 5%
Bob Ehrlich, Jr. 0%
Bill Emerson 0%
Philip English 24%
John Ensign 9%
Lane Evans 100%
Terry Everett 0%
Thomas Ewing 0%
Jim Exon 83%
Duncan McLauchlin Faircloth 0%
Harris Fawell 5%
Victor Fazio 95%
Russ Feingold 89%
Cleo Fields 100%
Jack Fields, Jr. 0%
Bob Filner 100%
Floyd Flake 95%
Michael Patrick Flanagan 18%
Thomas Foglietta 95%
Mark Foley 0%
Michael Patrick Forbes 5%
Wendell Ford 94%
Tillie Fowler 0%
Jon David Fox 18%
Barney Frank 95%
Gary Franks 18%
Robert Franks 5%
Dan Frisa 0%
William Frist 17%
Jonas Frost III 95%
David Funderburk 0%
Elizabeth Furse 91%
Elton Gallegly 0%
John Ganske 0%
Sam Gejdenson 100%
George Gekas 0%
Richard Andrew Gephardt 95%
Pete Geren 27%
Sam Gibbons 90%
Wayne Gilchrest 0%
Paul Gillmor 5%
Benjamin Gilman 18%
Newt Gingrich 0%
John Glenn 100%
Henry Gonzalez 95%
William Goodling 0%
Bart Gordon 77%
Slade Gorton 22%
Porter Goss 0%
Daniel Graham 94%
William Phillip Gramm 6%
Rodney Grams 0%
Enid Greene 0%
James Greenwood 0%
Judd Gregg 6%
Steven Gunderson 10%
Gilbert Gutknecht 0%
Tony Hall 86%
Lee Hamilton 73%
Melton Hancock 0%
James Hansen 0%
Jane Harman 85%
J. Dennis Hastert 0%
Mark Hatfield 18%
J.D. Hayworth, Jr. 0%
Joel Hefley 0%
W.G. Hefner 86%
Fredrick Kenneth Fred' Heineman 9%
Jesse Helms 6%
Wally Herger, Jr. 0%
Van Hilleary 0%
Earl Hilliard, Jr. 100%
Maurice Hinchey 100%
David Lee Hobson 5%
Pete Hoekstra 0%
Thomas Holden 73%
Ernest Hollings 94%
Stephen Horn 23%
John Nathan Hostettler 5%
Amory Houghton, Jr. 19%
Duncan Hunter 0%
Y. Tim Hutchinson 0%
Kay Hutchison 11%
Henry Hyde 5%
Bob Inglis, Sr. 0%
Daniel Inouye 94%
Ernest Istook, Jr. 0%
Jesse Jackson, Jr. 100%
Andrew Jacobs, Jr. 73%
William Jefferson 100%
James Merrill Jeffords 39%
Nancy Johnson 14%
Harry Johnston 91%
J. Bennett Johnston 73%
Paul Kanjorski 82%
Nancy Landon Kassebaum 8%
Sue Kelly 9%
Dirk Kempthorne 6%
Edward Kennedy, Sr. 100%
Joseph Kennedy II 100%
Patrick Kennedy 95%
Barbara Bailey Kennelly 95%
Bob Kerrey 83%
Dale Kildee 95%
Jay Kim 0%
Gerald Kleczka 86%
Ronald Klink 86%
Scott Klug 14%
Joseph Knollenberg 0%
Herb Kohl 94%
James Kolbe 5%
Jon Kyl 0%
John LaFalce 95%
Ray LaHood 9%
Tom Lantos 95%
Stephen Largent 5%
Steve LaTourette 5%
Greg Laughlin 9%
Frank Lautenberg 100%
Rick Lazio 0%
James Leach 24%
Jerry Lewis 0%
Ron Lewis 0%
Joe Lieberman 89%
Jim Lightfoot 9%
Blanche Lincoln 80%
John Linder 0%
William Lipinski 64%
Robert Livingston 0%
James Longley, Jr. 0%
Trent Lott, Sr. 11%
Dick Lugar 17%
William Luther 95%
Connie Mack 11%
Thomas Manton 90%
Don Manzullo 0%
Matthew Martinez 100%
Bill Martini 18%
Frank Mascara 82%
Robert Matsui 95%
Karen McCarthy 95%
Bill McCollum 0%
James McCrery III 0%
Joseph McDade 0%
