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Nicholas Lampson's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Project Vote Smart does not permit the use of its name or programs in any campaign activity, including advertising, debates, and speeches.
Nicholas Lampson refused to tell citizens where he stands on any of the issues addressed in the 2012 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests from Vote Smart, national media, and prominent political leaders.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These issue positions, from the year 2012, are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Pro-choice Inferred Answer Abortion: Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 3682. 106th Congress. Child Custody Protection Act. Nicholas Lampson voted Nay on 07/15/1998. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 3660. 106th Congress. Ban on Partial-Birth/Late Term Abortion. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 04/05/2000. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. H Amdt 722. 106th Congress. Oversea Military Abortions Amendment. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 05/18/2000. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. H Amdt 95. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Use of Federal Funds For Planned Parenthood. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 02/18/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 3. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Taxpayer Funding of Abortion. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 05/04/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. H Amdt 1017. 106th Congress. Abortion Funding Amendment. Nicholas Lampson voted Nay on 07/20/2000. (votesmart.org)
  • National Organization for Women. 04/18/2012. "On the votes used to calculate its ratings, the National Organization for Women attaches more value to those votes it considers more important. For 2008, the National Organization for Women gave Nicholas Lampson a rating of 93 percent." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. H Amdt 187. 105th Congress. Overseas Military Facilities Abortion Amendment. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 06/19/1997. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Abortions should always be legally available."
  • Nicholas Lampson. H Amdt 156. 106th Congress. Overseas Military Abortion Amendment. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 06/09/1999. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. H Amdt 643. 106th Congress. Abortion Private Funding Restoration Amendment. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 05/20/1998. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "f) Abortions should always be illegal."
  • Nicholas Lampson. H Amdt 882. 106th Congress. Prison Abortion Funding Amendment. Nicholas Lampson voted Nay on 06/22/2000. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. H Amdt 509. 111th Congress. Prohibiting Federally Funded Abortion Services. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 11/07/2009. (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Afghanistan: Do you support United States' combat operations in Afghanistan? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. H Con Res 28. 112th Congress. Removing Troops from Afghanistan. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 03/17/2011. (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support reducing defense spending? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 4986. 110th Congress. Defense Authorizations Bill. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 01/16/2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 4200. 108th Congress. Defense Department FY2005 Authorization Bill. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 05/20/2004. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 1363. 112th Congress. 2011 Department of Defense Budget and Additional Continuing Appropriations. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 04/07/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 5010. 108th Congress. Department of Defense Appropriations, Fiscal Year 2003. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 10/10/2002. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. H Amdt 13. 112th Congress. Reducing Navy and Air Force Aircraft Procurement. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 02/15/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 2561. 106th Congress. Defense Department Appropriations bill, FY2000. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 07/22/1999. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 2642. 110th Congress. Funding for Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 06/19/2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 3222. 110th Congress. Department of Defense Appropriations, Fiscal Year 2008. Nicholas Lampson voted Yea on 08/05/2007. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Issue Position: Defense. 6 March 2012. "We must be able to strike anywhere in the world to prevent threats to our national security. I will work to continue funding our military and other agencies. It is especially critical that in an era of government budget cuts we do not reduce our deterrence and power projection capabilities. As we face budget constraints, we must ensure that we find efficiencies in overhead and administration costs rather than cutting our front-line defense measures. We must maintain the strongest military capabilities in the world in order to protect our country and our way of life." (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Slightly Increase" for: "1) Indicate the changes you support (if any) concerning the tax levels for the following categories. Select one number only. e) Family income over $150,000"
  • Nicholas Lampson. Issue Position: Fiscal Discipline. 6 March 2012. "I do not believe we need big tax increases. We need fiscal discipline, not more revenue." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 1836. 107th Congress. Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act, 2001. Nicholas Lampson voted Nay on 05/16/2001. (votesmart.org)
