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Ted Poe's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Office: U.S. House (TX) - District 2, Republican
Project Vote Smart does not permit the use of its name or programs in any campaign activity, including advertising, debates, and speeches.
Ted Poe has refused to provide voters with positions on key issues covered by the 2014 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests. Ted Poe is still welcome to submit the test at any time.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These issue positions, from the year 2014, are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Pro-life Inferred Answer Abortion: Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Planned Parenthood. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of Planned Parenthood 0 percent in 2010." (
  • Ted Poe. H Amdt 95. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Use of Federal Funds For Planned Parenthood. Ted Poe voted Yea on 02/18/2011. (
  • Ted Poe. HR 748. 109th Congress. Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act. Ted Poe voted Yea on 04/27/2005. (
  • Family Research Council. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the Family Research Council 100 percent in 2010." (
  • Ted Poe. HR 3. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Taxpayer Funding of Abortion. Ted Poe voted Yea on 05/04/2011. (
  • Ted Poe. HR 6099. 110th Congress. Abortion Pain Bill. Ted Poe voted Yea on 12/06/2006. (
  • Ted Poe. S 403. 110th Congress. Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act. Ted Poe voted Yea on 09/26/2006. (
  • Ted Poe. Issue Position: Pro-Life. 19 September 2011. "I am pro-life. The only exception is to save the life of the mother. I oppose government funding for abortion or abortion clinics and also oppose partial-birth abortions." (
  • National Right to Life Committee. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the National Right to Life Committee 100 percent in 2010." (
  • NARAL Pro-Choice America. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the NARAL Pro-Choice America 0 percent in 2010." (
  • National Organization for Women. 04/18/2012. "On the votes used to calculate its ratings, the National Organization for Women attaches more value to those votes it considers more important. For 2008, the National Organization for Women gave Ted Poe a rating of 13 percent." (
  • Ted Poe. H AMDT 209. 109th Congress. Overseas Military Facilities Abortion Amendment. Ted Poe voted Nay on 05/25/2005. (
  • Ted Poe. H Amdt 509. 111th Congress. Prohibiting Federally Funded Abortion Services. Ted Poe voted Yea on 11/07/2009. (
No Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • National Taxpayers Union. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported reasonable tax and spending policies as defined by the National Taxpayers Union 89 percent of the time in 2010." (
  • Americans for Tax Reform. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the Americans for Tax Reform 90 percent in 2007." (
  • Citizens for Tax Justice. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the Citizens for Tax Justice 0 percent in 2006." (
  • Ted Poe signed the Americans for Tax Reform Taxpayers Protection Pledge. "I, Ted Poe, pledge to the taxpayers of the 2nd district of the state of Texas and to the American people that I will: ONE, oppose any and all efforts to increase the marginal income tax rate for individuals and business; and TWO, oppose any net reduction or elimination of deductions and credits, unless matched dollar for dollar by further reducing tax rates." (
No Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Ted Poe. HR 5297. 112th Congress. Small Business Lending Fund and Tax Law Amendments. Ted Poe voted Nay on 09/23/2010. (
  • Ted Poe. HR 1424. 110th Congress. Financial Asset Purchase Authority and Tax Law Amendments. Ted Poe voted Nay on 10/03/2008. (
  • Americans for Prosperity. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the Americans for Prosperity 95 percent in 2010." (
  • The Club for Growth. 04/18/2012. "On the votes used to calculate its ratings, The Club for Growth attaches more value to those votes it considers more important. For 2010, The Club for Growth gave Ted Poe a rating of 98 percent." (
  • Ted Poe. Issue Position: Taxes/Federal Budget. 1 January 2011. " Since coming to Congress, I joined the Republican Study Committee, a unique group of likeminded Members of Congress who specifically advocate for lower taxes and reduced federal spending. I agree with many of their principles. This organization meets regularly and provides a forum for me to hear and act upon many of the issues affecting how your tax dollars are spent." (
  • Ted Poe. Foreign Aid: A Time to Reconsider. 9 February 2011. "Mr. Speaker, I want to follow up on what my friend has just said about cutting Federal spending. I agree, cutting $400 billion is really not much of a cut, especially in these times when Congress continues to spend more and more money. So let's talk about some specific areas where we ought to reconsider putting taxpayer money, and maybe it's time to reconsider our foreign aid that we send to countries throughout the world." (
  • Ted Poe. Victims of Crime Act. 14 April 2005. "We all are concerned, Mr. Speaker, about the budget, about the deficit, about Federal spending. We all are in agreement about that, but maybe we need to reprioritize how we spend money. Maybe we should reconsider some of the foreign giveaway programs that this country is involved in, giving away money, and maybe we should think about victims here at home, remembering that the victims fund, VOCA, is not funded by taxpayers, but it is funded by criminals, as it ought to be, and they should continue to pay, pay for the crimes that they have brought upon the good people of our community." (
