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Peter Welch's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Office: U.S. House (VT) - At-Large, Democratic
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Peter Welch has refused to provide voters with positions on key issues covered by the 2014 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests. Peter Welch is still welcome to submit the test at any time.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These issue positions, from the year 2014, are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Pro-choice Inferred Answer Abortion: Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • National Organization for Women. 04/18/2012. "On the votes used to calculate its ratings, the National Organization for Women attaches more value to those votes it considers more important. For 2008, the National Organization for Women gave Peter Welch a rating of 100 percent." (
  • Peter Welch. H Amdt 95. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Use of Federal Funds For Planned Parenthood. Peter Welch voted Nay on 02/18/2011. (
  • Planned Parenthood. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. Planned Parenthood endorsed Peter Welch in the 2010 general election. (
  • Planned Parenthood. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of Planned Parenthood 100 percent in 2010." (
  • Peter Welch. HR 3. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Taxpayer Funding of Abortion. Peter Welch voted Nay on 05/04/2011. (
  • NARAL Pro-Choice America. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the NARAL Pro-Choice America 100 percent in 2010." (
  • Family Research Council. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the Family Research Council 12 percent in 2010." (
  • Peter Welch. H Amdt 509. 111th Congress. Prohibiting Federally Funded Abortion Services. Peter Welch voted Nay on 11/07/2009. (
  • National Right to Life Committee. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the National Right to Life Committee 0 percent in 2010." (
  • Peter Welch. Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011. 17 February 2011. "Madam Speaker, I am pro-choice. But that is a question of deep conscience, religious conviction, and of personal importance to every individual and every family [¦] This is not about abortion. The Hyde amendment is the law of the land. Federal funds cannot be used under this provision to provide abortions. What this is about is whether primary and preventive care is going to be extended, oftentimes to poor people, but also to vulnerable middle class people by Planned Parenthood clinics throughout this country, including 10 in Vermont that are doing a tremendous job for people who really need this care." (
  • Peter Welch. Issue Position: Choice. 29 November 2011. "I support a woman's right to choose. This is a decision that should be between a woman and her doctor. Voters are tired of the divisive attacks on a woman's right to choice. They are also rightfully concerned about the erosion of choice under the current Republican leadership. I believe we must take politics out of the issue of choice, focus on reducing and preventing the need for abortions, require pharmacists to honor prescriptions for birth control issued by a woman's doctor, and help improve birth control coverage by insurance companies. I believe abortion should be safe, legal, and rare. I oppose late term abortion and, consistent with Roe v. Wade, procedures after the third trimester can be regulated by states as long as there is an exception for health of the woman." (
  • Peter Welch. Letter to Democratic Members of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees. 13 September 2011. "By failing to permit the District of Columbia to spend local government funds on abortion, we are sending the message that low-income women should not have access to the same medical services that middle- and upper-income women can access. Ultimately, this prohibition may threaten the health of medically vulnerable women and deny patients the right to access constitutionally protected medical services. We must strive to expand health care services for Americans throughout the nation -- not place barriers in the road of a woman seeking medical care simply because of the state, city, or district that she lives in. The District does not have a vote in the House or Senate. But other Democrats do. We urge you to stand strong and to protect the democratic self-government of the District of Columbia." (
Yes Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Peter Welch. Issue Position: Fighting for Working Vermonters. 29 November 2011. "Congressman Welch has placed the needs of the middle class at the top of his economic agenda and believes we must enact policies that help hard working Vermonters get ahead. He has supported ending tax breaks for the wealthiest Americans and instead providing tax relief for working families." (
  • Peter Welch. Issue Position: Fiscal Responsibility. 29 November 2011. "Peter believes that the economic policies of the Bush Administration and the Republican-led Congress are both radical and irresponsible. In just ten months, they turned an inherited record surplus into a record deficit. They gave tax cuts we can't afford to those who don't need them. The Republican Congress passed legislation cutting student aid, Medicaid, and funding for food stamps only to pave the way for more cut taxes for the wealthiest 1 percent of Americans. Peter believes their assault on the middle class must be stopped. Peter holds fiscal discipline at the core his values and, like most Vermonters, understands that we must always keep our fiscal house in order. Peter works with all parties each year for balanced budgets in the legislature to assure adequate funding for our most important government programs. Most recently, he helped Vermont solve an $80 million Medicaid deficit created by the federal government without raising taxes or reducing access to health care. Peter also has a long career advocating fair and progressive tax policies. He believes the strength of our democracy depends on fiscal policies that are fair and create opportunity for all Americans. In Congress, Peter will fight for: fair tax policies, including the expiration of the Bush tax cuts for the wealthy; a balanced budget that gives the government the ability to provide for the needs of its citizens; and the use of tax policy to foster economic development, technological innovation, and excellent educational opportunity." (