  • Americans for Tax Reform. 04/18/2012. "Nicholas Lampson supported the interests of the Americans for Tax Reform 35 percent in 2007." (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Economy: Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 5297. 112th Congress. Small Business Lending Fund and Tax Law Amendments. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 09/23/2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Issue Position: Fiscal Discipline. 6 March 2012. "We need fiscal discipline, not more revenue. We have terrible waste in our government that can be addressed right now. We shouldn't be spending on pork projects like bridges to nowhere in Alaska and a tea pot museum in North Carolina. We must set priorities and stick to them." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. About Nick Lampson. 6 March 2012. "Nick consistently votes for deficit reducing alternatives to our federal budget. In recognition of his fiscal responsibility, Lampson accepted an invitation to become a Blue Dog in 2007. In 2004, when Republican leaders in the House were trying to raise our national debt limit to more than $8 trillion, Nick Lampson stood up to this gang of wasteful spenders. Nick voted against increasing our debt because borrowing from our children and grandchildren is not sound budget policy. He has continued his fight to turn the tide on the wasteful spending." (www.lampson.com)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Issue Position: Transportation. 3 August 2012. "Building a better transportation infrastructure in Southeast Texas means a boost to the local economy, more jobs, and a lot fewer headaches as Texans travel through our communities." (www.lampson.com)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 1424. 110th Congress. Financial Asset Purchase Authority and Tax Law Amendments. Nicholas Lampson voted Nay on 10/03/2008. (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support providing tax incentives to businesses for the purpose of job creation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 2. 108th Congress. Jobs and Economic Growth bill. Nicholas Lampson voted Nay on 05/23/2003. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Issue Position: Small Business. 6 March 2012. "I believe it is time for Congress to spend more time and effort trying to help small business owners. The entrepreneurial strength of America's 25 million small businesses is the backbone of our nation's economy, employing 50% of our nation's private workforce. I will continue to support targeted tax cuts, such as those I voted for in the past that saved small business owners $86 billion over five years and $213 billion over ten years. I will work to reduce the unfair tax burden on small and family-owned businesses that offer health insurance to its employees and make the estate tax laws fair." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 2488. 106th Congress. Financial Freedom Act of 1999. Nicholas Lampson voted Nay on 08/05/1999. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Provide tax credits for companies that move job-creating industries into areas with high unemployment." Indicate which principles you support regarding unemployment. Other or expanded principles: "The current unemployment system should be reformed by focusing on training and education in skills needed in certain industries. "
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Education: Do you support requiring states to implement education reforms in order to be eligible for competitive federal grants? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. About Nick Lampson. 6 March 2012. "Nick Lampson has been a strong proponent of public education. He has fought hard against efforts to get rid of programs like Head Start and early childhood education. Nick knows that funding our children's education is important because it allows our future generations to grow up to be independent and self-sufficient. Education will always to be a top priority for Nick Lampson." (www.lampson.com)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 2300. 106th Congress. Academic Achievement for All Act. Nicholas Lampson voted Nay on 10/21/1999. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "1) Indicate what changes you support (if any) concerning levels of federal funding for the following categories. Select one number only. c) Education (K-12)" 1) Indicate what changes you support (if any) concerning levels of federal funding for the following categories. Select one number only. Other or expanded principles: "Public Works "
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "1) Indicate what changes you support (if any) concerning levels of federal funding for the following categories. Select one number only. c) Education (K-12)" 1) Indicate what changes you support (if any) concerning levels of federal funding for the following categories. Select one number only. Other or expanded principles: "Defense "
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Local" for: "Indicate which level of government should have primary responsibility for the following services. Select one level only. 3) Education"
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "e) Eliminate the Department of Education, thereby giving state and local government greater control over educational issues."
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Greatly Increase" for: "1) Indicate what changes you support (if any) concerning levels of federal funding for the following categories. Select one number only. c) Education (K-12)" 1) Indicate what changes you support (if any) concerning levels of federal funding for the following categories. Select one number only. Other or expanded principles: "Corporate Welfare "
