This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning abortion.
|a) Abortions should always be illegal.|
|b) Abortions should be illegal when the fetus is viable, with or without life support.|
|c) Abortions should always be legally available.|
|d) Abortions should be legal only within the first trimester of pregnancy.|
|e) Abortions should be legal when the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape.|
|X||f) Abortions should be legal when the life of the woman is endangered.|
|X||g) Abortions should be limited by waiting periods and notification requirements as decided by each state government.|
|X||h) Prohibit the dilation and extraction procedure, also known as "partial birth" abortion.|
|X||i) Prohibit public funding of abortions and public funding of organizations that advocate or perform abortions.|
|j) Support "buffer-zones" by requiring demonstrators to stay at least five feet from abortion clinic doorways and driveways.|
|k) Provide funding for family planning programs as a means to decrease the number of abortions.|
Federal policy should encourage abstinence education in public schools. Federal policy should also encourage adoption as a viable alternative to abortion.
Indicate what levels of federal funding you support for the following general categories.
|Slightly Increase Funding||a) Agricultural|
|Greatly Decrease Funding||b) Arts|
|Slightly Increase Funding||c) Defense|
|Slightly Increase Funding||d) Education|
|Maintain Funding Status||e) Environmental|
|Greatly Decrease Funding||f) International aid|
|Slightly Increase Funding||g) Law enforcement|
|Slightly Increase Funding||h) Medical Research|
|Maintain Funding Status||i) National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA)|
|Maintain Funding Status||j) National Parks|
|Slightly Increase Funding||k) Scientific Research|
|Slightly Increase Funding||l) Transportation and Highway Infrastructure|
|Maintain Funding Status||m) Welfare|
|2) Would you support enforcing the spending limits agreed to in 1997 by the President and Congress to balance the budget?|
Indicate what levels of federal funding you support for the following categories.
|Slightly Increase Funding||a) Armed Forces personnel training|
|Slightly Increase Funding||b) Covert intelligence operations|
|Maintain Funding Status||c) Defense plant conversion|
|Slightly Increase Funding||d) Military hardware|
|Maintain Funding Status||e) Military space shuttle missions|
|Slightly Increase Funding||f) Pay for active duty personnel|
|Slightly Increase Funding||g) National Missile Defense Program|
|Slightly Increase Funding||h) Modernization of weaponry and equipment|
|Slightly Increase Funding||i) Programs to improve military retention rates|
|Slightly Increase Funding||j) Research and development of new weapons|
|Slightly Increase Funding||k) Troop and equipment readiness|
Indicate your priorities for spending any anticipated federal budget surplus.
|c) Federal debt reduction|
|e) Social Security|
|f) Tax cuts|
Congress should enact a Social Security and Medicare lockbox, which will stop the practice of using payroll taxes collected for these programs to finance unrelated government spending programs. Until Congress enacts fundamental Medicare and Social Security reform legislation, Social Security and Medicare payroll taxes should be credited to their appropriate trust funds and used to pay down the debt. Fedreal surpluses above and beyond those created by Social Security and Medicare, which are the result of tax overpayments, should be used to provide broad-based tax relief and to finance additional debt relief.
Indicate what levels you support concerning taxes, deductions, and tax credits in the following categories.
Income Taxes - Family Income
|Slightly Decrease||a) Less than $25,000|
|Slightly Decrease||b) $25,000 - $75,000|
|Slightly Decrease||c) $75,000 - $150,000|
|Slightly Decrease||d) Over $150,000|
Income Taxes - Retiree Income
|Slightly Decrease||f) Over $40, 000|
|Slightly Decrease||a) Alcohol taxes|
|Greatly Decrease||b) Capital gains taxes|
|Maintain Status||c) Cigarette taxes|
|Maintain Status||d) Corporate taxes|
|Maintain Status||e) Gasoline taxes|
|Eliminate||f) Inheritance taxes|
|Greatly Increase||a) Charitable deductions|
|Slightly Increase||b) Medical expense deductions|
|Maintain Status||c) Mortgage deductions|
|Slightly Increase||d) Child tax credit|
|Maintain Status||e) Earned income tax credit|
|Slightly Increase||f) Student loan tax credit|
|Undecided||2) Do you support replacing the current U.S. income tax structure with a flat income tax?|
|Yes||3) Should a married couple filing jointly pay the same taxes as if they were an unmarried couple filing separately?|
|Yes||4) Would you cut taxes if there were an operating surplus?|
|5) Would you cut taxes and use Social Security surpluses to supplement the difference?|
In the event of an economic slowdown that resulted in budget deficits, I would support pro-growth tax reductions that would stimulate economic activity and would be financed by reductions in government spending.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding campaign finance issues.