  • Americans for Tax Reform. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the Americans for Tax Reform 0 percent in 2007." (
  • National Taxpayers Union. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported reasonable tax and spending policies as defined by the National Taxpayers Union 7 percent of the time in 2010." (
  • Peter Welch. Letter to the Honorable Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the House of Representatives. 9 December 2010. "We oppose acceding to Republican demands to extend the Bush tax cuts to millionaires and billionaires for two reasons. First, it is fiscally irresponsible. Adding more than $900 billion to our national debt, as this proposal would do, handcuffs our ability to offer a balanced plan to achieve fiscal stability without a punishing effect on our current commitments, including Social Security and Medicare. Second, it is grossly unfair. This proposal will hurt, not help, the majority of Americans in the middle class and those working hard to get there. Even as Republicans seek to add billions more to our national debt in tax cuts to the wealthy, they oppose extending unemployment benefits to workers and resist COLA increases to seniors. Without a doubt, the very same people who support this addition to our debt will oppose raising the debt ceiling to pay for it. We support extending tax cuts in full to 98 percent of American taxpayers, as the President initially proposed. He should not back down. Nor should we." (
  • Peter Welch. Make It in America. 20 July 2011. "Now, understand that, at the end of the Clinton administration in January 2001, the United States Government was running a surplus, a $300 billion-plus surplus [¦] Now, what happened? [¦] Another thing happened along the way, and that is: in 2001, the first George W. Bush tax cut followed in 2003 by the second George W. Bush tax cut. Here is what they meant. Take a careful look at this. This is where the deficit started. We started here with the Bush-era tax cuts and then over the years so that in 2019--20 years--we have this extraordinary growth in the deficit caused by those tax cuts. Of course it assumes the tax cuts will continue on into 2019." (
  • Peter Welch. The Budget and Affordable Care Act. 13 April 2011. "The President Bush tax cut in 2001 and the President Bush tax cut in 2003 added $2.3 billion to the deficit. So you have a Pentagon that is not subject to pay-as-you-go and you have tax cuts that don't pay for themselves. Those are two major contributing factors to that $11.5 trillion deficit on the heels of a $5.6 trillion surplus. The debate we are having now in this House is enormously consequential to the future. Republicans won this last election, and a major argument they made is that we've got to get spending under control. They're right. I agree with that. We have to get to fiscal balance. The challenge is if we're going to get there, do we need a plan that repeats those two policies of the Bush administration, namely, keeping the Pentagon off the table and increasing tax cuts, particularly to the high end, but keeping off the table Pentagon savings, keeping off the table eliminating tax loopholes and keeping off the table the question of revenues? [¦] We can get from where we are to where we need to be. We saw that in recent years when it happened under President Clinton. Again, as you pointed out, in those years, Tax Codes matter; but in the Clinton years when we had higher tax rates, we created 20 million jobs. In the Bush years when we had lower tax rates, we created 600,000 jobs. And also incomes were increasing." (
Yes Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Americans for Prosperity. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the Americans for Prosperity 88 percent in 2010." (
  • Peter Welch. HR 1424. 110th Congress. Financial Asset Purchase Authority and Tax Law Amendments. Peter Welch voted Yea on 10/03/2008. (
  • The Club for Growth. 04/18/2012. "On the votes used to calculate its ratings, The Club for Growth attaches more value to those votes it considers more important. For 2010, The Club for Growth gave Peter Welch a rating of 0 percent." (
  • Peter Welch. HR 5297. 112th Congress. Small Business Lending Fund and Tax Law Amendments. Peter Welch voted Yea on 09/23/2010. (
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Education: Do you support requiring states to implement education reforms in order to be eligible for competitive federal grants? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Peter Welch. Issue Position: Education. 29 November 2011. "Peter Welch has a long record of fighting for improving educational opportunities for Vermont's students. He believes that one of government's greatest responsibilities is to assure that all children, regardless of wealth or where they live, have access to high quality public education from kindergarten through college. From refusing to fully fund special education programs and the No Child Left Behind Act to cutting student aid for college, the Republican Congress has failed to provide the support needed to educate our children. Peter supports the goal behind No Child Left Behind (NCLB). We must help every child succeed. He agrees it is important to measure student learning and assure teachers are highly qualified. However, NCLB has turned into a burdensome unfunded mandate on individual states like Vermont and, using narrow standardized testing, fails to recognize the many different ways in which students learn. NCLB also threatens the values of a diverse education, as schools sacrifice social studies, science and the arts to assure their students know how to test well. A 'one size fits all' federal mandate does not work. Instead, the federal government should support schools with the resources necessary to succeed and allow education decisions to be made locally." (
