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John N. Boozman

John Boozman's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Full Name: John N. Boozman
Office: U.S. Senate (AR) - Jr, Republican
First Elected: 11/02/2010
Next Election: 2016
Gender: Male
Family: Wife: Cathy; 3 Children
Birth Date: 12/10/1950
Birth Place: Shreveport, LA
Home City: Rogers, AR
Religion: Baptist
Project Vote Smart does not permit the use of its name or programs in any campaign activity, including advertising, debates, and speeches.
John Boozman refused to tell citizens where he stands on any of the issues addressed in the 2010 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests from Vote Smart, national media, and prominent political leaders.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These issue positions, from the year 2010, are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Pro-life Inferred Answer Abortion Issues: Do you consider yourself pro-choice or pro-life? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • National Right to Life Committee. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of the National Right to Life Committee 100 percent in 2009." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. H Amdt 209 to HR 1815. 109th Congress. An amendment numbered 12 printed in House Report 109-96 to lift the current ban on privately funded abortions at U.S. military facilities overseas. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted NO on 25 May 2005. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. S 3. 108th Congress. A bill to prohibit the procedure commonly known as partial-birth abortion. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted YES on 2 October 2003. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. H Amdt 509 to HR 3962. 111th Congress. An amendment printed in Part C of House Report 111-330 to codify the Hyde Amendment in H.R. 3962. The amendment prohibits federal funds for abortion services in the public option. It also prohibits individuals who receive affordability credits from purchasing a plan that provides elective abortions. However, it allows individuals, both who receive affordability credits and who do not, to separately purchase with their own funds plans that cover elective abortions. It also clarifies that private plans may still offer elective abortions. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted YES on 7 November 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. HR 760. 108th Congress. To prohibit the procedure commonly known as partial-birth abortion. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted YES on 4 June 2003. (votesmart.org)
  • Planned Parenthood. 2008. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of Planned Parenthood 0 percent in 2008." (votesmart.org)
  • NARAL Pro-Choice America. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of NARAL Pro-Choice America 0 percent in 2009." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. Arkansas Right to Life: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded YES to the question: "1. Do you support the reversal of the Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton decisions, so that elected legislative bodies may once again protect unborn children by limiting or prohibiting abortion?" (www.artlpac.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. Arkansas Right to Life: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded YES to the question: "2. Would you support legislation to strictly limit abortion at least from the point in development that evidence suggest an unborn child has the capacity to experience pain?" (www.artlpac.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. Arkansas Right to Life: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded YES to the question: "3. Would you vote to renew the current Hyde Amendment policy without weakening amendments?" (www.artlpac.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. Arkansas Right to Life: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded YES to the question: "4. Would you vote against the proposed federal ERA, if it does not contain an "abortion-neutralization" amendment?" (www.artlpac.org)
  • National Right to Life. 2010. 16 September 2010. National Right to Life endorsed John Boozman in the 2010 general election. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. ArkansasVoterGuide.com: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded: OPPOSE to the question: "4. Abortion: The U.S. Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade abortion decision." (www.arkansasvotersguide.com)
  • John Boozman. Issue Position: Families, Marriage, and Children. "Strong families are necessary for the future of our nation and I feel strong families are founded in respect for life. As a strong believer in the dignity of all human life, I am unapologetically committed to work to defend those who cannot defend themselves. To this end, I have supported measures before Congress that promote the sanctity of life, including an immediate ban on the barbaric practice of partial birth abortion and charging criminals with a separate crime if an act of violence against a pregnant woman results in the killing or injuring of the woman's unborn child." (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Budget, Spending, and Tax Issues: Do you support the elimination of the federal estate tax? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • John Boozman. HR 5638. 109th Congress. To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to increase the unified credit against the estate tax to an exclusion equivalent of $5,000,000 and to repeal the sunset provision for the estate and generation-skipping taxes, and for other purposes. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted YES on 22 June 2006. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. HR 8. 108th Congress. To make the repeal of the estate tax permanent. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted YES on 13 April 2005. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. 2004. Project Vote Smart: Arkansas Congressional National Political Awareness Test. Selected YES for: "4) Do you support permanent repeal of the federal estate tax?"