  • Ted Poe. Not So Fast with the Confetti. 18 November 2011. "This addiction to spending somebody else's money has got to stop. We must be bold and cut unnecessary spending. Tough times call for tough actions, and we must even do more." (
  • Ted Poe. Congressman Poe's Statement on the Balanced Budget Amendment. 18 November 2011. "Today, our nation faces a spending-driven debt crisis that is the single greatest threat to our security. We have gotten to this point because of Washington's reckless and unchecked spending binge. The most important component of any long-term plan for recovery must be to permanently reign in government spending. I voted for the Balanced Budget Amendment, a historic piece of legislation that would codify the rule of fiscal responsibility in the Constitution to require Washington to spend within its means and add accountability in Washington." (
  • Ted Poe. Government Incompetence. 11 July 2012. "These overpayments and wasteful incompetent spending really don't shock or surprise Americans anymore at all. There's so much waste of taxpayer money that we have become accustomed to it, and we actually expect government to waste money--too big, too wasteful, too incompetent, and too inefficient. But the real problem is not waste, but the size and inefficiency of government. We're moving to a society that is just another European nanny state, where government is bigger, bloated, and controlling. The government says it will provide all our needs if we just turn over more power, authority, and money to government and government agencies [¦] With hard economic times affecting the unemployed, we cannot tolerate wasteful spending by government bureaucracies. With 8.5 percent unemployment nationwide, 11 percent in the Hispanic community, 14 percent in the African American community, 14 percent for returning military from Iraq and Afghanistan, and 50 percent unemployment for recent college graduates, we should demand that when government helps those we as a society say it should help, government does so properly and efficiently and in a dignified way." (
  • Ted Poe. Congressman Poe Reaction to President Obama's Jobs Speech. 8 September 2011. "The President's philosophy seems to be "If it fails once, do it again." The 14 million unemployed Americans can't afford the same failed stimulus experiment. Vague promises, massive government spending and increasing the burden on businesses did not grow the economy the first time, it made it worse. The White House has already proven once before that it can't spend or tax its way into prosperity. Raising taxes on American job creators to pay the Obama plan's $450 billion price tag will guarantee failure. It's time for Washington to get out of the way so the private sector can get America working again. And that's just the way it is." (
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Education: Do you support requiring states to implement education reforms in order to be eligible for competitive federal grants? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Ted Poe. Issue Position: Education. 22 September 2011. "I believe that quality education is the key to the door of opportunity for individuals and is essential to the future of America. Our children deserve the best education that we can give them. I believe that parents and educators have the greatest insight on how to meet the educational needs of their children and students. Parents should have more control and greater options in schooling their children and schools should have incentives to turn out strong students or be required to reform their methods. I believe there must be some oversight when dispensing federal tax dollars to the educational system. Additionally, increased efficiency at the Department of Education would allow for more resources to go directly to the schools and in turn benefit Texas and the rest of the United States." (
  • Ted Poe. Issue Position: Education. 22 September 2011. "Congressman Poe feels our children are the future of our country that our education system must assist parents in preparing them for life, both for citizenship and to compete in the global economy of the 21st Century and that the best way to do this is to return control of, and accountability for, K-12 education to the people who know our children and their needs the best: parents and local educators. Congressman Poe feels the history of Federal involvement in K-12 education is a history of 'unfunded mandates', where Washington imposes requirements on local schools without providing funds to cover the extra costs involved. He opposes legislation that creates costly, unfunded mandates and feels this, along with bureaucratic paperwork, takes instructional time away form educators and students." (
  • Ted Poe. Texas Republicans Introduce Legislation to Repeal Doggett Education Language. 29 August 2012. "Members of the Texas Republican Congressional delegation, led by Congressman Michael C. Burgess (R-Lewisville), today introduced legislation to repeal language in last months education funding bill that discriminates against only the state of Texas, and could prevent Texas from receiving its fair share of the federal education funding. The legislation calls to strike the paragraph, which was written and inserted by Texas Congressman Lloyd Doggett, that calls for Texas to make additional requirements beyond what all other states are required to make in order to qualify for the funding. These additional requirements are not only inequitable, but according to Texas officials, would require the state to make assurances that violate the Texas Constitution. Further, requiring only Texas to meet additional requirements under the section titled Additional Requirements For The State Of Texas that no other states are required to make puts Texas schoolchildren at an unfair advantage." (