No Inferred Answer Energy: Do you support building the Keystone XL pipeline? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

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Yes Inferred Answer Environment: Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Environment America. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of Environment America 93 percent in 2009." (
  • Sierra Club. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. Sierra Club endorsed Peter Welch in the 2010 general election. (
  • Peter Welch. HR 2454. 111th Congress. Energy and Environmental Law Amendments ("Cap and Trade"). Peter Welch voted Yea on 06/26/2009. (
  • Peter Welch. HR 910. 112th Congress. Energy Tax Prevention Act. Peter Welch voted Nay on 04/07/2011. (
  • League of Conservation Voters. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the League of Conservation Voters 100 percent in 2010." (
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Guns: Do you support restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • National Rifle Association. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. National Rifle Association endorsed Peter Welch in the 2010 general election. (
  • Peter Welch. HR 6842. 110th Congress. Repealing Portions of the D.C. Firearm Ban. Peter Welch voted Yea on 09/17/2008. (
  • Peter Welch. Issue Position: Gun Rights and Sporting Issues. 29 November 2011. "'As I have in the State House, I will protect Vermont's tradition of outdoor recreation and responsible gun ownership in Congress.' Peter's strong record of accomplishment in the legislature reflects his respect for the outdoor traditions of Vermont. He appreciates the issues of importance to sportsmen and women, from anglers and hunters to snowmobiliers and hikers, and will show the same commitment to these issues when representing Vermont outdoor enthusiasts in Washington. Peter was the lead sponsor of legislation creating Hunter Appreciation Day, the first of its kind in the nation, has a 100 percent National Rife Association (NRA) record and was the Vermont Association of Snowmobile Trails (VAST) legislator of the year. He will take to Washington a strong support for protecting and enhancing public access to our forests, our rivers, and our lakes for generations to enjoy." (
No Inferred Answer Health Care: Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Peter Welch. At Press Roundtable, Welch Announces Plan to Fight Health Care Reform Repeal. 4 January 2011. "It's time to get beyond the rhetoric of the election and recognize that repealing this law [the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act] would hammer middle class families and bust the budget. Repeal would once again allow insurance companies to discriminate against those with preexisting conditions, impose lifetime limits on coverage, take away free preventive care for seniors and remove those under the age of 26 from their parents' health plans. Every member of the House should have to vote on each of these important provisions." (
  • Peter Welch. Welch Supports, House Passes Historic Health Care Reform Legislation. 21 March 2010. "Tonight, we faced the choice of accepting the status quo or moving toward a system in which every American has access to quality, affordable health care and every American helps pay for it. We faced a choice between allowing health insurance companies to continue to cherry-pick their customers or making health care affordable for all families and all small businesses. Tonight's vote is a victory for hard-working Americans who will no longer have to worry about a sick child receiving care or being bankrupted by a serious illness. It is a victory for seniors who will no longer have to worry about filling the gap in their Medicare prescription drug coverage. And it is a victory for small businesses who struggle every day to pay employee premiums. While this legislation will not solve all our nation's health care problems, it sets us firmly and confidently down the path toward a system that works for all Americans." (
  • Peter Welch. Welch Votes Against Repealing Health Care Law. 19 January 2011. "Instead of putting political points on the board, we should be focused on achieving practical progress for middle class Americans. Throwing out the essential health care protections we passed last year will materially hurt Vermont families. We must work to improve this law, not scrap it wholesale." (
  • Peter Welch. HR 2. 112th Congress. Repealing the Health Care Bill. Peter Welch voted Nay on 01/19/2011. (
  • American Public Health Association. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the American Public Health Association 80 percent in 2010." (
  • Peter Welch. Issue Position: Health Care. 29 November 2011. "'Like most Vermonters, I believe affordable access to quality health care is a fundamental right of all Americans' [¦] Congressman Welch: Supported passage of historic legislation (H.R. 3962) to provide health care stability, security and affordability to all Americans. The Affordable Health Care for America Act will extend access to 36 million people, end abusive insurance company practices like denying coverage to those with preexisting conditions, help small businesses afford employee coverage, and put patient care above profits; Brought Vermont's innovative health care initiatives to the national debate by successfully amending health care reform legislation to include versions of Vermont's Blueprint for Health and Dartmouth research advocating for Accountable Care Organizations; Worked to improve health care reform legislation by supporting amendments that would create a strong public health insurance option; allow young people under the age of 26 to remain on their parents' health plans; require the federal government to negotiate Medicare drug costs with the pharmaceutical industry; and end the insurance industry's exemption from anti-trust laws." (