  • National Taxpayers Union. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of the National Taxpayers Union 86 percent in 2009." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. Boozman Votes To Repeal Death Tax. 3 December 2009. "Death shouldn't be taxable. It should not force the sale of family farms or the closure of small businesses. Unfortunately these are both realistic under Speaker Pelosi's proposal. Hardworking Americans should be allowed to pass along the results of their success, which they were already taxed on during their lifetime, to their families without having to pay the IRS. Allowing the existing tax cuts to expire is a tax increase and is not something Washington should impose on hardworking Americans, especially in this economic climate. We need to create policies that allow us to keep the money we earn and not spend time discussing how to take more wages from taxpayers." (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Budget, Spending, and Tax Issues: Do you support using government funds in an effort to stimulate and improve the economy? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Club for Growth. 2008. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of the Club for Growth 61 percent in 2008." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. HR 1. 111th Congress. Making supplemental appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization, for fiscal year ending September 30, 2009, and for other purposes. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted NO on 13 February 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. HR 1424. 111th Congress. To provide authority for the Federal Government to purchase and insure certain types of troubled assets for the purposes of providing stability to and preventing disruption in the economy and financial system and protecting taxpayers, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide incentives for energy production and conservation, to extend certain expiring provisions, to provide individual income tax relief, and for other purposes. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted YES on 3 October 2008. (votesmart.org)
  • John N Boozman. 2010. ArkansasVoterGuide.com: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded OPPOSE: "The government created the conditions that led to the financial collapse by pushing the banks to make bad loans, and so there was a responsibility to clean up the mess that Congress created. I voted for the TARP loans, most of which have been repaid, because we were on the verge of a government created crisis and there is nothing conservative about allowing our banking system to fail. It was a vote to protect jobs, savings and pensions for Arkansans. Once it was stable, I voted AGAINST the second half of TARP, against attempts to use repaid TARP funds in the general fund and against subsequent bailouts--including cash for clunkers and the outlandish stimulus bill," to the question: "6. Taxes: Taxpayer funded bailouts for failing banks and businesses during 2008 and 2009." (www.arkansasvotersguide.com)
  • John Boozman. Boozman Opposes Permanent 'Bailout'. 13 December 2009. "'This 1300 page bill is nothing more than a government takeover of our financial institutions. The legislation undermines the free market principals and puts it in the hands of Washington. I believe that we need to end taxpayer funded bailouts, not establish permanent bailout authority. This is bad policy that allows the government to spare financial firms from the consequences of their mistakes by imposing those costs on others, including the taxpayers. Instead of commonsense reform, Congressman Barney Frank has managed to complicate and federalize, in only a way that he could, many aspects of our banking and financial institutions,' Boozman said. Boozman supported an alternative bill to modernize our financial regulatory structure, end bailouts, enhance consumer protection, rein in and audit the Federal Reserve, and protect taxpayers." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. Economic Concerns. 26 September 2008. "While no legislation has been formally introduced in the House of Representatives I see the need to restore confidence in the financial sector, which includes overseeing the practices of lending institutions. When we are considering a proposal that would double or triple our federal budget deficit, it is imperative that we discuss the proposal on the same scope or scale of its potential impact. American taxpayers need to be informed on such a proposal, especially when they will be asked to pay for it. We must also keep certain principles in mind when considering a bailout with consequences that could alter the nature of both the government and the economy. We need to protect American taxpayers. American taxpayers who have made responsible financial decisions need to be given clear reasons why the bailout will be beneficial to them and not just to Wall Street bankers who made poor financial decisions. According to Washington Watch, the proposed bailout of $700 billion will cost every household in the U.S. $6,500 in increased federal debt. If it is important enough to do, it is important enough to take the time to do it right. It is likely that the proposed bailout will be considered less than a week from its initial conception. If this action is absolutely critical to protect our economy, we should not hastily consider the proposal under an artificial timeline that says Congress must adjourn on September 26. Such a critical decision should be thoroughly examined, not made brashly or made under the umbrella of political pressure surrounding the upcoming elections. Strong oversight is needed. $700 billion is more than the annual defense budget. If approved, this plan could double or triple the budget deficit for the next two years. Any proposal must include strong reporting and oversight by Congress rather than giving one person in the government - the Secretary of the Treasury - full control over how to spend $700 billion. In fact, the initial proposal prevents any agency or court of law from reviewing the execution of this proposal. We need to demand accountability. It is fundamentally unfair for Wall Street firms who are taking advantage of tax payer-funded bailouts to provide their executives with massive compensation or 'bonus' packages. Any proposal must ensure that executives of investment banks, mortgage lenders, and government regulators are held responsible and accountable for their actions, and that they share a portion of the burden of the bailout." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. Stop Washington Spending. 26 September 2008. "'This bill is labeled an "Economic Stimulus Package" but requiring Americans to pay more taxes to fund this isn't stimulating,' Boozman said. 'Americans know the best way to spend their own hard earned money. During tough economic times it is irresponsible for lawmakers to approve spending that forces them to pay more to Washington.' H.R. 7110 was introduced early Friday and was rushed through the house the same day. The legislation requires Washington to spend more than $60 billion in an effort to jump start the American economy through changes in infrastructure and other public programs. 'In the same week we are discussing a $700 billion bailout to help the economy it is irresponsible to continue talks of throwing even more taxpayer dollars to try and provide relief,' Boozman said." (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Business and Employment Issues: Do you support privatizing elements of Social Security? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • John Boozman. 2004. Project Vote Smart: Arkansas Congressional National Political Awareness Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "b) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts managed by private firms contracted by the government;" g) Social Security Issues other or expanded principles: "Want to preserve & protect soc. sec."
Yes Inferred Answer Crime Issues: Do you support capital punishment for certain crimes? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • John Boozman. 2004. Project Vote Smart: Arkansas Congressional National Political Awareness Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "a) Support the use of the death penalty for federal crimes."
  • Citizens United for the Rehabilitation of Errants. 2005-2006. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of the Citizens United for the Rehabilitation of Errants 20 percent in 2005-2006." (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Education Issues: Do you support federal education standards and testing requirements for K-12 students? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • John Boozman. Boozman Bills Benefit Students and Teachers. 4 May 2009. "I have heard from educators throughout Arkansas and all over the country on concerns they have with No Child Left Behind legislation. These pieces of legislation are the result of input and efforts from our teachers and administrators. This is a great opportunity to improve some of the areas our educators identified that will help our schools and benefit our students... State and local educators should have the authority to craft alternatives which provide students with the opportunity to succeed on the tests required by this legislation." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. Issue Position: Education Reform. "The "No Child Left Behind Act," which was passed shortly after I entered Congress, is an important step toward true reform. The bill grants state and local school officials more flexibility, funds programs that work, expands parental options and holds schools accountable for results. And, it is working. Test scores in America's urban areas are up and they are in the Third District of Arkansas as well. I promise to work with my colleagues to build on these successes and reform federal education laws with these principles in mind. I will always seek to ensure that our laws will benefit the children of Arkansas." (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Environment and Energy Issues: Do you support enacting environmental regulations aimed at reducing the effects of climate change? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • John Boozman. 2004. Project Vote Smart: Arkansas Congressional National Political Awareness Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "i) Encourage further development and use of alternative fuels to reduce pollution."
  • Environment America. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of Environment America 27 percent in 2009." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman signed the Contract from America. "Stop costly new regulations that would increase unemployment, raise consumer prices, and weaken the nation's global competitiveness with virtually no impact on global temperatures." (www.thecontract.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. ArkansasVoterGuide.com: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded OPPOSE to the question: "3. Environment: The cap and trade bill that places a tax on fossil fuels as a means of reducing carbon emissions." (www.arkansasvotersguide.com)
  • John Boozman. HR 2454. 111th Congress. To create clean energy jobs, achieve energy independence, reduce global warming pollution and transition to a clean energy economy. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted NO on 26 July 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman signed the Americans For Prosperity: No Climate Tax Pledge. 2010. (www.noclimatetax.com)
