Project Vote Smart does not permit the use of its name or programs in any campaign activity, including advertising, debates, and speeches.
Richard Grayson refused to tell citizens where he stands on any of the issues addressed in the 2012 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests from Vote Smart, national media, and prominent political leaders.

What is the Political Courage Test?

This candidate has demonstrated 0% courage during the test.

*Note: This percentage is calculated based on the number of issue areas addressed by the candidate on the Political Courage Test at the conclusion of the testing period. It does not indicate support or lack of support by Project Vote Smart.

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "g) Medicare, Medicaid, and federal subsidies should be prohibited from being used on abortion procedures."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected PRO-CHOICE for: "Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation?;" Abortion Issues: Other or expanded principles: "ABORTION ON DEMAND."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "f) Abortions should always be illegal."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "b) Abortions should always be legal."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Abortions should always be illegal."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "i) Prohibit public funding of abortions and public funding of organizations that advocate or perform abortions."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "g) Prohibit public funding of abortions and of organizations that advocate or perform abortions."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "h) Prohibit the dilation and extraction procedure, also known as "partial birth" abortion."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "c) Abortions should always be legally available."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Abortions should always be legally available."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Abortions should always be illegal."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "b) Abortions should be illegal when the fetus is viable, with or without life support."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "e) Should federal subsidies be prohibited from being used for abortion procedures?" Abortion Issues Other or expanded principles: "I favor abortion on demand."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "f) Dilation and extraction or "partial-birth" abortion procedures should be legal." Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding abortion. Other or expanded principles: "d) only? otherwise subsumed by (b) e) only? otherwise subsumed by (b) Expand funding of abortions through medicaid, medicare"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Pro-choice" for: "a) Do you consider yourself pro-choice or pro-life?" Abortion Issues Other or expanded principles: "I favor abortion on demand."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "b) Abortions should always be legal." Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding abortion. Other or expanded principles: "d) only? otherwise subsumed by (b) e) only? otherwise subsumed by (b) Expand funding of abortions through medicaid, medicare"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Abortions should always be illegal."

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "b) Do you support increasing military assistance for Afghanistan?" International Policy Issues Other or expanded principles: "We need to rely more on multilateral international initiatives and recognize that given our economic and fiscal limitations, we cannot act as the superpower police officer of the planet."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected NO for: "Do you support United State's combat operations in Afghanistan?"; Afghanistan: Other or expanded principles: "IMMEDIETE WITHDRAWL."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "e) Should the United States increase military support to Afghanistan?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "j) Should the United States increase military support for Afghanistan?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "a) Do you support United States military action in Afghanistan?" International Policy Issues Other or expanded principles: "We need to rely more on multilateral international initiatives and recognize that given our economic and fiscal limitations, we cannot act as the superpower police officer of the planet."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "j) Should the United States increase military support for Afghanistan?" Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding international policy. Other or expanded principles: "Immediate withdrawal of all US troops"

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Decrease" for: "Indicate what federal funding levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category, you can use a number more than once. c) Defense"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected YES for: "In order to balance the budget, do you support reducing defense spending?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Decrease" for: "Using the key, indicate what federal funding levels you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category. c) Defense"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Lowest Priority" for: "Indicate your priorities for spending any anticipated federal budget surplus. a) Defense"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Decrease" for: "Indicate what federal funding levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category- you can use a number more than once. c) Defense"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Decrease" for: "c) Defense"