  • Nicholas Lampson. Issue Position: Education. 6 March 2012. "As a former teacher, I have a personal interest in education policy. My efforts over the past several years have been concentrated on measures that will provide adequate funds to achieve the goals set out in the No Child Left Behind Act. This Act, while not perfect, includes greater accountability features and gives local school districts more control over their policies. However, Congress has substantially underfunded the amount required to meet the No Child Left Behind Act. In recent years, Congress has continued to underfund education even as they run record federal deficits." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Lampson Announces $848,568 in Funding For Local School Districts and UH-CL. 26 July 2008. "I'm pleased to announce funds for our community's children. Keeping our children safe and drug-free brings us one step closer to making sure that they remain on a successful path [¦] Every child deserves a good education and a community that values it. Providing grants to educators will assist children in reaching their fullest potential," said Rep. Lampson." (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Energy: Do you support reducing restrictions on offshore energy production? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 3534. 112th Congress. Offshore Drilling Regulations and Other Energy Law Amendments. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 07/30/2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 1230. 112th Congress. Offshore Leasing Act. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 05/05/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. H Amdt 773. 112th Congress. Ending Moratorium on Deepwater Drilling Rigs that Meet Certain Safety Standards. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 07/30/2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Issues: Energy. 2 October 2012. "I wrote the Domestic Drilling Act to open drilling on the outer continental shelf (OCS) for drilling and oil exploration to increase domestic oil production that will drive down the price of gas for consumers while providing for America's energy security." (www.lampson.com)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Bi-Partisan Working Group Embraces Lampson Energy Plan. 30 July 2008. "Rep. Lampson was the first Democrat to introduce legislation that opens the outer continental shelf (OCS) and Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for drilling and oil exploration. Increasing opportunities for domestic oil production will decrease gas prices for every American with a car or truck. The proposal directs $2.6 trillion from lease royalties to be used for alternative energy research that will increase America's energy independence and grow the economy by creating new industry." (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Environment: Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 2454. 111th Congress. Energy and Environmental Law Amendments ("Cap and Trade"). Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 06/26/2009. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "i) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel powered engines, including cars and trucks."
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 910. 112th Congress. Energy Tax Prevention Act. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 04/07/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "l) Promote the selling of pollution credits to encourage industries to decrease amount of pollution."
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "d) Eliminate government regulations of the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion."
  • Nicholas Lampson. Issue Position: Energy. 6 March 2012. "I've always had a keen eye on energy development and resources for both Texas and our nation. Now that global warming and climate change have taken on great national importance, Congress has given these important issues long overdue attention." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Invest in Energy Independence Act of 2008. 20 May 2008. "Mr. Speaker, I rise tonight in strong support of a piece of legislation that I recently introduced, H.R. 6067. It's called the Invest in Energy Independence Act [¦] Additionally, the Energy Security Fund established in the legislation will also fund carbon capture and storage technologies, which will help us significantly reduce future greenhouse gas emissions." (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Guns: Do you support restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 6842. 110th Congress. Repealing Portions of the D.C. Firearm Ban. Nicholas Lampson voted Did Not Vote on 09/17/2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "c) Maintain all federal registration procedures and restrictions on possessing firearms."
  • Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. 04/18/2012. "Nicholas Lampson supported the interests of the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence 33 percent from 1988-2003 (Senate) or 1991-2003 (House)." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 2122. 106th Congress. Mandatory Gun Show Background Check Act. Nicholas Lampson voted Nay on 06/18/1999. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "e) Repeal all bans and measures that restrict law-abiding citizens from owning legally-obtained firearms."
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "b) Increase restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms."
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Expand the nationwide ban on the sale or transfer of assault weapons to include all forms of semi-automatic weapons."
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "f) Allow law-abiding citizens to carry concealed firearms that are legally owned and registered."
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "d) Implement tighter restrictions on firearm sales in an effort to hinder terrorist groups from stockpiling weapon arsenals."
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "d) Ease procedures on the purchase and registration of firearms."
  • Nicholas Lampson. Lampson Statement on DC Gun Ban Decision. 26 June 2008. "The right to protect yourself and your family is as vital as the right to free speech or freedom of the press. The Supreme Court's decision underscores our country's commitment to protecting the fundamental rights on which America was founded. Today, America has reaffirmed its promise to the right to bear arms." (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Health Care: Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income."
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "i) The federal government has no responsibility in providing health care."