Yes Inferred Answer Energy: Do you support building the Keystone XL pipeline? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

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No Inferred Answer Environment: Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • League of Conservation Voters. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the League of Conservation Voters 10 percent in 2010." (
  • Environment America. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of Environment America 7 percent in 2009." (
  • Ted Poe. HR 910. 112th Congress. Energy Tax Prevention Act. Ted Poe voted Yea on 04/07/2011. (
  • Ted Poe. HR 2454. 111th Congress. Energy and Environmental Law Amendments ("Cap and Trade"). Ted Poe voted Nay on 06/26/2009. (
No Inferred Answer Guns: Do you support restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Ted Poe. S 397. 109th Congress. Firearms Manufacturers Protection Bill. Ted Poe voted Yea on 10/20/2005. (
  • National Rifle Association. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. National Rifle Association endorsed Ted Poe in the 2010 general election. (
  • Gun Owners of America. 04/18/2012. "In 2010 Gun Owners of America gave Ted Poe a grade of 91." (
  • Ted Poe. God and Guns. 30 June 2010. "The recent Supreme Court decision simply stated the obvious as it is written in the Bill of Rights: 'A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.' Now I'm sure the halls of academia were all up in arms about the right to bear arms. The media immediately began spreading the shocking news: the Supreme Court actually upheld the Constitution. Oh, the hysteria they went through. They said, Murder rates will surely double upon the mere announcement of this. Never mind the fact that more gun control does not lower murder rates; it actually increases them. Look at this city, Washington, D.C., the toughest gun control in the country." (
  • Ted Poe. Gun Control. 20 October 2009. "Mr. Speaker, the Supreme Court said last year that the Second Amendment means what it says: 'The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.' There is nothing vague about that personal right. Never mind, Chicago still has a gun ban law. So the Supreme Court agreed to hear a case where those who believe in liberty are challenging the Chicago antigun law. Gun Grabbers pass a gun ban claiming it reduces crime, but crime actually goes up in banishment areas. So this is not about crime. The antigun lobby steals individual freedom under the false pretext of providing security by government. In reality, these people want more government intrusion into our personal lives. Obliteration of the Second Amendment is one of the most intrusive methods they use. Gun control is really government control. The Second Amendment was, among other things, originally designed to protect people against tyranny. Thomas Jefferson said, 'Those who hammer their guns into plows will plow for those who do not.' The right to bear arms should apply even in Chicago, whether the paranoid gun control crowd likes it or not." (
  • Ted Poe. Rep. Poe Talks About Bailouts, Layoffs, And Ripoffs. 2 April 2009. "New federal regulations have been proposed to control Americans' rights to bear arms. I believe gun control policies fail to recognize that criminals, not guns, are the root cause of crime and violence in America. Criminals, by definition, violate laws. Gun control restrictions punish honest, law-abiding citizens who want to protect themselves and their families. Whether one uses a firearm for hunting, sport shooting, personal protection or another lawful reason, the Second Amendment clearly protects our individual right to keep and bear arms. I assure you that I will continue to support the rights of gun owners who use firearms responsibly and not support the gun control, 'Firearm Licensing and Record of Sale Act of 2009.'" (
  • Ted Poe. H AMDT 1156. 110th Congress. Trigger Lock Amendment. Ted Poe voted Yea on 06/28/2006. (
  • Ted Poe. HR 6842. 110th Congress. Repealing Portions of the D.C. Firearm Ban. Ted Poe voted Yea on 09/17/2008. (
Yes Inferred Answer Health Care: Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • American Public Health Association. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the American Public Health Association 0 percent in 2010." (
  • Ted Poe. HR 2. 112th Congress. Repealing the Health Care Bill. Ted Poe voted Yea on 01/19/2011. (
Yes Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support requiring illegal immigrants to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Federation for American Immigration Reform. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the Federation for American Immigration Reform 100 percent in 2010." (
  • Americans for Legal Immigration. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. Americans for Legal Immigration endorsed Ted Poe in the 2012 general election. (
  • Ted Poe. HR 5281. 112th Congress. DREAM Act. Ted Poe voted Nay on 12/08/2010. (
  • Ted Poe. Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2012. 1 June 2011. "This number is a dramatic increase from previous years. It's much higher than the less than 900 number that was recently quoted by Secretary Napolitano in testimony during a Senate Judiciary hearing. These numbers also seem to drastically contradict statements made by the administration that deferred action would not be used to provide a backdoor amnesty to illegal immigrants. In short, deferred action is an exercise of prosecutorial discretion, and that discretion is not to pursue removal from the United States of a particular individual for a specific period of time. It is only intended to be used on very special occasions; but now over 12,000 people a year are given this deferred action. Our broken immigration system in this country continues to allow hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants in each year. Increasingly, deferred action is being used as an easy way for the Federal Government to avoid enforcing the law for people who are arrested and caught in the United States illegally. Quite simply, it is illegal to be in this country without permission, and it is the responsibility of the Federal Government to enforce the immigration laws of this country at all times, not to pick and choose when to enforce certain laws, especially immigration laws." (