  • Peter Welch. Issue Position: Health Care. 29 November 2011. "Peter Welch believes every citizen in the United States should have access to affordable health care. The U.S. is the only industrialized country in the world without universal health care - and this must change. Not only do other countries assure their citizens have access to doctor when they are sick, but they have also successfully controlled costs. Rather than tackle the challenge of improving access to health services and controlling the skyrocketing costs, Republicans in Washington have both idly watched as nearly 7 million more Americans have joined the ranks of the uninsured in the last six years and the burden has been passed onto the states. For too long, Congress has been a part of the problem. For example, this Republican Congress made it illegal for the federal government to negotiate lower prices when purchasing prescription drugs for Medicare and has cut Medicaid reimbursements to the states. Their priorities are wrong. Peter will take to Washington his commitment and experience advocating for universal health care. In Vermont, Peter led in the passage of the most progressive health care reform legislation in the country. The legislation, signed by the Governor, expanded coverage to the uninsured, will help contain costs, and sets up benchmarks for future reforms. Peter also helped pass tough legislation requiring transparency and full disclosure of pricing by pharmaceutical companies, regulating pharmacy benefit managers, and establishing a prescription drug reimportation program for Vermonters to buy safe, cheaper drugs from Canada." (
  • Peter Welch. Issue Position: Providing Health Care For All. 29 November 2011. "'Like most Vermonters, I believe affordable access to quality health care is a fundamental right of all Americans. My work on this critical issue -- in Vermont and now in Congress -- has long been guided by three principles: everybody must be covered, everybody must contribute based upon his or her ability to pay, and coverage need not be related to employment. I will continue to push for comprehensive reform of our heath care system to achieve quality, affordable care for all Vermonters and all Americans. And I will continue to bring Vermont's values and successes in improving health care to the national stage.' In November 2009, the House passed historic health care reform legislation. As a member of the Energy and Commerce Committee, Rep. Welch incorporated several Vermont ideas into the legislation. Welch also successfully worked to require the federal government to negotiate prescription drug prices with pharmaceutical companies, allow young people through the age of 26 to remain on their parents' health plans, and repeal the health insurance industry's exemption from anti-trust regulations." (
No Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support requiring illegal immigrants to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Peter Welch. HR 5281. 112th Congress. DREAM Act. Peter Welch voted Yea on 12/08/2010. (
  • Federation for American Immigration Reform. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the Federation for American Immigration Reform 0 percent in 2010." (
  • National Latino Congreso/William C. Velásquez Institute. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of National Latino Congreso/William C. Velásquez Institute 88 percent in 2010." (
  • Peter Welch. Issue Position: Immigration. 29 November 2011. "'It's time for Congress to pass legislation that will deal with the real immigration challenges our nation faces and put aside the ideological and divisive agenda blocking real reform.' Peter believes we need an immigration policy that addresses the security and economic challenges illegal immigration presents. He believes we must secure our borders, enforce the law with a common sense program that provides for a path for earned citizenship, and assure we have a guest worker program to meet the needs of labor shortages, such as on Vermont's dairy farms." (
Yes Inferred Answer Marriage: Do you support same-sex marriage? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Peter Welch. Letter To The Honorable President Obama, Majority Leader Reid, Speaker Pelosi, Chairman Schumer, And Chairwoman Lofgren. 9 February 2010. "Currently, U.S. citizens and legal permanent residents may sponsor their spouses (and other immediate family members) for immigration purposes. But, same-sex partners committed to spending their lives together are not recognized as "families" under U.S. immigration law and thus do not have this same right. As a result, tens of thousands of binational families are either already living separately, face imminent separation, or have left the U.S. entirely in order to remain together. This is unacceptable, and we believe comprehensive immigration reform legislation must include a strong family reunification component inclusive of LGBT families." (
  • Peter Welch. Pelosi, Nadler, 130 House Members File Amicus Brief on Federal Case Against DOMA. 10 July 2012. "But a clearly stated purpose and effect of this law was to disapprove of and disadvantage lesbians and gay men; this distinguishes DOMA from a routine act of Congress. Where, as here, Congress classifies persons, denying an entire class of citizens the rights that are afforded others, the Supreme Court has applied rational basis review to invalidate those laws. None of the reasons provided by Congress in 1996 or created in response to litigation rationally serve a legitimate federal interest." (