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "1) Indicate the changes you support (if any) concerning the tax levels for the following categories. Select one number only. j) Corporate income taxes"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "Indicate what federal tax levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category, you can use a number more than once. e) $180,001-$350,000"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "Indicate what federal tax levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category- you can use a number more than once. h) Income taxes (high-income families)"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "Indicate what federal tax levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category, you can use a number more than once. d) $100,001-$180,000"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Slightly Increase" for: "g) Income taxes (middle-income families)"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "h) Income taxes (high-income families)"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Slightly Increase" for: "Indicate what federal tax levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category, you can use a number more than once. c) $40,001-$100,000"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Slightly Increase" for: "Indicate what federal tax levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category- you can use a number more than once. g) Income taxes (middle-income families)"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "Indicate what federal tax levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category, you can use a number more than once. f) $350,001 and above"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Slightly Increase" for: "Indicate what levels you support concerning taxes, deductions, and tax credits in the following categories. Income Taxes - Retiree Income f) Over $40, 000" Income Taxes - Retiree Income Other or expanded principles: "Over $100,000."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "Indicate what levels you support concerning taxes, deductions, and tax credits in the following categories. d) Over $150,000" Income Taxes - Family Income Other or expanded principles: "Over $200,000."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Slightly Increase" for: "Indicate what levels you support concerning taxes, deductions, and tax credits in the following categories. c) $75,000 - $150,000" Income Taxes - Family Income Other or expanded principles: "Over $200,000."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "Using the key above, indicate what federal tax levels you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category. d) Over $150,000"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Slightly Increase" for: "1) Indicate the changes you support (if any) concerning the tax levels for the following categories. Select one number only. d) Family income $75-150,000"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "1) Indicate the changes you support (if any) concerning the tax levels for the following categories. Select one number only. e) Family income over $150,000"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Slightly Increase" for: "Using the key above, indicate what federal tax levels you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category. Retiree Income f) Over $40,000"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Slightly Increase" for: "Using the key above, indicate what federal tax levels you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category. c) $75,000-$150,000"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected YES for "In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket?" Budget issues: Other or expanded principles: "HIGHER TAXES FOR ALL, BUT ESPECIALLY THE WEALTHY."

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected YES for: "Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth?;" Economic issues: other or expanded principles: "KEYNES! KEYNES! KEYNES!"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "5) Do you support using government funds in an effort to stimulate and improve the economy?"

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected YES for: "Do you support providing tax incentives to businesses for the purpose of job creation?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Provide tax credits for companies that move job-creating industries into areas with high unemployment."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Provide tax credits for companies that move job-creating industries into areas with high unemployment."

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "1) Indicate what changes you support (if any) concerning levels of federal funding for the following categories. Select one number only. c) Education (K-12)"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Support national standards for and testing of public school students."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "Using the key, indicate what federal funding levels you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category. d) Education"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "2) Do you support the use of block grants given to states, rather than federal spending, in the following areas? b) Education"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "j) Providing education is not a responsibility of the federal government."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "l) Eliminate restrictions on federal education funding, giving educators or local school districts more flexibility to design and implement their programs."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "e) Eliminate the Department of Education, thereby giving state and local government greater control over educational issues."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Support national standards and testing of public school students."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "State" for: "Indicate which level of government should have primary responsibility for the following services. Select one level only. 3) Education"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "b) Do you support federal funding for universal pre-K programs?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "Indicate what federal funding levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category- you can use a number more than once. d) Education"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "d) Education"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "k) Eliminate all federal education standards and testing requirements for K-12 students (No Child Left Behind)."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Support the federal government funding universal pre-K programs."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "j) Support federal education standards and testing requirements for K-12 students (No Child Left Behind)."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "a) Do you support federal education standards and testing requirements for K-12 students?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "Indicate what federal funding levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category, you can use a number more than once. d) Education"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "c) Do you support federal funding for charter schools?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "d) Do you support federal funding for K-12 school vouchers?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected NO for: "Do you support requiring states to implement education reforms in order to be eligible for competitive federal grants?" Education issues: other or expanded principles: "BOTH GOP + DEMOCRATIC EDUCATION POLICIES ARE FLAWED. END EMPHASIS ON TESTING. PAY TEACHERS MORE. GET BETTER TEACHERS."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "g) Promote education flexibility by giving federal funds, in the form of block grants, to the states to spend it as they see fit." Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning education (K-12). Other or expanded principles: "Promote diversity, tolerance, and sex education."