  • Ted Poe. Illegals Are Breaking the Bank. 2 December 2010. "Say you can't afford the tuition. Under this amnesty plan, people living here illegally are eligible for federal student loans at the expense of American citizens. Why should people living here illegally be given an advantage to obtain loans that should go to citizens and possibly legal immigrants? This policy will deplete the already strained resources for college expense by adding millions of people to the system. After you complete two years of post high school education or two years of military service you are eligible for citizenship. Once a citizen, this paves the way to bring the rest of their extended family to the United States. I agree that something must be done, but the American people have rejected amnesty in every form that it has been presented. The costs of this bill will be footed by the American taxpayer for years to come. I understand that everyone wants to come to our country; I don't blame them. But, we cannot afford to continue to turn a blind eye to the economic drain illegal entry places on every aspect of our society. We cannot treat people here illegally better than we treat our own citizens and legal residents. Do the math: illegal immigration is breaking the bank -- the American bank that is." (
  • Ted Poe. Issue Position: Border Security/Illegal Immigration. 1 January 2011. "I do not support illegal immigration or amnesty for illegal immigrants already in this country. Period. I support immigration, but people must do it legally. Amnesty rewards illegal conduct and only increases the number of illegal immigrants who try to enter America as we have seen in the previous amnesties in 1986 and 1996. As a former judge for over 22 years, I believe very strongly in the respect for the rule of law. I never let anyone get away with breaking the law and immigration laws should be no different. We must vigorously enforce the laws we already have on the books and make some of them stronger. As a new Member of the Judiciary Committee and Immigration Subcommittee in the 111th Congress, I will be deeply involved in these issues and will work tirelessly to secure our border and enforce the rule of law." (
  • Ted Poe. HR 4437. 109th Congress. Border Security Bill. Ted Poe voted Yea on 12/16/2005. (
  • Ted Poe. Letter to President Obama. 9 September 2011. "Members of the bipartisan Immigration Reform Caucus along with member of the House vehemently oppose your August 18 2011 announcement to bypass Congress and use prosecutorial discretion to achieve amnesty to individuals who are illegally residing in the US. The manner with which your administration has introduced this policy not only robs the public of a thorough betting, but it also fails to appreciate the negative consequences of this policy shift...Also, this policy has the added affect of further encouraging illegal immigration. Frankly put, if we don't take our own laws seriously enough to enforce, why should we expect anyone to follow them? This policy will introduce a new wave a illegal immigrants emboldened with the knowledge that not only is it okay to break the law, but they will likely be rewarded for it with de facto amnesty statues, thereby exacerbating an already vicious cycle we as a nation try been trying to address for over two decades.This attempt to satisfy the narrow interests for the pro-amnesty lobby has ultimately earned the distrust of the greater American public. Our fear is that this policy will irreparably harm the prospects of true immigration reform for many years to come. Mr President, our request is simple: enforce our immigration laws evenly without passion, prejudice or preference." (
  • Americans for Legal Immigration. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. Americans for Legal Immigration endorsed Ted Poe in the 2010 general election. (
  • National Latino Congreso/William C. Velásquez Institute. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of National Latino Congreso/William C. Velásquez Institute 0 percent in 2010." (
No Inferred Answer Marriage: Do you support same-sex marriage? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Ted Poe. HR 2965. 112th Congress. Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act. Ted Poe voted Nay on 12/15/2010. (
  • Family Research Council. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the Family Research Council 85 percent in 2006." (
  • American Civil Liberties Union. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the American Civil Liberties Union 11 percent in 2006." (
  • Traditional Values Coalition. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the Traditional Values Coalition 85 percent in 2006" (
  • Ted Poe. HR 3685. 110th Congress. Sexual Orientation Employment Nondiscrimination Act (ENDA). Ted Poe voted Nay on 11/07/2007. (
  • Ted Poe. Issue Position: Marriage Protection. 19 September 2011. "Congressman Poe believes judges must not be allowed to change the traditional definition of 'marriage' (as a union between a man and a woman) against the will of the people. As we have seen, recent referendums in Hawaii, Nevada, Nebraska, and Missouri have shown that more than 70% of voters support the traditional definition of marriage. Congressman Poe supports whatever measures are necessary to preserve the definition of marriage as a union between one man and one woman. If a Constitutional amendment is the only way to do this, then he will support a carefully worded amendment for this purpose." (