  • Human Rights Campaign. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the Human Rights Campaign 100 percent in 2010." (
  • Peter Welch. HR 2965. 112th Congress. Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act. Peter Welch voted Yea on 12/15/2010. (
  • American Family Association. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the American Family Association 11 percent in 2010." (
  • Peter Welch. HR 3685. 110th Congress. Sexual Orientation Employment Nondiscrimination Act (ENDA). Peter Welch voted Yea on 11/07/2007. (
  • Peter Welch. Pelosi, Nadler, 143 House Members File New Amicus Brief on Federal Case Against DOMA. 7 September, 2012. "None of the reasons provided by Congress in 1996 or created in response to litigation rationally serve a legitimate federal interest: Denying recognition to couples already married under state law does not further an interest in "procreation and responsible child-rearing." DOMA does not prevent same-sex couples from marrying and an estimated 132,000 couples have now done so, with many of these couples raising children together. There is no logical connection between the denial of federal recognition to these same-sex couples, who already are married, and the marital or parenting behavior of different-sex couples. It is irrational to claim that Congress needs to or should harm these families in order to benefit others, particularly as those families receive federal recognition regardless of DOMA." (
  • Peter Welch. Welch statement on President's support of marriage equality. 9 May 2012. "Rep. Peter Welch today issued the below statement following President Obama's announcement in support of marriage equality. 'This is an historic moment and I applaud the President for his decision and courage. One of the greatest and most liberating human emotions is acceptance. And what the President did today was accept that the quality of love two people share is more important than their gender. The President's decision required him look within and engage his heart. It is truly wonderful and welcome news.'" (
Unknown Position Unknown Answer National Security: Do you support targeting suspected terrorists outside of official theaters of conflict? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Peter Welch. Letter to The Honorable Barack H. Obama, President of the United States. 21 June 2011. "International terrorist networks remain a grave threat to the United States, as Al Qaeda affiliates now have a significant presence in countries like Yemen, Somalia, and Pakistan. But maintaining anywhere near 100,000 U.S. troops in Afghanistan is not an effective means of combating a global and decentralized enemy." (
  • Peter Welch. Letter to the Honorable Barack Obama. 12 June 2012. "We are concerned that the use of such "signature strikes" could raise the risk of killing innocent civilians or individuals who may have no relationship to attacks on the United States. We are further concerned about the legal grounds for such strikes under the 2001 Authorization for the Use of Military Force." (
  • Peter Welch. Statement on Death of Osama bin Laden. 1 May 2011. "At long last, the mastermind of the September 11th attack on America has been brought to justice. Tonight's announcement by President Obama is welcome news to all Vermonters and all Americans, especially to the families and loved ones of those murdered by Osama bin Laden on September 11, 2001 [¦] While we anxiously await the details of the operation that sealed bin Laden's fate, it is clear that its success is a testament to the bravery, persistence and dedication of the men and women of America's armed services." (
No Inferred Answer Social Security: Do you support allowing individuals to divert a portion of their Social Security taxes into personal retirement accounts? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Alliance for Retired Americans. 04/18/2012. "Peter Welch supported the interests of the Alliance for Retired Americans 100 percent in 2008." (
  • Peter Welch. Issue Position: Social Security. 29 November 2011. "'Social Security has guaranteed a retirement benefit to every American for over seventy years. I will fight the ideological agenda of privatization to assure every American has a secure retirement.' Peter will fight in Congress to preserve Social Security and ensure it remains a critical safety net to retiring Americans. Peter includes Social Security among his three planks for economic security that should be available to every American. Peter argues that the privatization agenda by President Bush and the Republican leaders in Congress is active, is real, and is wrong." (
  • Peter Welch. Letter to The Honorable Barack H. Obama, President of the United States. 21 July 2011. "The current cut in Social Security contributions must be allowed to expire as scheduled. History instructs that any tax cut is politically difficult to terminate. As you know, although the Bush tax cuts were only supposed to last ten years, the debate of today is centered on whether to permanently extend most or permanently extend all of the Bush tax cuts. We are greatly concerned that a permanent extension of the 2011 payroll tax cut would double Social Security's long-range shortfall and make long-term solutions nearly impossible. Americans' contributions to Social Security should be used for Americans' Social Security benefits. To do otherwise flies in the face of the time-tested wisdom of this program, which was established with an independent revenue stream to protect the retirement earnings of America's workers from budgetary politics. We respectfully request that you reject any proposal that includes an extension or expansion of the payroll tax cut." (


Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Project Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Project Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

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