|a) Support public taxpayer funding for Congressional candidates who comply with campaign spending limits.|
|X||b) Increase the amount individuals are permitted to contribute to federal campaigns.|
|c) Prohibit Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions to candidates for federal office.|
|d) Provide free or low-cost television advertising to candidates who agree to voluntary campaign spending limits.|
|X||e) Ban unregulated soft money campaign contributions to political parties or committees.|
|X||f) Prohibit non-U.S. citizens from making soft money contributions to national parties or party committees.|
|X||g) Require full disclosure of funding sources of issue advocacy commercials which appear within 60 days of an election.|
|h) Make campaign spending limits mandatory for all federal candidates.|
|i) Remove all contribution limits on federal candidates and parties, but require complete and immediate disclosure via the Internet.|
|X||j) Require Congressional candidates to raise over half of their campaign money from their home state.|
Indicate which principles you support (if any) to address crime.
|X||a) Broaden the use of the death penalty for federal crimes.|
|X||b) Increase spending to build more federal prisons.|
|X||c) Impose "truth in sentencing" for violent criminals so they serve full sentences with no chance of parole.|
|d) Support programs to provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related skills and job-placement assistance when released.|
|e) Support programs to provide prison inmates with drug and alcohol addiction treatment.|
|X||f) Increase penalties for crimes committed on school grounds.|
|X||g) Increase funding for community policing programs.|
|X||h) Implement penalties other than incarceration for certain non-violent offenders.|
|i) Require that crimes based on gender, sexual orientation, and disability be prosecuted as federal hate crimes.|
|j) Enforcement of civil rights should primarily be the responsibility of the federal government.|
|X||k) Prosecute as adults, youths accused of a felony.|
|X||l) Provide block grants to states for implementation of programs to combat juvenile crime.|
|X||m) Impose harsher penalties for youths convicted of violent offenses.|
|X||n) Support the use of "boot camps" as alternative sentencing for juvenile offenders.|
|o) Support programs that provide job training and placement services for at-risk youth.|
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning illegal drugs.
|X||a) Increase penalties for selling illegal drugs.|
|X||b) Support mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.|
|c) Support capital punishment for convicted international drug traffickers.|
|d) Expand federally sponsored drug education and drug treatment programs.|
|e) Decriminalize the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes.|
|X||f) Increase border security to stop the flow of illegal drugs into the U.S.|
|g) Eliminate federal funding for programs associated with the "war on drugs."|
Federal policy should foster the involvement of faith-based and non-profit organizations in efforts at the local level to discourage drug use among children. Federal anti-drug awareness campaigns like the "Just Say No" effort are appropriate.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning education (K-12).
|a) Support national standards and testing of public school students.|
|b) Allow parents to use vouchers (equal opportunity scholarships) to send their children to any publicly-funded school.|
|c) Allow parents to use vouchers (equal opportunity scholarships) to send their children to any participating school: public, private or religious.|
|X||d) Allow parents to use tax-free savings accounts to send their children to any publicly-funded school.|
|X||e) Allow parents to use tax-free savings accounts to send their children to any participating school: public, private or religious.|
|X||f) Support charter schools where teachers and professionals receive authorization and funding to establish new schools.|
|X||g) Promote education flexibility by giving federal funds, in the form of block grants, to the states to spend it as they see fit.|
|X||h) Increase funding for block grants to states to help them hire additional teachers.|
|X||i) Support teacher testing and reward teachers with merit pay.|
|X||j) Increase funding for computers and computer training in public schools.|
|X||k) Increase funding for school capital improvements (e.g. buildings and infrastructure).|
|X||l) Eliminate restrictions on federal education funding, giving educators or local school districts more flexibility to design and implement their programs.|
|m) Support affirmative action in public college admissions.|
|X||n) Eliminate federal financial aid for individuals convicted of drug offenses.|
|X||o) Increase funding of programs such as Pell grants and Stafford loans to help students pay for college.|
|X||p) Support federal tax incentives to help families save for college.|
Individuals at the state and local level should have the option of implementing school choice initiatives such as vouchers and low-income scholarships. However, school choice initiatives should not be used to reduce funding for public achools and should not be mandated on the states by the federal government.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding employment and affirmative action.
|X||a) Provide tax credits for companies that move job-creating industries into areas with high unemployment.|
|b) Increase funding for national job-training programs that re-train displaced workers or teach skills needed in today's job market.|
|X||c) Reduce government regulation of the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion.|
|X||d) Establish empowerment zones in areas with large numbers of unemployed people.|
|e) Eliminate any federal programs designed to reduce unemployment.|
|f) Increase the federal minimum wage.|
|X||g) Encourage employers to offer flex-time scheduling, comp-time, and unpaid leave for family emergencies.|
|h) Provide tax credits for businesses that offer on-site child care.|
|i) The federal government should consider race and sex in making government contracting decisions.|
|j) The federal government should continue affirmative action programs.|
|X||k) The federal government should discontinue affirmative action programs.|
|X||l) The federal government should utilize merit and qualifications in making government contracting decisions.|
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding America's environment and natural resources.