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "f) Support increased development of traditional energy resources (e.g. coal, natural gas, oil)."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "f) Support domestic oil exploration in areas that are currently restricted."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "c) Support increased development of traditional energy resources (e.g. coal, natural gas, oil)."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected NO for: "Do you support reducing restrictions on offshore energy production?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "e) Do you support domestic oil exploration in federally-protected areas?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "h) Support opening a select portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge for oil exploration."

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "b) Do you support international emissions targets aimed at reducing the effects of climate change?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "d) Do you support strengthening fuel efficiency standards on all gasoline and diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "j) Allow energy producers to trade pollution credits under "cap and trade" laws."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "d) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline and diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "a) Do you support enacting environmental regulations aimed at reducing the effects of climate change?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "c) Do you support allowing energy producers to trade carbon credits under a "cap and trade" system?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "g) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "g) Strengthen emission controls and fuel efficiency standards on all gasoline and diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "l) Support the U.S. re-entering the Kyoto treaty process to limit global warming."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "b) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Air Act."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "l) Promote the selling of pollution credits to encourage industries to decrease amount of pollution."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "k) Allow energy producers to trade pollution credits."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "j) Reduce current federal regulations on the environment."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "c) Reduce government regulation of the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "i) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel powered engines, including cars and trucks."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "h) Promote the selling of pollution credits between nations to encourage industries to decrease pollution levels."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "d) Eliminate government regulations of the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected YES for: "Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions?" Environmental issues: other or expanded principles: "BIG TAXES ON GASOLINE NEEDED “ LIKE EUROPE."

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Allow individuals to carry concealed guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "c) Do you support allowing individuals to carry concealed guns?" Gun Issues Other or expanded principles: "Regarding (b), I believe the Supreme Court was wrong in its recent decisions, but of course the Court's rule is now law; thus, my own constitutional views are no longer relevant in terms of law until Heller and other decisions are overturned (if ever). So currently the Second Amendment does, as a matter of law, guarantee the right of individual citizens to own guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Maintain Status" for: "On (c) and (d), indicate what levels (#1-6) you support for the following categories. c) Enforcement of existing restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "b) Ban the sale, ownership or possession of handguns except by law enforcement and other government officials."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "d) Do you support a ban on assault rifles?" Gun Issues Other or expanded principles: "Regarding (b), I believe the Supreme Court was wrong in its recent decisions, but of course the Court's rule is now law; thus, my own constitutional views are no longer relevant in terms of law until Heller and other decisions are overturned (if ever). So currently the Second Amendment does, as a matter of law, guarantee the right of individual citizens to own guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "b) Do you believe that the Second Amendment guarantees the right of individual citizens to own guns?" Gun Issues Other or expanded principles: "Regarding (b), I believe the Supreme Court was wrong in its recent decisions, but of course the Court's rule is now law; thus, my own constitutional views are no longer relevant in terms of law until Heller and other decisions are overturned (if ever). So currently the Second Amendment does, as a matter of law, guarantee the right of individual citizens to own guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "a) Do you support restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns?" Gun Issues Other or expanded principles: "Regarding (b), I believe the Supreme Court was wrong in its recent decisions, but of course the Court's rule is now law; thus, my own constitutional views are no longer relevant in terms of law until Heller and other decisions are overturned (if ever). So currently the Second Amendment does, as a matter of law, guarantee the right of individual citizens to own guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "e) Allow citizens to carry concealed guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Expand the nationwide ban on the sale or transfer of assault weapons to include all forms of semi-automatic weapons."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "b) Maintain and strengthen the current level of enforcement of existing federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "b) Increase restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Ban the sale or transfer of semi-automatic guns, except those used for hunting."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "f) Require manufacturers to provide child-safety locks on guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "d) Repeal federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "c) Ease federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "i) Raise the minimum age for ownership of handguns from 18 to 21."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "c) Maintain all federal registration procedures and restrictions on possessing firearms."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "c) Ease federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "b) Maintain and strengthen the enforcement of existing federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "e) Allow citizens to carry concealed guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "k) Require a license for gun possession."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "d) Implement tighter restrictions on firearm sales in an effort to hinder terrorist groups from stockpiling weapon arsenals."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "g) Require background checks on gun sales between private citizens at gun shows."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "f) Allow law-abiding citizens to carry concealed firearms that are legally owned and registered."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "d) Repeal federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "h) Require a license for gun possession."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "e) Repeal all bans and measures that restrict law-abiding citizens from owning legally-obtained firearms."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "d) Ease procedures on the purchase and registration of firearms."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Renew the ban on the sale or transfer of semi-automatic guns, except those used for hunting."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "j) Require background checks of gun buyers at gun shows."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected YES for: "Do you support restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns?"