  • John Boozman. Issue Position: Gas Prices and Energy Policies. "Around the world, gas prices have escalated due to increased worldwide consumption, unstable regimes, burdensome regulations and natural disasters. All of these factors have pushed the oil market to the limit. High energy prices reflect short supplies and the strong demand of a growing economy. Massive government interference in the market is not the answer to this problem, but government can help reduce the problem by 1) encouraging an increase in energy supplies, 2) promoting new technology and innovation, and 3) encouraging conservation and fuel efficiency. All Arkansans, especially low and middle-income families, are counting on government to do what it can to reduce the burden of high energy costs." (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Gun Issues: Do you support restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. 2003. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence 0 percent from 1988 to 2003." (votesmart.org)
  • Gun Owners of America. 2010. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "In 2010 Gun Owners of America gave John Boozman a grade of A+." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. 2004. Project Vote Smart: Arkansas Congressional National Political Awareness Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "c) Ease federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns;" "e) Allow citizens to carry concealed guns;" "j) Support legislation that would protect manufacturers, distributors, dealers, and importers of firearms from civil lawsuits by crime victims."
  • John Boozman. HR 6842. 111th Congress. To restore Second Amendment rights in the District of Columbia. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted YES on 17 September 2008. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. ArkansasVoterGuide.com: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded SUPPORT to the question: "1. Guns: The view that the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution recognizes the right of private citizens to possess firearms." (www.arkansasvotersguide.com)
  • John Boozman. Issue Position: Second Amendment. "I know from my study of the history of the Second Amendment that the Founders intended it to protect the right of individual citizens to own, maintain, and shoot firearms. I wholeheartedly agree with protection of a very fundamental right; the right to defense of self and family. Use of firearms for hunting, shooting contests, or just collecting are all equally legitimate as well. Only those who trust government more than the people would want to see firearms removed from private hands. I am absolutely committed to keeping this right intact." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. Boozman Amendment Protects Veterans' Second Amendment Rights. 15 September 2010. "An amendment offered by U.S. Representative John Boozman to prevent veterans from being unjustly denied their right to possess and purchase firearms, was adopted during a House Veterans Affairs Committee markup today. Boozman, Ranking Member of the Veterans Affairs Economic Opportunity Subcommittee, offered the Veterans 2nd Amendment Protection Act as an amendment to reform a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) process that strips 2nd Amendment Rights of veterans and their families who receive assistance managing their financial affairs. "Our veterans and their families sacrifice to protect the rights we are guaranteed under the Constitution. To take away their 2nd Amendment Rights because they cannot manage their finances is unjust. Our veterans deserve due process, something that is not achieved by current VA policy," Boozman said." (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Health Issues: Do you support a publicly-administered health insurance option? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • John Boozman signed the Contract from America. "Defund, repeal and replace the recently passed government-run health care with a system that actually makes health care and insurance more affordable by enabling a competitive, open, and transparent free-market health care and health insurance system that isn't restricted by state boundaries." (www.thecontract.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. Arkansas Right to Life: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded YES to the question: "5. Would you vote against any bill that would prohibit or limit the right to spend one's own money for health care or insurance?" (www.artlpac.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. ArkansasVoterGuide.com: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded OPPOSE to the question: "5. Health Care: Establishing a nationwide, government-regulated health care system that guarantees accessibility to health care for every American at taxpayer expense." (www.arkansasvotersguide.com)
  • American Public Health Association. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of the American Public Health Association 11 percent in 2009." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman signed The Club for Growth: Repeal It Pledge. 2010. (www.repealit.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. ArkansasVoterGuide.com: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded: "I support a repeal of Obamacare. Once repealed, we need to incrementally replace it with common-sense, free market reforms such as: - allowing people to purchase insurance across state lines; - enabling small businesses to pool together to get the same break as major corporations when purchasing insurance; -portability - allowing you to transfer insurance when you leave your job; - nuisance lawsuit reform to lower health care costs," to the question: "13. What type of health care reform do you support?" (www.arkansasvotersguide.com)