|a) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Water Act.|
|b) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Air Act.|
|c) Waive environmental review requirements for grazing permits.|
|d) Revise the 1872 mining law to increase the fees charged to mining companies using federal lands.|
|X||e) Require states to fully compensate citizens when environmental regulations limit uses of privately owned land.|
|X||f) Encourage further development and use of alternative fuels to reduce pollution.|
|g) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles.|
|h) Promote the selling of pollution credits between nations to encourage industries to decrease pollution levels.|
|i) Strengthen logging restrictions on federal lands.|
|j) Reduce current federal regulations on the environment.|
|X||k) Give states added flexibility from the federal government in enforcing and funding federal environment regulations.|
Environmental regulations should be based on sound science and should be subject to an objective, peer-reviewed cost-benefit analysis.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning gun issues.
|a) Ban the sale or transfer of semi-automatic guns, except those used for hunting.|
|X||b) Maintain and strengthen the enforcement of existing federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.|
|c) Ease federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.|
|d) Repeal federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.|
|X||e) Allow citizens to carry concealed guns.|
|f) Require manufacturers to provide child-safety locks on guns.|
|g) Increase penalties for the possession of any illegal guns.|
|h) Hold gun owners responsible for crimes committed with their guns by children age 16 and under.|
|i) Raise the minimum age for ownership of handguns from 18 to 21.|
|j) Require background checks of gun buyers at gun shows.|
|k) Require a license for gun possession.|
The right of law-abiding citizens to keep and bear arms, in accordance with the Second Amendment, must be preserved. However, those who abuse this right and use a firearm in the commission of a crime should be subject to strict criminal penalties.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding health issues.
|a) Providing health care is not a responsibility of the federal government.|
|b) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income.|
|X||c) Support health care strategies focused on prevention, including health education, and natural medicines and remedies.|
|X||d) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights to define and enforce the rights of insured patients, including greater access to specialists and emergency rooms, wider choice of health care providers, and appeal mechanisms when claims are denied.|
|X||e) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights which includes the right to sue when claims are denied.|
|X||f) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights which includes the right to appeal to an administrative board of specialists when services are denied.|
|X||g) Provide tax incentives to small businesses that provide health care to their employees.|
|X||h) Expand eligibility for tax-free medical savings accounts, which would be taxed if used for purposes other than medical costs.|
|X||i) Limit the amount of damages that can be awarded in medical malpractice lawsuits.|
|j) Allow states and local communities to use federal funds for needle-exchange programs to combat the spread of HIV.|
|k) Provide citizens age 55-65 the option of purchasing Medicare health coverage.|
|X||l) Support legislation to provide prescription drug coverage under Medicare.|
|m) Increase funding for AIDS programs.|
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding immigration.
|a) Decrease the number of immigrants allowed into the country.|
|b) Increase the eligibility of legal immigrants for certain social programs (e.g. public housing, food stamps).|
|c) Require the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to reduce the time between applying for citizenship and taking the oath of allegiance to six months.|
|d) Provide extra federal aid to states with higher numbers of immigrants for necessary medical and social services.|
|e) Prohibit states from passing laws that deny human services (medical care, education) to illegal immigrants or their children.|
|f) Grant U.S. citizenship to children born in the US only if their parents immigrated legally.|
|X||g) Increase the immigration quota for computer scientists and other information technology workers.|
|X||h) Establish English as the official national language.|
|i) Support the separation of the INS into two bureaus: one administering naturalization and one administering border patrol.|
|j) Increase state autonomy in handling immigration issues.|
|k) Reimburse states for providing services to illegal aliens.|
The federal government has a constitutional role to protect the integrity of our nation's borders. Adequate resouces are necessary to stop illegal immigration at our nation's borders.
Indicate which principles (if any) you support regarding U.S. International Aid.
|a) Aid should be granted to countries when extraordinary circumstances cause disaster and threaten civilian lives.|
|X||b) Aid should be granted to countries when it is in the security interests of the U. S.|
|c) Aid should be granted to countries that are close allies of the U. S. and in need of financial/military assistance.|
|d) Aid should be eliminated for any nation with documented human rights abuses.|
|e) Aid programs should be scaled back and eventually eliminated except for extraordinary circumstances.|
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the Middle East.
|a) The U.S. should resolve future disputes with Iraq only through diplomatic means.|
|X||b) The U.S. should take unilateral military action if Iraq does not comply with all accepted United Nations resolutions.|
|c) The U.S. should take military action against Iraq only as part of an international effort.|
|d) The U.S. should end the economic embargo against Iraq.|
|e) The U.S. should not continue to play a prominent leadership role in the peace process between Israel and the Palestine Authority.|
|X||f) The U.S. should continue to play a prominent leadership role in the peace process between Israel and the Palestine Authority.|
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the United States-United Nations relationship.