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Implement a universal healthcare program to guarantee coverage to all Americans, regardless of income."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "b) Do you support expanding access to health care through commercial health insurance reform?" Health Issues Other or expanded principles: "I favor Medicare for all with a single-payer system of health care."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "a) Do you support a publicly-administered health insurance option?" Health Issues Other or expanded principles: "I favor Medicare for all with a single-payer system of health care."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "g) Providing healthcare is not a responsibility of the federal government."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Providing health care is not a responsibility of the federal government."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Providing health care is not a responsibility of the federal government."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "b) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "i) The federal government has no responsibility in providing health care."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "b) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected NO for: "Do you support repealing the Affordable Care Act? (HR 3590)?" Health Care issues: other or expanded principles: "PREFER SINGLE-PAYER MEDICARE FOR ALL."

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "d) Do you support the enforcement of federal immigration laws by state and local police?" Immigration Issues Other or expanded principles: "I oppose Arizona's xenophobic, racist and unconstitutional SB 1070 and any attempts to limit citizenship under the Fourteenth Amendment. I support the Dream Act and expanding legal immigration to include more skilled, educated workers."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "f) Illegal immigrants should have to return to their countries of origin before being considered for citizenship."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "g) Illegal immigrants should be given a pathway to citizenship."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "a) Do you support a pathway to citizenship for illegal immigrants?" Immigration Issues Other or expanded principles: "I oppose Arizona's xenophobic, racist and unconstitutional SB 1070 and any attempts to limit citizenship under the Fourteenth Amendment. I support the Dream Act and expanding legal immigration to include more skilled, educated workers."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "e) Support amnesty for illegal immigrants already working in the United States."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "g) Children of illegal immigrants, born in the United States, should not automatically receive US citizenship."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "e) Support amnesty for certain illegal immigrants who already reside in the United States."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "c) Ease citizenship requirements in order to make it easier for immigrants to become United States citizens."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "e) Prohibit states from passing laws that deny human services (medical care, education) to illegal immigrants or their children."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "f) Grant U.S. citizenship to children born in the US only if their parents immigrated legally."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected NO for: "Do you support requiring illegal immigrants to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship?"; Immigration issues: other or expanded principles: "AMNESTY FOR ALL WITHOUT CRIMINAL RECORDS “ PATH TO CITIZENSHIP."

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "a) Should marriage only be between one man and one woman?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "b) Do you support a federal constitutional amendment defining marriage as between a man and a woman?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "a) Should same-sex couples be allowed to marry?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "k) Should marriage be restricted to a union only between a man and a woman?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "j) Should same-sex couples be allowed to form civil unions?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected YES for: "Do you support same-sex marriage?"

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Yes" for: "d) Should the United States continue to strike suspected terrorist targets in Pakistan?" International Policy Issues Other or expanded principles: "We need to rely more on multilateral international initiatives and recognize that given our economic and fiscal limitations, we cannot act as the superpower police officer of the planet."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "e) Do you support pre-emptive military strikes against countries deemed to be a threat to United States national security?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "f) Do you support a policy of pre-emptive strikes against countries deemed to be a threat to national security?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected NO for: "Do you support targeting suspected terrorists outside of official theaters of conflict?"