  • John Boozman. HR 3962. 111th Congress. To provide affordable, quality health care for all Americans and reduce the growth in health care spending, and for other purposes. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted NO on 7 November 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. Boozman Statement on President Address On Health Care Reform. 9 September 2009. "Ideas of associated health care plans and allowing Americans to own their health care plans much like they own their car insurance plans would greatly help improve access to quality, affordable health care. However, from discussions with my constituents there is an overwhelming point that must be made in this debate and that is to take the public option off the table. Unfortunately his proposal does not do this." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. GOP Doctors Caucus: Six Months Later and ObamaCare Still Isn't Working. 22 September 2010. "Today Members of the GOP Doctors Caucus offered the following comments on the six month anniversary of ObamaCare being signed into law: 'The more opportunity we have to examine ObamaCare and its consequences, the more the American people dislike it. Nearly everyday we're reading more bad news; the cost of our health care tab is bad for our budget, bad for senior citizens' and bad for small businesses. We're working to defund and repeal this legislation to provide Americans what they deserve, quality affordable health care,' Congressman John Boozman (R-AR) said." (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Immigration Issues: Do you support a pathway to citizenship for illegal immigrants? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Federation for American Immigration Reform. 2007-2008. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of the Federation for American Immigration Reform 77 percent in 2007-2008." (votesmart.org)
  • National Latino Congreso. 2007-2010. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of the National Latino Congreso 0 percent in 2007-2010." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. NumbersUSA: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded YES to: "Do you OPPOSE offering the estimated 11 million people illegally in the U.S. long-term work permits and/or a path to citizenship (whether through blanket amnesty or an "earned legalization" or other form)?" (www.numbersusa.com)
  • John Boozman. 2010. ArkansasVoterGuide.com: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded: "First and foremost, amnesty should be taken off the table. Rewarding those who break the rules to get in is a non-starter in my book," to the question: "11. What should be done about the estimated 12 million illegal immigrants who are in the U.S.?" (www.arkansasvotersguide.com)
  • John Boozman. Issue Position: Immigration. "I do not and will not support any amnesty provision in any legislation. We should not reward people who break the law with amnesty. I also believe that not enforcing the laws on the books is unfair to immigrants who have legally come here and to U.S.-born citizens. During my time in Congress, I have always voted against amnesty and I will continue to do so." (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer International Policy Issues: Do you support United States military action in Afghanistan? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • John Boozman. HR 4899. 111th Congress. Limiting Afghanistan Military Funding to Withdrawal and Other Specified Purposes. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted NO on 1 July 2010. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. HR 4899. 111th Congress. Requiring Timetable for Withdrawal from Afghanistan. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted NO on 1 July 2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Peace Action West. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. "John Boozman supported the interests of Peace Action West 8 percent in 2009." (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. Boozman Statement on Increasing Troops in Afghanistan. 2 December 2009. "While deploying more troops to fight the war in Afghanistan is vital to defeating the Taliban and Al Qaeda, I am concerned about arbitrary and public timelines. Arbitrary public timelines do more harm than good and there is no sense revealing specific details about our strategy unnecessarily." (boozman.house.gov)
Yes Inferred Answer Social Issues: Should marriage only be between one man and one woman? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • John Boozman. 2004. Project Vote Smart: Arkansas Congressional National Political Awareness Test. Selected YES for: "k) Should marriage be restricted to a union only between a man and a woman?"
  • John Boozman signed American Family Business Institute: Death Tax Repeal Pledge. (www.nodeathtax.org)
  • John Boozman. 2010. ArkansasVoterGuide.com: 2010 Arkansas Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded SUPPORT to the question: "2. Marriage: An amendment to the U.S. Constitution defining marriage as the union of one man and one woman." (www.arkansasvotersguide.com)
  • John Boozman. H J Res 88. 109th Congress. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to marriage. Project Vote Smart Summary: John Boozman voted YES on 18 July 2006. (votesmart.org)
  • John Boozman. Issue Position: Families, Marriage, and Children. "Traditional marriage is a union between a man and woman, and is at the very foundation of our society. Strong marriages between a man and a woman produce strong families, which then result in a strong nation. In America activist judges with their own agendas are trying to change the definition of marriage. Because of this, I proudly coIntroduced and voted for the Federal Marriage Amendment. This bill would define marriage in the Constitution and protect it from unelected judges who legislate on the bench in an effort to redefine marriage. Any state's voters and legislatures could grant civil unions if they desired without affecting the rights of other states. This has not yet passed the Senate, but I will continue to support it in the House." (votesmart.org)