  • Marilyn Tennissen. Reactions of Texas Lawmakers to Healthcare Ruling Follows Party Lines: Southeast Texas Record. 28 June 2012. "Under our current system, families and small business owners are just one serious accident or illness away from bankruptcy, are denied health care by insurance companies because of pre-existing conditions, and insurance companies charge women more for health insurance than men and they are often denied life saving tests [¦] Congress needs to quit this partisan bickering and get serious about creating jobs and getting our economy back on track. Obamacare is not perfect, and we still have a long way to go in ensuring all Texans have access to quality, affordable health care. I know that by working together we can find workable solutions to our health care problems. Both sides got it wrong here, so I challenge both sides to come together and solve these problems." (setexasrecord.com)
  • TJ Aulds. Debate Rages After Supreme Court Decision: Galveston Daily News. 29 June 2012. "Congress needs to quit this partisan bickering and get serious about creating jobs and getting our economy back on track [¦] Obama-Care is not perfect, and we still have a long way to go in ensuring all Texans have access to quality, affordable health care. I know that by working together we can find workable solutions to our health care problems." (galvestondailynews.com)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 2. 112th Congress. Repealing the Health Care Bill. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 01/19/2011. (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Immigration: Do you support requiring illegal immigrants to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "g) Children of illegal immigrants, born in the United States, should not automatically receive US citizenship." Indicate which principles you support regarding issues relating to immigration. Other or expanded principles: "Illegal immigrants should not receive any social services; we should better control our borders. "
  • Nicholas Lampson. Project Vote Smart: 1996 Texas Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "c) Ease citizenship requirements in order to make it easier for immigrants to become United States citizens."
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 5281. 112th Congress. DREAM Act. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 12/08/2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Nick Lampson Opposes Democrats, Moves to Secure Border. 11 March 2008. "Securing our borders, cracking down on businesses that hire illegal immigrants, and enforcing the laws on the books rather than creating new ones solves a large piece of the immigration puzzle that we face in Texas [¦] I've fought to address each of these items. Today, I acted again as independent voice by pressing Congress to tackle the issues of border security and illegal immigration." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Video: Lampson/Olson Debate (TX-22): Illegal Immigration. 21 October 2008. "Once we secure our border than we can use some hopefully bipartisan effort because that is what it is going to take, ladies and gentleman, to address the many millions of people who are here illegally without giving them blanket amnesty." (www.youtube.com)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Issue Position: Border Security & Immigration. 6 March 2012. "I do not believe we can pass an amnesty for people who break our immigration laws. Congress and President Reagan tried this in 1986, and two decades later, the number of illegal immigrants in this country is estimated between 11 and 12 million. The bottom line is: Congress tried an amnesty before, and it did not work. Amnesty sent the wrong message and encouraged further lawlessness." (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Marriage: Do you support same-sex marriage? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 3685. 110th Congress. Sexual Orientation Employment Nondiscrimination Act (ENDA). Nicholas Lampson voted Nay on 11/07/2007. (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Lampson Votes to Protect Marriage. 19 October 2004. "Today, I will vote in support of the Marriage Protection Amendment. I shall do so because like President Bush, I strongly believe that marriage should be between a man and a woman. I have always been on record as having this position, and know that my vote also reflects the views of the vast majority of residents of Southeast Texas." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. HR 2965. 112th Congress. Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act. Nicholas Lampson voted NA on 12/15/2010. (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer National Security: Do you support targeting suspected terrorists outside of official theaters of conflict? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Nicholas Lampson. Issue Position: Defense. 6 March 2012. "We must be able to strike anywhere in the world to prevent threats to our national security [...] We must maintain the strongest military capabilities in the world in order to protect our country and our way of life." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Lampson Votes for Plan to Attack Terrorists and Protect America. 12 October 2004. "The attacks of September 11th were a wake up call for this nation [¦] Today we answer that alarm with strong action that will help our forces hunt down the terrorists and win the war on terror [¦] Today we have made a down payment on protecting America [¦] More needs to be done to take the fight to the enemy and secure our borders against the terrorist threat. We need more protection on land, sea and air," (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Social Security: Do you support allowing individuals to divert a portion of their Social Security taxes into personal retirement accounts? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Alliance for Retired Americans. 04/18/2012. "Nicholas Lampson supported the interests of the Alliance for Retired Americans 80 percent in 2008." (votesmart.org)
  • Nicholas Lampson. About Nick Lampson. 6 March 2012. "Nick has been a steadfast voice for protecting Social Security throughout his time in government." (www.lampson.com)
  • Nicholas Lampson. Issue Position: Social Security. 6 March 2012. "Every family in this country has similar stories, and I want you to know that I will not support any attempts to alter the traditional and vital roles of this program. While the program is in need of reform, I firmly stand against any effort to privatize Social Security. I will also work in Congress to reduce our out of control deficits which threaten the security of this critical program." (votesmart.org)