Vote Smart's Research

  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2010 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "No" for: "a) Do you support privatizing elements of Social Security?"
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2008 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "" for: "a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts that they manage themselves."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts which they manage themselves."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts which they manage themselves."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2004 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "b) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts managed by private firms contracted by the government."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2000 Florida Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "b) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts managed by private firms contracted by the government."
  • Richard Grayson. Project Vote Smart: 2012 Arizona Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected NO for: "Do you support allowing individuals to divert a portion of their Social Security taxes into personal retirement accounts?"

Key

Candidate Answer Official Position

Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer Inferred Position

Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer Unknown Position

Candidate refused to address this issue.

 Project Vote Smart's Research

Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Arizona Congressional Election 2010 Political Courage Test

This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.

Pro-choiceCandidate Answera) Do you consider yourself pro-choice or pro-life?
Nob) Should abortion be legal only within the first trimester of pregnancy?
Yesc) Should abortion be legal when the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape?
Yesd) Should abortion be legal when the life of the woman is endangered?
Noe) Should federal subsidies be prohibited from being used for abortion procedures?
f) Other or expanded principles

I favor abortion on demand.

1) Spending

Indicate what federal funding levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category- you can use a number more than once.

Maintain Statusa) Agriculture
Greatly Increaseb) Arts
Greatly Decreasec) Defense
Maintain Status1) Intelligence operations
Greatly Decrease2) Military hardware
Eliminate3) National missile defense
Greatly Increase4) Salary and benefits for active duty personnel
Greatly Increase5) Programs to improve troop retention rates
Greatly Decrease6) Research and development of new weapons
Greatly Increased) Education
Greatly Increasee) Environment
Maintain Statusf) Homeland security
Greatly Increaseg) International aid
Greatly Increaseh) Medical research
Greatly Increasei) Scientific research
Slightly Increasej) Space exploration
Slightly Increasek) United Nations
Greatly Increasel) Welfare
m) Other or expanded categories

2) Taxes

Indicate what federal tax levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category- you can use a number more than once.

Greatly Increasea) Alcohol taxes
Greatly Increaseb) Capital gains taxes
Greatly Increasec) Cigarette taxes
Slightly Increased) Corporate taxes
Greatly Increasee) Gasoline taxes
Maintain Statusf) Income taxes (low-income families)
Slightly Increaseg) Income taxes (middle-income families)
Greatly Increaseh) Income taxes (high-income families)
i) Other or expanded categories
NoCandidate Answer3) Do you support the elimination of the federal estate tax?
No4) Do you support requiring the federal budget to be balanced each year?
YesCandidate Answer5) Do you support using government funds in an effort to stimulate and improve the economy?
6) Other or expanded principles
NoCandidate Answera) Do you support privatizing elements of Social Security?
Nob) Do you support reducing government regulations on the private sector?
Yesc) Do you support increasing the federal minimum wage?
Yesd) Do you support the ability of workers to unionize?
Yese) Do you support federal funding for job-training programs that retrain displaced workers?
f) Other or expanded principles
Yesa) Do you support increasing the amount individuals are permitted to contribute to federal campaigns?
Yesb) Should Congress regulate indirect campaign contributions from corporations and unions?
Noc) Do you support removing all contribution limits on federal campaigns?
Yesd) Should candidates for federal office be encouraged to meet voluntary spending limits?
Noe) Do you support giving the President the power of the line item veto for items concerning appropriations?
Nof) Do you support limiting the President's ability to define how legislation is applied through the use of signing statements?
g) Other or expanded principles
NoCandidate Answera) Do you support capital punishment for certain crimes?
Yesb) Do you support programs that provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related training and job-placement assistance when released?
Yesc) Do you support programs that provide prison inmates with substance abuse treatment?
Yesd) Do you support reduced prison sentences for non-violent offenders?
Noe) Do you support mandatory prison sentences for selling illegal drugs?
f) Other or expanded principles

We need to reduce our prison population drastically. The US has too many people in prison compared to the rest of the nations of the world, and unless you believe that Americans are more inclined to crime than others, you have to understand that we have been misusing prisons for social control, not for punishment, rehabilitation, or deterrence.