Key

Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Project Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Project Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

Congressional Election 2004 National Political Awareness Test

This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.

The Political Courage Test asks candidates which items they will support if elected. It does not ask them to indicate which items they will oppose. Through extensive research of public polling data, we discovered that voters are more concerned with what candidates would support when elected to office, not what they oppose. If a candidate does not select a response to any part or all of any question, it does not necessarily indicate that the candidate is opposed to that particular item.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding abortion.
a) Abortions should always be illegal.
b) Abortions should always be legal.
c) Abortions should be legal only within the first trimester of pregnancy.
d) Abortions should be legal when the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape.
Xe) Abortions should be legal when the life of the woman is endangered.
Xf) Prohibit the dilation and extraction procedure, also known as "partial-birth" abortion.
Xg) Prohibit public funding of abortions and of organizations that advocate or perform abortions.
h) Other or expanded principles
Using the key, indicate what federal funding levels you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category.
Budget Priorities
Maintain Statusa) Agriculture
Maintain Statusb) Arts
Slightly Increasec) Defense
Maintain Statusd) Education
Maintain Statuse) Environment
Maintain Statusf) Homeland security
Maintain Statusg) International aid
Maintain Statush) Law enforcement
Maintain Statusi) Medical research
Maintain Statusj) National parks
Maintain Statusk) Public health services
Maintain Statusl) Scientific research
Maintain Statusm) Space exploration programs
Slightly Increasen) Transportation and highway infrastructure
Maintain Statuso) Welfare
p) Other or expanded categories
Defense Spending
Maintain Statusa) Armed Forces personnel training
Slightly Increaseb) Intelligence operations
Maintain Statusc) Military hardware
Maintain Statusd) Modernization of weaponry and equipment
Maintain Statuse) National missile defense
Greatly Increasef) Pay for active duty personnel
Slightly Increaseg) Programs to improve troop retention rates
Maintain Statush) Research and development of new weapons
Slightly Increasei) Troop and equipment readiness
j) Other or expanded categories
Using the key above, indicate what federal tax levels you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category.
Taxes
Income Taxes:
Family Income
a) Less than $25,000
b) $25,000-$75,000
c) $75,000-$150,000
d) Over $150,000
e) Other or expanded categories
Retiree Income
f) Over $40,000
g) Other or expanded categories
Other Taxes:
Maintain Statusa) Alcohol taxes
Slightly Decreaseb) Capital gains taxes
Maintain Statusc) Cigarette taxes
Slightly Decreased) Corporate taxes
Maintain Statuse) Gasoline taxes
Eliminatef) Inheritance taxes
g) Other or expanded categories
Deductions/Credits:
Slightly Increasea) Charitable contributions
Slightly Increaseb) Child tax credit
Maintain Statusc) Earned income tax credit
Greatly Increased) Medical expense deduction
Maintain Statuse) Mortgage deduction
Slightly Increasef) Student loan credit
g) Other or expanded categories
Yes4) Do you support permanent repeal of the federal estate tax?
Yes5) Do you support eliminating taxes on dividends paid to individual investors?
Yes6) Should a married couple filing jointly pay the same taxes as if they were an unmarried couple filing separately?
Yes7) Other or expanded principles