Key

Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Project Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Project Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

Congressional Election 1996 National Political Awareness Test

This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.

The Political Courage Test asks candidates which items they will support if elected. It does not ask them to indicate which items they will oppose. Through extensive research of public polling data, we discovered that voters are more concerned with what candidates would support when elected to office, not what they oppose. If a candidate does not select a response to any part or all of any question, it does not necessarily indicate that the candidate is opposed to that particular item.
Indicate all principles you support concerning abortion.
a) Abortions should always be legally available.
b) Abortions should be legal in all circumstances as long as the procedure is completed within the first trimester of pregnancy.
c) Abortions should be legal only when the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape or when the life of the woman is endangered.
d) Abortions should be legal only when the life of the woman is endangered.
e) Abortions should be limited by waiting periods and notification requirements as decided by each state government.
f) Abortions should always be illegal.
Xg) Other

Government should not decide this personal medical issue. I am a strong advocate for alternatives to abortion.

Indicate your position concerning affirmative action programs.
a) The federal government should consider preferences to minority-owned businesses in granting government contracts.
Xb) The federal government should prosecute cases of discrimination in the public sector.
c) The federal government should prosecute cases of discrimination in the private sector.
Xd) The federal government should provide affirmative actions programs as long as such programs do not include quotas.
e) The federal government should not provide any affirmative action programs.
f) Other
NoDo you support amending the US Constitution to require an annual balanced federal budget?
1) Indicate what changes you support (if any) concerning levels of federal funding for the following categories. Select one number only.
Maintain Statusa) AIDS Programs
Maintain Statusb) Arts funding
Greatly Increasec) Education (K-12)
Maintain Statusd) Environmental programs
Maintain Statuse) Housing projects
Greatly Increasef) Job training programs
Slightly Increaseg) Law enforcement
Maintain Statush) Medicaid
Maintain Statusi) Medicare
Slightly Increasej) NASA
Slightly Increasek) Student loan programs
Slightly Decreasel) Welfare (AFDC)
Slightly Decreasem) Other

Defense

Greatly Decreasen) Other

Corporate Welfare

Slightly Decreaseo) Other

Public Works

2) Do you support the use of block grants given to states, rather than federal spending, in the following areas?
Undecideda) Agriculture
Undecidedb) Education
Undecidedc) Farm subsidies
Undecidedd) Food stamps
Undecidede) Law enforcement
Nof) Medicaid
Nog) Medicare
Noh) School lunches
Noi) Welfare
Yesj) Other

Community Service Block Grants

Indicate which principles you support regarding campaign finance reform.
a) Prohibit Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions to candidates for federal office.
b) Establish spending limits on congressional campaigns and provide public funding for complying candidates.
c) Support legislation that would increase the federal limits on individual contributions.
Xd) Pass legislation that would encourage full and timely disclosure of campaign finance information.
e) Remove all legislative limits on campaign financing.
Xf) Other

Establish spending limits on congressional campaigns and independent expenditures with free access to equal radio and TV time for candidates in compliance.

Indicate which principles you support to address crime.
a) Broaden use of the death penalty for federal crimes.
b) Increase spending to build more federal prisons.
Xc) Impose "truth in sentencing" for violent criminals so they serve full sentences with no chance of parole.
Xd) Support the use of "boot camps" as alternative sentencing for adult first-time felons.
Xe) Limit the number of appeals allowed to inmates on death row.
Xf) Fund programs to provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related skills and job-placement assistance when released.
Xg) Expand funding for community policing programs.
h) Increase penalties for the possession of any illegal firearms.
Xi) Prosecute youths accused of murder as adults.
Xj) Increase funding for local Boys & Girls Clubs and other independent organizations in communities with at-risk youth.
k) Reduce prison sentences for those who commit non-violent crimes.
l) Deport all permanent resident aliens convicted of a felony.
Xm) Other

Increase penalties for the use of firearms involved in committing a crime.