Paul McHale 82%
John McHugh 23%
Scott McInnis 0%
David McIntosh 5%
Cynthia Ann McKinney 100%
Michael McNulty 86%
Martin Meehan 90%
Carrie Meek 100%
Jack Metcalf 0%
Jan Meyers 9%
Juanita Millender-McDonald 100%
Dan Miller 0%
David Minge 82%
Patsy Takemoto Mink 100%
John Moakley 100%
Susan Molinari 10%
Alan Mollohan 90%
G.V. Montgomery 0%
Carlos Moorhead 0%
Constance Morella 45%
Carol Moseley Braun 100%
Patrick Moynihan 100%
Frank Murkowski 6%
Jack Murtha 86%
Sue Myrick 0%
George Nethercutt, Jr. 0%
Mark Neumann 0%
Robert William Ney 14%
Don Nickles 6%
Charles Norwood, Jr. 0%
Sam Nunn 58%
James Nussle 0%
Jim Oberstar 100%
Dave Obey 90%
John Olver 95%
Solomon Ortiz, Sr. 90%
Bill Orton 73%
Major Owens 100%
Michael Oxley 0%
Ronald Packard 0%
Mike Parker 0%
William Paxon 0%
Donald Payne 100%
Lewis Payne, Jr. 73%
Clay Pell 92%
Pete Peterson 82%
Owen Pickett 68%
Richard Pombo 0%
Earl Pomeroy 91%
John Edward Porter 0%
Glenn Poshard 82%
Larry Pressler 0%
Deborah Pryce 5%
David Pryor 92%
Jack Quinn 35%
George Radanovich 0%
James Ramstad 14%
Ralph Regula 5%
Bill Richardson 91%
Frank Riggs 5%
Lynn Nancy Rivers 100%
Charles Robb 94%
Timothy Roemer 82%
Charles Rose III 82%
Toby Roth 0%
William Roth, Jr. 11%
Marge Roukema 15%
Martin Olav Sabo 100%
Rick Santorum 6%
Paul Sarbanes 100%
Jim Saxton 9%
Joe Scarborough 9%
Daniel Schaefer 0%
Steven Schiff 23%
Pat Schroeder 91%
Andrea Seastrand 9%
John Shadegg 0%
E. Clay Shaw, Jr. 0%
Christopher Shays 5%
E.G. Shuster 0%
Paul Simon 100%
Alan Simpson 8%
Norman Sisisky 75%
David Skaggs 91%
Joseph Skeen 5%
Ike Skelton 68%
Linda Smith 0%
Nick Smith 0%
Bob Smith 0%
Olympia Snowe 44%
Gerald B.H. Solomon 0%
Mark Souder 9%
Arlen Specter 39%
Floyd Spence 0%
John Spratt, Jr. 82%
Pete Stark 100%
Cliff Stearns 0%
Charles Stenholm 64%
Ted Stevens 12%
Louis Stokes 94%
Gerry Studds 100%
Bob Stump 0%
Bart Stupak 86%
James Talent 0%
John Tanner 64%
Randy Tate 0%
William Tauzin 5%
Charles Taylor 0%
Gene Taylor 50%
Frank Tejeda 82%
Craig Thomas 11%
William Thomas 0%
Fred Thompson 6%
Ray Thornton 91%
Karen Thurman 90%
Strom Thurmond 17%
Todd Tiahrt 0%
Peter Torkildsen 36%
Esteban Edward Torres 91%
Robert Torricelli 91%
Ed Towns 100%
James Traficant, Jr. 73%
Bruce Vento 95%
Harold Volkmer 100%
Barbara Vucanovich 0%
James Walsh 5%
Zach Wamp 5%
Michael Ward 90%
John Warner 17%
Mel Watt 100%
Julius Caesar Watts, Jr. 0%
David Weldon 0%
W. Curtis Weldon 5%
Gerald Weller 18%
Paul Wellstone 100%
Rick White 9%
Pat Williams 90%
Charles Wilson 80%
Bob Wise, Jr. 91%
Lynn Woolsey 100%
Albert Wynn 100%
Sidney Yates 100%
Bill Young 5%
Bill Zeliff 0%
Richard Zimmer 36%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.