  • American Family Association. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the American Family Association 94 percent in 2010." (
  • Human Rights Campaign. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the Human Rights Campaign 0 percent in 2010." (
  • Ted Poe. H J Res 88. 110th Congress. Same-Sex Marriage Resolution. Ted Poe voted Yea on 07/18/2006. (
Unknown Position Unknown Answer National Security: Do you support targeting suspected terrorists outside of official theaters of conflict? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Ted Poe. Cut Off Funds to President's War in Libya. 24 June 2011. "Mr. Speaker, America's third war continues. The President's little war in Libya is unconstitutional and it also violates the War Powers Resolution. Even the administration says Libya is not a national security risk to America. So why are we at war in Libya? Because the French want us there? Mr. Speaker, don't you think we've done enough for the French in World War I, World War II, and even in Indochina, what we now call Vietnam? The United States should not be involved in Libya's civil war. The cost has been over $700 million to the American taxpayer. Mr. Speaker, don't you think that money, that millions of dollars could be better spent building America instead of blowing up Libya? And who are these rebels in Libya that we are supporting? Of course Omar Qadhafi is a tyrant, but we may end up replacing an oppressive regime with an extremist radical regime. Now, isn't that lovely? Congress should cut off all American funds to the President's little war in Libya." (
  • Ted Poe. Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2012. 7 July 2011. "Mr. Chairman, the President says we have gone to war in the name of humanity. In other words, the President's little war in Libya is so that we can preserve humanity in Libya. In the history of peoples, as the gentleman from California has pointed out, and the histories of countries, it has always been the king, the dictator, the tyrant, the chief, the leader that has sent that particular country to war. So when our ancestors got together and they formed a new and perfect Union, they decided it would not be the leader, which we call the President, it would be the people that would decide if we went to war. They gave that power to the Congress of the United States and only Congress can declare war, not the President. But this is the President's war; and the President, in my opinion, is in violation of the Constitution. He has led America to our third war. Whether or not the war powers resolution is constitutional or not, we can debate that. But he is in violation of it, too, because we're still engaged in war, whether you call it hostilities or not. Some say it's not hostile. Well, you be one of the recipients of one of those cruise missiles on the ground somewhere in Libya, and you might think that's a hostile environment towards you. But this country is spending money on a third war, and it is unconstitutional." (
  • Ted Poe. Legal Authority For War in The Name of Humanity?. 6 April 2011. "Madam Speaker, the United States is engaged in a new concept of war. No longer will the United States go to war only when it is in our national security interest. The Obama Doctrine is `war in the name of humanity.'' Secretary Gates said military intervention in Libya is not necessary for our national interest. So now we drop bombs in countries when we self-righteously decide the ruler is mean to his people. Is this a lawful reason, a legal reason for war in Libya? My concern is that the Constitution does not give the President unilateral authority to commit our military to foreign entanglements in the vague philosophy of humanity. There has been no prior consulting and consent of Congress. The War Powers Act only gives the President authority to enter into war without consulting Congress when a national emergency is created by an attack on the United States, its territories or possessions, or its Armed Forces. There is no such national emergency. So what is the legal authority for military intervention in Libya? We need some answers. Are you in, Mr. President? And that's just the way it is." (
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Social Security: Do you support allowing individuals to divert a portion of their Social Security taxes into personal retirement accounts? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Ted Poe. Issue Position: Social Security. 22 September 2011. "Our nation has an obligation to the people currently on Social Security who have based their retirement plan on the existing system. This obligation must be met. This means no cuts in benefits and no increases in the retirement age. In fact, I believe that we should be able to afford a 1% across-the-board increase in benefits via accelerated economic growth [¦] Congress must not rob Social Security funds to pay for other programs. In addition to protecting Social Security, younger workers should have the option of building an additional voluntary retirement account. This will not take money away from Social Security. Earning compound interest, Personal Accounts should allow young people starting their careers today to have sufficient funds when they retire." (
  • Alliance for Retired Americans. 04/18/2012. "Ted Poe supported the interests of the Alliance for Retired Americans 40 percent in 2008." (


Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Project Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Project Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

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