Indicate what changes you support (if any) regarding funding for the following categories. Select one number only.
Slightly Decrease1) CIA appropriations
Greatly Increase2) Defense plant conversion
Slightly Decrease3) Military hardware
Maintain Status4) Military space shuttle missions
Slightly Increase5) Pay for active duty personnel
Slightly Decrease6) Development of new weapons
Greatly Decrease7) Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
Slightly Increase8) Armed Forces personnel training
Greatly Decrease9) Other

Payments to support allied forces defenses

No1) Do you support amending the United States Constitution to allow voluntary prayer and/or moment of silence in public schools?
Yes2) Do you support funding the National Service Program (Ameri-Corps) in which young people receive money from the federal government for college in return for performing community service?
3) Indicate which principles you support concerning education.
Xa) Maintain the national standards and goals set forth in "Goals 2000".
b) Provide parents with vouchers to send their children to any publicly funded school.
c) Provide parents with vouchers to send their children to any participating school: public, private or religious.
d) Implement charter schools where teachers and professionals receive authorization and funding to establish new schools.
e) Eliminate the Department of Education, thereby giving state and local government greater control over educational issues.
f) Other
Indicate which principles or programs you support regarding America's environment and natural resources.
a) Transfer public lands, such as federal forests and range lands, to the jurisdiction of state and local governments.
b) Require the federal government to reimburse citizens when environmental regulations limit use of privately owned lands.
Xc) Strengthen the Clean Water Act.
d) Change the Endangered Species Act of 1973 to limit the number of habitats eligible to be designated as endangered.
e) Utilize cost-benefit analysis to determine economic impacts of proposed environmental protection and cleanup legislation.
Xf) Increase fees charged to ranchers who graze cattle on federal lands.
Xg) Revise the 1872 mining law to increase the amounts charged to mining companies using federal lands.
Xh) Encourage development of alternative fuels and electric cars to reduce pollution.
Xi) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel powered engines, including cars and trucks.
j) Increase federal taxes on gasoline and diesel fuels to promote conservation and alternative fuel development.
Xk) Require that a percentage of purchases made by federal agencies include recycled components.
l) Promote the selling of pollution credits to encourage industries to decrease amount of pollution.
m) Other
Indicate which level of government should have primary responsibility for the following services. Select one level only.
Federal1) Border security
Federal2) Civil rights enforcement
Local3) Education
Federal4) Environmental cleanup
5) Job training
Local6) Law enforcement
7) Low-income housing
State8) Medicaid
Federal9) Medicare
State10) Welfare (AFDC)
11) Other
No1) Should the US have diplomatic relations with the government of Cuba?
No2) Should the US have diplomatic relations with the government of Vietnam?
Undecided3) Should the US recognize and extend full diplomatic relations to Taiwan?
Undecided4) Should the US continue funding for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty?
Undecided5) Should the US continue funding for Radio Marti and TV Marti?
Undecided6) Should the US continue funding for Radio Free Asia?
No7) Do you support the deployment of US troops to the former Yugoslavia?
8) Indicate your position concerning economic aid to Russia and the former Soviet republics.
a) Economic aid to Russia and the former republics should be increased to facilitate democracy and market reforms.
b) Economic aid to Russia and the former republics should be continued unless Russia exports nuclear weapons or related technology.
c) Economic aid to Russia and the former republics should be decreased and/or eliminated.
Xd) Other

Limited aid should be given to Russia to help dismantle nuclear arms.