YesCandidate Answera) Do you support federal education standards and testing requirements for K-12 students?
Yesb) Do you support federal funding for universal pre-K programs?
Noc) Do you support federal funding for charter schools?
Nod) Do you support federal funding for K-12 school vouchers?
Yese) Do you support the federal government providing college students with financial aid?
f) Other or expanded principles
YesCandidate Answera) Do you support enacting environmental regulations aimed at reducing the effects of climate change?
Yesb) Do you support international emissions targets aimed at reducing the effects of climate change?
Yesc) Do you support allowing energy producers to trade carbon credits under a "cap and trade" system?
Yesd) Do you support strengthening fuel efficiency standards on all gasoline and diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles?
Noe) Do you support domestic oil exploration in federally-protected areas?
Yesf) Do you support federal funding for the development of alternative energy?
Yesg) Do you support the development of nuclear reactors?
h) Other or expanded principles
YesCandidate Answera) Do you support restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns?
Nob) Do you believe that the Second Amendment guarantees the right of individual citizens to own guns?
Noc) Do you support allowing individuals to carry concealed guns?
Yesd) Do you support a ban on assault rifles?
e) Other or expanded principles

Regarding (b), I believe the Supreme Court was wrong in its recent decisions, but of course the Court's rule is now law; thus, my own constitutional views are no longer relevant in terms of law until Heller and other decisions are overturned (if ever). So currently the Second Amendment does, as a matter of law, guarantee the right of individual citizens to own guns.

YesCandidate Answera) Do you support a publicly-administered health insurance option?
Yesb) Do you support expanding access to health care through commercial health insurance reform?
Noc) Should the federal government expand eligibility for tax-free medical savings accounts?
Nod) Do you support monetary limits on damages that can be collected in malpractice lawsuits?
Yese) Do you support relaxing regulations on the importation of prescription drugs?
f) Other or expanded principles

I favor Medicare for all with a single-payer system of health care.

YesCandidate Answera) Do you support a pathway to citizenship for illegal immigrants?
Nob) Do you support decreasing the number of legal immigrants allowed into the country?
Noc) Do you support establishing English as the official national language?
Nod) Do you support the enforcement of federal immigration laws by state and local police?
e) Other or expanded principles

I oppose Arizona's xenophobic, racist and unconstitutional SB 1070 and any attempts to limit citizenship under the Fourteenth Amendment. I support the Dream Act and expanding legal immigration to include more skilled, educated workers.

NoCandidate Answera) Do you support United States military action in Afghanistan?
Nob) Do you support increasing military assistance for Afghanistan?
Yesc) Do you support increasing economic development assistance for Afghanistan?
Yesd) Should the United States continue to strike suspected terrorist targets in Pakistan?
Yese) Do you support granting aid to countries when it is in the security interests of the United States?
Yesf) Should the United States support the creation of a Palestinian state?
Nog) Do you support increasing sanctions on Iran if it continues to defy United Nations mandates?
Yesh) Do you support the withdrawal of United States troops from Iraq?
Yesi) Do you support the United States' involvement in free trade agreements?
j) Other or expanded principles

We need to rely more on multilateral international initiatives and recognize that given our economic and fiscal limitations, we cannot act as the superpower police officer of the planet.

NoCandidate Answera) Should marriage only be between one man and one woman?
Yesb) Do you support allowing openly-gay men and women to serve in the United States military?
Yesc) Do you support federal funding for embryonic stem cell research?
Nod) Should the federal government end affirmative action programs?
e) Other or expanded principles
Please explain in a total of 100 words or less, your top two or three priorities if elected. If they require additional funding for implementation, please explain how you would obtain this funding.

1. Creating jobs with New Deal-type initiatives.
2. Stimulating the economy to increase demand until the recovery is felt everywhere.
3. Long-term measures to lower the national debt and deficit, but not until the current economic crisis is past.