|a) The U.S. should participate in United Nations peacekeeping missions only when vital U.S. interests are involved.|
|b) The U.S. should not commit military troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions.|
|c) The U.S. should withdraw completely from the United Nations.|
|d) The U.S. should pay its debt to the United Nations.|
U.S. troops should not be placed under U.N. commanders. I would support the deployment of U.S. abroad in tandem with U.N. related missions only if absolute U.S. control of American troops was maintained and a vital national security interest was at stake.
|No||3) Should the U.S. have full diplomatic relations with Cuba?|
|Yes||4) Should the U.S. have full diplomatic relations with China?|
|Yes||5) Should the U.S. recognize and extend full diplomatic relations to Taiwan?|
|No||6) Should the US maintain ground troops in Kosovo?|
|Yes||7) Do you support the cooperative threat reduction programs with Russia to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to unfriendly nations?|
|Yes||8) Do you support modifying the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty in order to deploy the National Missile Defense System?|
|Yes||1) Do you support the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?|
|Yes||2) Do you support the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)?|
|Yes||3) Do you support continued U.S. membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO)?|
|Yes||4) Do you support China becoming a member of the World Trade Organization?|
|Yes||5) Do you support imposing tariffs on products imported from nations that maintain restrictive trade barriers on American products?|
|No||6) Should a nation's human rights record affect its normal trade relations (most favored nation status) with the United States?|
|Yes||7) Do you support normal trade relations (most favored nation status) with Vietnam?|
|Yes||8) Do you support granting the President "fast-track" authority in trade negotiations?|
|9) Do you support the trade embargo against Cuba?|
|Yes||Do you believe there has been a decline in moral and ethical standards in America over the last four decades?|
|If Yes, please explain what you would do as a member of Congress to address this concern.|
The federal government cannot and should not mandate to parents how to instill morals and values in their children. However, federal policy can make it easier for parents to take an active role in their child's upbringing. Letting parents keep more of what they earn so they can spend more time with their children ...
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding Social Security.
|a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts which they manage themselves.|
|b) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts managed by private firms contracted by the government.|
|c) Invest a portion of Social Security's assets collectively in stocks and bonds instead of U.S. Treasury securities.|
|d) Increase the payroll tax to better finance Social Security in its current form.|
|e) Lower Social Security's annual cost-of-living increases.|
|f) Limit Social Security benefits based on recipients' other income and assets.|
|g) Require individuals to pay the Social Security tax on incomes above $68,400 (which is currently exempt).|
|X||h) Support a lock box measure, limiting Congress's ability to spend Social Security and Medicare surpluses on any other federal programs except Social Security and Medicare, until each program's long-term solvency is guaranteed.|
Social Security payroll taxes should be used only for their intended purpose - the payment of benefits to retirees. Congress must also enact reform legislation to make the program solvent in the long term. As part of this reform, the benefits that have been promised to current retirees and those nearing retirement must be honored. Younger workers should have the voluntary option of directing a portion of their Social Security taxes to a set number of investment options.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding technology.
|X||a) Continuing the moratorium on Internet sales taxes.|
|b) Implement regulation of Internet content by the federal government.|
|c) Support on-line voter registration.|
|d) Support voting on-line.|
|e) Support government mandates to curtail violent and sexual content on television.|
|X||f) Support strict penalties for Internet crimes such as hacking and Internet violence.|
|X||g) Support strong Internet privacy laws.|
|h) Regulating the Internet should not in any way be controlled by the federal government.|
|Yes||Do you support amending the Constitution to limit the number of terms which members of Congress can serve?|
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding poverty and the welfare system.
|a) Support housing assistance for welfare recipients.|
|b) Provide homeless families with apartment vouchers they can use to supplement the cost of an apartment.|
|X||c) Continue to give states and local governments responsibility for welfare programs through TANF block grants.|
|X||d) Maintain current welfare-to-work requirements in order for states to qualify for block grants.|
|e) Restore food stamp programs to legal immigrants.|
|f) Transfer homeless housing programs to states through block grants.|
|g) Provide continued Medicaid benefits for those welfare recipients who have moved from welfare to work.|
|h) Require states to return any unused welfare block grant funding to the federal government.|
|X||i) Direct federal poverty aid through religious, community-based or other non-profit organizations.|
|Please explain what your top two or three priorities will be if elected. Please explain how you would obtain any additional government funding needed to implement these priorities.|
The federal tax burden is at its highest levels since World War II. Budget surpluses above and beyond those created by Social Security and Medicare payroll taxes should be used to let hard-working Missourians keep more of what they earn. ...