9) Indicate which principles you support regarding US economic aid to foreign countries.
a) Foreign aid should only be given when extraordinary circumstances and disaster threaten the lives of civilian populations.
Xb) Foreign aid should be given to countries only when it is in the security interests of the United States.
Xc) Foreign aid should be eliminated from any nation with documented human rights abuses.
d) Foreign aid should be maintained at current levels.
e) Other
10) Indicate which principles you support regarding the United States - United Nations relationship.
a) The US should contribute more funding and troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions.
b) The US should participate in UN peacekeeping missions only when vital US interests are directly threatened.
c) The US should use military force only when the US border or territories are attacked or American citizens are in danger.
d) The US should pay the money it owes to the United Nations.
e) The US should withdraw from the UN completely.
Xf) Other

The U.S. should participate in UN peacekeeping missions primarily when vital U.S. interests are directly threatened.

Indicate which principles you support concerning gun issues.
a) Expand the nationwide ban on the sale or transfer of assault weapons to include all forms of semi-automatic weapons.
b) Increase restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms.
c) Maintain all federal registration procedures and restrictions on possessing firearms.
Xd) Ease procedures on the purchase and registration of firearms.
e) Repeal all bans and measures that restrict law-abiding citizens from owning legally-obtained firearms.
f) Allow law-abiding citizens to carry concealed firearms that are legally owned and registered.
g) Other
Indicate which principles you support regarding America's health care system.
a) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income.
Xb) Provide vouchers to the working poor so they can buy into a private health care plan.
c) Implement a government-financed, single-payer national health care system similar to that of Canada.
d) Support a "managed competition" health care plan to contain costs and improve access that does not include mandated health alliances, government cost control powers, or employer/employee mandates.
Xe) Provide tax incentives for small businesses to help provide health care to their employees.
f) Allow middle and low income families to deduct yearly health care costs from their taxable income.
g) Establish limits on the amount of damages awarded in medical malpractice lawsuits.
h) Encourage tax-free medical savings accounts, which would be taxed if used for any purpose other than medical costs.
i) The federal government has no responsibility in providing health care.
j) Other
Indicate which principles you support concerning illegal drugs.
a) Increase penalties for selling illegal drugs.
b) Impose mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
Xc) Impose capital punishment for convicted international drug traffickers.
d) Require drug testing for federal employees in sensitive positions (Air Traffic Control, National Park Police, Secret Service, etc.).
e) Strengthen current laws dealing with non-controlled substances, including inhalants and commercially available pills.
Xf) Increase funding of federally-sponsored drug education and drug treatment programs.
g) Decriminalize the possession and private use of marijuana.
h) Other
Indicate which principles you support regarding issues relating to immigration.
a) Further limit the number of immigrants allowed into the country.
b) Prohibit states from passing laws that deny human services (medical care, education) to illegal immigrants or their children.
c) Ease citizenship requirements in order to make it easier for immigrants to become United States citizens.
d) Establish English as the official and recognized language of the United States.
e) Provide extra federal aid to states with higher numbers of immigrants for necessary medical and social services.
f) Restrict the eligibility of legal immigrants for certain social programs (i.e. AFDC, HUD housing, food stamps, etc.).
Xg) Children of illegal immigrants, born in the United States, should not automatically receive US citizenship.
Xh) Other

Illegal immigrants should not receive any social services; we should better control our borders.

YesShould the President be allowed to veto certain items of legislation while signing spending or tax bills into law?
The American people have consistently mentioned the decline of morals and ethics in America as a major problem facing the country. Explain what you will do as a member of Congress to address this concern.

By providing jobs that pay a livable wage, an education system that prepares workers for these jobs, and affordable health care; we will prove that the American Dream is attainable for all and that hard work is rewarded. That will reduce crime and feelings of isolation and disenfranchisement.