Would like to lessen the tax Burden on the people that pay taxes

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding campaign finance and government reform.
a) Support public taxpayer funding for federal candidates who comply with campaign spending limits.
b) Increase the amount individuals are permitted to contribute to federal campaigns.
c) Prohibit Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions to candidates for federal office.
d) Allow unregulated soft money campaign contributions to political parties or committees.
e) Allow ads paid for by soft money that support or attack a candidate for federal office.
f) Allow issue advocacy commercials by corporations, labor unions, and non-profit groups which appear within 60 days of a general election and within 30 days of a primary election.
g) Remove all contribution limits on federal campaigns and parties.
Undecidedh) Do you support instant run-off voting (IRV)?
Noi) Should Election Day be a national holiday?
Noj) Should same-sex couples be allowed to form civil unions?
Yesk) Should marriage be restricted to a union only between a man and a woman?
l) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding crime.
Xa) Support the use of the death penalty for federal crimes.
b) Eliminate the use of the death penalty for federal crimes.
Xc) Impose "truth in sentencing" for violent criminals so they serve full sentences with no chance of parole.
Xd) Support programs to provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related skills and job-placement assistance when released.
Xe) Support programs to provide prison inmates with drug and alcohol addiction treatment.
f) Reduce prison sentences for those who commit non-violent crimes.
Xg) Support additional criminal penalties if a fetus is killed in the commission of a federal crime against a pregnant woman.
h) Require that crimes based on gender, sexual orientation, and disability be prosecuted as federal hate crimes.
Xi) Support programs that provide job training and placement services for at-risk youth.
Xj) Impose stricter penalties for those convicted of white-collar crimes.
k) Enforcement of civil rights should primarily be the responsibility of the federal government.
l) Minors accused of a violent crime should be prosecuted as adults.
m) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding drugs.
Xa) Support mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
Xb) Expand federally sponsored drug education and drug treatment programs.
c) Decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana.
d) Allow doctors to prescribe marijuana to their patients for medicinal purposes.
Xe) Increase border security to stop the flow of illegal drugs into the United States.
f) Eliminate federal funding for programs associated with the "war on drugs."
g) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding education.
a) Support national standards for and testing of public school students.
Xb) Allow parents to use vouchers (equal opportunity scholarships) to send their children to any public school.
Xc) Allow parents to use vouchers (equal opportunity scholarships) to send their children to any private or religious school.
Xd) Allow teachers and professionals to receive authorization and funding to establish charter schools.
e) Increase funding for block grants to states to aid in the hiring of additional teachers.
f) Support teacher testing and reward teachers with merit pay.
g) Increase funding for school capital improvements (e.g. buildings, infrastructure, technology).
h) Support granting states limited control over Head Start programs.
i) Support changing the mission of Head Start to emphasize improving the math and reading skills of disadvantaged children.
j) Providing education is not a responsibility of the federal government.
k) Support affirmative action in public college admissions.
Xl) Increase funding of programs such as Pell grants and Stafford loans to help students pay for college.
Xm) Support federal tax incentives to help families save for college.
n) Other or expanded principles
1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding employment.
Xa) Increase funding for national job-training programs that re-train displaced workers or teach skills needed in today's job market.
Xb) Reduce government regulation of the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion.
c) Provide tax credits or grants to businesses that offer child care services to employees.
Xd) Encourage employers to offer flex-time scheduling, comp-time, and unpaid leave for family emergencies.
e) Eliminate all federal programs designed to reduce unemployment.
f) Increase the federal minimum wage.
g) Support the right of workers to strike without fear of being permanently replaced.
Xh) Allow workers to sell company stock and to diversify their company retirement funds into other investment options.
i) Other or expanded principles
2) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding affirmative action.
a) The federal government should consider race and gender in government contracting decisions.
Xb) The federal government should discontinue affirmative action programs.
c) The federal government should continue affirmative action programs.
d) Include sexual orientation in federal anti-discrimination laws.
e) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the environment and energy.
a) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Water Act.
b) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Air Act.
Xc) Require states to compensate citizens when environmental regulations limit uses of privately-owned land.
Xd) Relax logging restrictions on federal lands.
Xe) Relax standards on federal lands to allow increased recreational usage.
Xf) Support increased development of traditional energy resources (e.g. coal, natural gas, oil).
Xg) Strengthen emission controls and fuel efficiency standards on all gasoline and diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles.
Xh) Support opening a select portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge for oil exploration.
Xi) Encourage further development and use of alternative fuels to reduce pollution.
Xj) Support the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel.
k) Allow energy producers to trade pollution credits.
l) Support the U.S. re-entering the Kyoto treaty process to limit global warming.
m) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding guns.
a) Renew the ban on the sale or transfer of semi-automatic guns, except those used for hunting.
b) Maintain and strengthen the current level of enforcement of existing federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
Xc) Ease federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
d) Repeal federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
Xe) Allow citizens to carry concealed guns.
f) Require manufacturers to provide child-safety locks on guns.
g) Require background checks on gun sales between private citizens at gun shows.
h) Require a license for gun possession.
i) Establish a national database of ballistic "fingerprints" to track guns used in criminal activities.
Xj) Support legislation that would protect manufacturers, distributors, dealers, and importers of firearms from civil lawsuits by crime victims.
k) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding health care.
a) Providing health care is not a responsibility of the federal government.
b) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income.
Xc) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights which includes appeal mechanisms when claims are denied.
d) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights which includes the right to sue when claims are denied.
Xe) Expand eligibility for tax-free medical savings accounts.
Xf) Establish limits on the amount of punitive damages awarded in medical malpractice lawsuits.
g) Support expanding prescription drug coverage under Medicare.
h) Support expanding prescription drug coverage under private managed care plans.
Xi) Offer tax credits to individuals and small businesses to offset the cost of insurance coverage.
j) Support automatic enrollment of children in federal health care programs such as CHIP and Medicaid.
k) Allow 55-65 year-olds to buy into Medicare.
Xl) Support stem cell research on existing lines of stem cells.
m) Allow laboratories to create new lines of stem cells for additional research.
Xn) Other or expanded principles

For Reimportation of Drugs

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding immigration.
a) Decrease the number of legal immigrants allowed into the country.
Xb) Establish English as the official national language.
c) Increase the number of visas issued for agricultural workers.
d) Relax restrictions barring legal immigrants from using social programs (e.g. public housing, food stamps).
e) Support amnesty for certain illegal immigrants who already reside in the United States.
f) Support the detention of asylum seekers from countries known to sponsor terrorism.
g) Other or expanded principles
International Aid
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding United States economic assistance.
Xa) Aid should be granted to countries when extraordinary circumstances cause disaster and threaten civilian lives.
Xb) Aid should be granted to countries when it is in the security interests of the United States.
c) Aid should be eliminated for any nation with documented human rights abuses.
d) Aid programs should be scaled back and eventually eliminated.
e) Other or expanded principles
International Policy
1) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the Middle East.
Yesa) Should the United States continue to provide leadership in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process?
Yesb) Should the United States support the creation of a Palestinian state?
Noc) Should the United States withdraw its troops from Iraq?
d) Discuss your proposals for the reconstruction of Iraq. What funding sources would you use to implement these proposals? (75 words or less. Please use an attached page if the space below is not adequate.)