Indicate which principles you support regarding the poor and homeless.
Xa) Provide tax incentives for companies to hire and train homeless people who want to work.
b) Increase funding of homeless shelters and low income housing projects.
c) Increase funding of programs that help alcoholics and drug addicts recover and find steady work.
Xd) Increase the minimum wage.
e) Provide homeless families with apartment vouchers they can use to supplement the cost of an apartment.
f) Provide government jobs for those who wish to work and cannot find a job in the private sector.
g) Increase the income tax deduction on individual contributions made to charities that help the poor and homeless.
Xh) Implement enterprise zones in communities with high unemployment.
i) Other
1) Indicate the changes you support (if any) concerning the tax levels for the following categories. Select one number only.
Income Taxes
a) Retiree income over $40,000
Slightly Decreaseb) Family income less than $25,000
Slightly Decreasec) Family income $25-75,000
Maintain Statusd) Family income $75-150,000
Slightly Increasee) Family income over $150,000
Other Tax Issues
Maintain Statusf) Alcohol taxes
Maintain Statusg) Capital gains taxes
Maintain Statush) Charitable deductions
Maintain Statusi) Cigarette taxes
Maintain Statusj) Corporate income taxes
Slightly Increasek) Earned income tax credit
l) Estate taxes
Maintain Statusm) Medical expense deductions
Maintain Statusn) Mortgage deductions
o) Other
No2) Do you support replacing the US income tax structure with a flat income tax?
No3) Do you support replacing the US income tax structure with a broad-based consumption tax?
No1) Do you support amending the Constitution to limit the number of terms which members of Congress can serve?
2) If you support term limits, how many years should each serve?
Senator (years)
Representatives (years)
Indicate which principles you support concerning terrorism.
Xa) Relax current guidelines that forbid the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from investigating terrorist groups when there is a "reasonable indication" of terrorist activities.
b) Relax wiretapping restrictions to give the FBI broader authority to investigate terrorist suspects.
c) Require that chemical tracing agents be added to commercially-sold products that can be used to produce explosives.
d) Implement tighter restrictions on firearm sales in an effort to hinder terrorist groups from stockpiling weapon arsenals.
Xe) Grant broader authority to the US Immigration and Naturalization Service to deny entrance visas to terrorist suspects.
f) Maintain limits on the authority of federal agencies investigating suspected terrorists.
g) Restrict the investigative authority of the FBI and other governmental agencies.
h) Other
No1) Do you support the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
No2) Do you support broadening NAFTA to include other countries?
No3) Do you support the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)?
No4) Do you support the World Trade Organization (WTO)?
No5) Do you support lifting the trade embargo imposed against Cuba?
Yes6) Do you support imposing tariffs on products imported from nations that maintain restrictive trade barriers on American products?
Yes7) Should a nation's human rights record affect its "most favored nation" trading status with the United States?
Indicate which principles you support regarding unemployment.
Xa) Provide tax credits for companies that move job-creating industries into areas with high unemployment.
Xb) Increase funding for national job-training programs.
c) Increase funding for public works projects such as the repair of roads and bridges.
d) Eliminate government regulations of the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion.
Xe) Establish enterprise zones in areas with large numbers of unemployed people.
f) Overhaul the current unemployment system by focusing on training and education in skills needed in certain industries.
g) Eliminate any governmental programs designed to reduce unemployment.
Xh) Other

The current unemployment system should be reformed by focusing on training and education in skills needed in certain industries.

Indicate which principles you support regarding the US welfare system.
Xa) Strengthen child support collection procedures and increase penalties for parents who do not pay child support.
b) Impose a two-year limit on welfare benefits for recipients who are able to work.
c) Require welfare recipients to accept some form of government-sponsored job after two years if unemployed in the private sector.
d) Require that unwed teenage mothers live with a parent or guardian (if possible) and attend school to receive benefits.
e) Limit the benefits given to single women if they have additional children while receiving welfare benefits.
Xf) Provide child care services to welfare recipients who work or attend school.
g) Provide rent or housing supplement vouchers for low-income families.
h) Make no substantial changes at this time.
Xi) Increase funding of programs that prevent teen pregnancy and family break-up.
Xj) Support programs that give incentives for employers to hire and train welfare recipients.
k) Other
1) Explain your two main legislative priorities if elected to Congress.

We need to provide for working families by raising the minimum wage, giving small businesses a tax credit for providing health insurance and protecting pensions and the Earned Income Tax Credit. These initiatives will help in bridging the growing gap between rich and poor and rebuild the middle class. Within the international community, our allies need to claim a greater stake in funding their own defense. Trade policies must ensure fairness for American goods.

2) Should your priorities require additional government funding, please explain how you intend to obtain the additional funding.
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