We need to stay the course & continue to help the Iraqi interim government set-up a full-fledged democracy in Iraq. As this takes shape, the Iraqi economy will pick-up & and they will have the resources to fund their reconstruction

e) Other or expanded principles
2) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding Central and East Asia.
Yesa) Should the United States use diplomatic and economic pressure to encourage North Korea to abandon its nuclear weapons program?
Nob) Should the United States use military force to destroy the North Korean nuclear weapons program?
Noc) Should the United States remove the North Korean government from power?
Undecidedd) Should the United States increase financial support to Afghanistan?
Undecidede) Should the United States increase military support to Afghanistan?
f) Other or expanded principles
3) Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the United Nations.
a) Should the United States maintain its financial support of the United Nations?
Yesb) Should the United States decrease its financial support of the United Nations?
c) Should the United States commit troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions?
d) Other or expanded principles
Yes4) Should the United States lift the travel ban to Cuba?
Yes5) Should the United States increase its financial support to Colombia to combat "the war on drugs"?
Yes6) Should aid to African nations for AIDS prevention programs fund distribution of contraceptives?
Yes7) Should aid to African nations for AIDS prevention fund abstinence education?
8) Other or expanded principles
International Trade
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding international trade.
Yes1) Do you support the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
Yes2) Do you support the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)?
Yes3) Do you support continued U.S. membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO)?
Yes4) Should a nation's human rights record affect its normal trade relations (most favored nation) status with the United States?
No5) Do you support the trade embargo against Cuba?
Yes6) Should trade agreements include provisions to address environmental concerns and to protect workers' rights?
7) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding national security.
Yesa) Do you support using military tribunals to try suspected terrorists when ordinary civilian courts are deemed inappropriate or impractical?
Yesb) Should the United States adopt stricter rules for student visa applications from nations known to sponsor terrorism?
Noc) Should the United States grant law enforcement agencies greater discretion to read mail and email, tap phones, and conduct random searches to prevent future terrorist attacks?
Yesd) Should the United States hold foreign states accountable for terrorists who operate in their country?
e) Should the federal government increase funding to states and cities for homeland security?
f) Do you support a policy of pre-emptive strikes against countries deemed to be a threat to national security?
g) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding Social Security.
a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts which they manage themselves.
Xb) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts managed by private firms contracted by the government.
c) Invest a portion of Social Security assets collectively in stocks and bonds instead of United States Treasury securities.
d) Increase the payroll tax to better finance Social Security in its current form.
e) Lower the annual cost-of-living increases.
f) Raise the retirement age for when individuals are eligible to receive full Social Security benefits.
Xg) Other of expanded principles

Want to preserve & protect soc. sec.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding technology and communication.
a) Collect taxes on commercial Internet transactions.
b) Continue the moratorium on Internet taxation.
c) Implement regulation of Internet content.
Xd) Support government mandates to curtail violent and sexual content on television.
Xe) Support strict penalties for Internet crimes (e.g. hacking, identity theft, worms/viruses).
f) Support legislation to detail how personal information can be collected and used on the Internet.
g) Regulating the Internet is not a responsibility of the federal government.
Xh) Impose regulations on "spam" emails.
i) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding welfare and poverty.
Xa) Require welfare recipients to spend at least 40 hours a week in a combination of work and training programs.
Xb) Increase funding for child care programs.
Xc) Continue to give states and local governments flexibility in and responsibility for welfare programs through federal block grants.
Xd) Direct federal poverty aid through religious, community-based, or other non-profit organizations.
e) Abolish all federal welfare programs.
Xf) Support housing assistance for low-income families.
g) Other or expanded principles
On an attached page, disk, or via email, please explain in a total of 75 words or less, your top two or three priorities if elected. If they require additional funding for implementation, please explain how you would obtain this funding.

My priorities include, first, doing everything possible to defend the nation against terrorist attacks. We also need to make permanent the recent changes reducing the tax burden. These changes will expire in a few years if no action is taken and taxes will increase. Another priority is to improve transportation infrastructure. No additional funding is required because gasoline taxes paid into the trust fund intended for transportation needs have been used instead for general spending.

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