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Chet Edwards' Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Project Vote Smart does not permit the use of its name or programs in any campaign activity, including advertising, debates, and speeches.
Chet Edwards refused to tell citizens where he stands on any of the issues addressed in the 2010 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests from Vote Smart, national media, and prominent political leaders.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These issue positions, from the year 2010, are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Pro-choice Inferred Answer Abortion Issues: Do you consider yourself pro-choice or pro-life? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Planned Parenthood. 2008. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of Planned Parenthood 85 percent in 2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. H Amdt 209 to HR 1815. 109th Congress. An amendment numbered 12 printed in House Report 109-96 to lift the current ban on privately funded abortions at U.S. military facilities overseas. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted YES on 25 May 2005. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 3660. 106th Congress. To amend title 18, United States Code, to ban partial-birth abortions. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted NO on 4 May 2000. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. H Amdt 509 to HR 3962. 111th Congress. An amendment printed in Part C of House Report 111-330 to codify the Hyde Amendment in H.R. 3962. The amendment prohibits federal funds for abortion services in the public option. It also prohibits individuals who receive affordability credits from purchasing a plan that provides elective abortions. However, it allows individuals, both who receive affordability credits and who do not, to separately purchase with their own funds plans that cover elective abortions. It also clarifies that private plans may still offer elective abortions. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted NO on 7 November 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 760. 108th Congress. To prohibit the procedure commonly known as partial-birth abortion. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted NO on 4 June 2003. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. S 3. 108th Congress. A bill to prohibit the procedure commonly known as partial-birth abortion. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted NO on 2 October 2003. (votesmart.org)
  • NARAL Pro-Choice America. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of NARAL Pro-Choice America 100 percent in 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • National Right to Life Committee. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of the National Right to Life Committee 0 percent in 2009. (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Budget, Spending, and Tax Issues: Do you support the elimination of the federal estate tax? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • National Taxpayers Union. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of the National Taxpayers Union 15 percent in 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 8. 108th Congress. To make the repeal of the estate tax permanent. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted YES on 13 April 2005. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 5638. 109th Congress. To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to increase the unified credit against the estate tax to an exclusion equivalent of $5,000,000 and to repeal the sunset provision for the estate and generation-skipping taxes, and for other purposes. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted YES on 22 June 2006. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Farmers and Ranchers. "Congressman Edwards knows that farmers and ranchers are the backbone of our country and that American agriculture plays a vital role in feeding and clothing our nation. Congressman Edwards' accomplishments include: Opposing the Death Tax, which cause the breakup of family farms and ranches." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Tax Relief. "Chet Edwards has voted for 60 major tax cuts in Congress, totaling over $4 trillion. Some of the tax cuts Chet has voted for include: A permanent repeal of the unfair Death Tax." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Edwards Supports Repeal of Death Tax. 13 April 2005. "Small businesses are responsible for 3 out of 4 new jobs in this country. I supported this bill because the inheritance tax often hurts economic growth and hits family farms and businesses the hardest. However, I am still bothered that this could expose family farms and businesses to 45% of estate taxes between now and 2010 and I will continue to work for immediate estate tax relief rather than waiting until 2010. That's why I supported the Pomeroy amendment, which was not adopted, that would make the repeal permanent and immediate in 2006 for estates valued at $6 million per couple." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Edwards Votes for Permanent Estate Tax Relief Act As Bill Passes House. 22 June 2006. "Small businesses and farms, which are responsible for 3 out of 4 new jobs created in our country, should not have to be carved up or sold just to pay the death tax. This bill will ensure that over 99% of Americans do not have to pay any inheritance taxes and will help protect well-run family businesses and farms." (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Budget, Spending, and Tax Issues: Do you support using government funds in an effort to stimulate and improve the economy? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Thomas Edwards. HR 1. 111th Congress. Making supplemental appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization, for fiscal year ending September 30, 2009, and for other purposes. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted YES on 13 February 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 1424. 111th Congress. To provide authority for the Federal Government to purchase and insure certain types of troubled assets for the purposes of providing stability to and preventing disruption in the economy and financial system and protecting taxpayers, to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide incentives for energy production and conservation, to extend certain expiring provisions, to provide individual income tax relief, and for other purposes. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted YES on 10 March 2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Club for Growth. 2008. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of the Club for Growth 0 percent in 2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Edwards Statement on President Signing American Recovery and Reinvestment Act into Law. 17 February 2009. "'This stimulus bill is needed to help pull our economy out of the worst recession since the Great Depression. In the last three months alone, 1.6 million hard-working Americans have lost their jobs. That is more than double the population of our 12-county congressional district. If we don't take bold action now, unemployment will get worse, families' retirement savings will be hit even harder and the recession could deepen,' said Edwards. 'This bill will create and save over 260,000 Texas jobs, including 8,400 jobs in our district, and provides tax cuts to 95% of working families. It will double funding for Texas highway construction, and modernize our schools, veterans' hospitals and military barracks. I believe that bold action to create new jobs is far better than a Herbert Hoover, "just say no" approach, which is why I join with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Manufacturers, and the National Association of Homebuilders in supporting this recovery bill.'" (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Edwards: Economic Recovery Plan Includes $7 Billion for Military, Veterans Facilities to Stimulate Economy, Create Jobs. 21 January 2009. "Our nation faces the most severe economic crisis since the Great Depression, and we must act responsibly to prevent this crisis from deepening. Our highest priority has to be putting our economy on solid ground with passage of a responsible economic stimulus that protects American jobs and stabilizes our economy. Once we enact measures to stimulate the economy, create jobs, and begin to pull out of this recession, we must get back to balancing the budget." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Jobs and the Economy. "Creating and protecting good paying jobs for our district is one of my highest priorities and something I work hard for every day. A job is a good family value--it is our way of providing a better future for our families and enjoying the dignity of self-reliance and personal responsibility." --Chet Edwards Chet Is Fighting To Create Jobs And Lower Taxes For Working Families * Chet Edwards has helped create and protect over 8,000 jobs in our District. * In 2009, Chet fought to pass a $1,600 tax credit for 95% of working families. * He was one out of only 57 of 435 Representatives in 1999 to vote against the disastrous deregulation of Wall Street banks that led to the financial crisis of 2008. * Chet voted NO on bills that have added $7 trillion to our national debt, and against the recent health care bill that included $1 trillion in new spending. America's free enterprise system is the greatest engine of economic growth and freedom that the world has ever seen. It has provided our citizens with opportunities that most people of the world could only dream about. That is why we must ensure the vitality of free enterprise by preventing onerous job killing taxes and regulations and by supporting the small businesses that create two out of every three new jobs in our country. The role of government in our free enterprise system should be limited--it should be a supporting partner, not a managing partner. Government must play a role in providing the education, transportation and security infrastructure that are vital to the competitiveness of our free enterprise system." (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Business and Employment Issues: Do you support privatizing elements of Social Security? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Social Security. "He opposes privatization of these vital programs, which will erode guaranteed benefits to seniors. Congressman Edwards also believes we must take strong actions to reduce enormous federal deficits which will undermine future Social Security and Medicare benefits." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Social Security & Medicare. "Social Security and Medicare are a solemn pact with our seniors, and I will fight with every fiber of my being against those in Washington who are trying to privatize and end these programs as we know them." --Chet Edwards Chet Edwards is working for seniors in the 17th District to protect and strengthen Social Security and Medicare. Chet has fought against privatizing Social Security and Medicare, because he believes we can't afford to gamble with our seniors' future. Chet also supports legislation to stop big pharmaceutical drug companies from unfairly charging Americans twice the price for the same drugs sold in Mexico and Canada." (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Crime Issues: Do you support capital punishment for certain crimes? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Thomas Edwards. H Amdt 497 to HR 2181. 105th Congress. An amendment to add a new section which provides that in further consideration of death sentence recommendations, life imprisonment shall be imposed instead, if the court has any doubt that a defendent actually committed the offense. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted NO on 25 February 1998. (votesmart.org)
  • Citizens United for the Rehabilitation of Errants. 2005-2006. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of the Citizens United for the Rehabilitation of Errants 40 percent in 2005-2006. (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Education Issues: Do you support federal education standards and testing requirements for K-12 students? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Home School Legal Defense Association. 1999-2000. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of the Home School Legal Defense Association 0 percent in 1999-2000. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 1. 107th Congress. To close the achievement gap with accountability, flexibility, and choice, so that no child is left behind. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted YES on 23 May 2001. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Education. "Fully funding the No Child Left Behind Act, so that local school districts have the resources to meet high standards and help alleviate the heavy property tax burden on Texas homeowners" (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Education. "Across the world people look to America as the land of opportunity. The cornerstone of that opportunity is a quality, affordable education. Protecting and improving our education system is vital to keeping America competitive in our world economy and to giving every children a fair chance to reach their highest God-given potential." --Chet Edwards Chet understands that our children's first and most important teachers are their parents, so he believes it is every parent's personal responsibility to encourage their children to read and write and do their best in school. Education must begin in the home, not the school house." (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Environment and Energy Issues: Do you support enacting environmental regulations aimed at reducing the effects of climate change? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Thomas Edwards. HR 2454. 111th Congress. To create clean energy jobs, achieve energy independence, reduce global warming pollution and transition to a clean energy economy. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted NO on 26 June 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • Environment America. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of Environment America 87 percent in 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Op-Ed: Why I Opposed The Cap & Trade Energy Bill. 6 August 2009. "I believe there is a better way than H.R. 2454 to deal with the issues of global warming and reducing our dependence upon foreign oil. Nuclear power does not emit any carbon dioxide and is a safe, reliable source of energy. We need a national energy policy that aggressively supports the expansion of nuclear power. Natural gas is also a relatively clean source of energy, and its domestic production should be encouraged. Public-private incentives to encourage energy conservation along with investments in clean coal technology and renewable energy such as solar, wind and biofuels should be pursued. To reduce our dependence upon foreign oil, I also support development of America's oil and gas in Alaska and off U.S. coastal waters. Addressing global warming is a laudable goal, but I respectfully disagree with President Obama and Speaker Pelosi on this bill and voted against it because I believe it could cost jobs and hurt the economy, especially in energy producing states such as Texas. I believe my vote was the right thing to do, and reflected the vast majority of views of District 17 citizens." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Waco Tribune-Herald: Edwards Writes Legislation Calling for New Federal Study of Coal Plant Emissions. 19 December 2007. "Edwards, D-Waco, is concerned about the recent proliferation of proposals to build coal-fired power plants in Central Texas, where six units are on the drawing board. Environmental groups and Waco-area business and city leaders have opposed several new plants out of fear their emissions could have detrimental health impacts and bring economic sanctions for falling out of compliance with the Clean Air Act. To address their concerns, Edwards has written legislation requesting that the federal Government Accountability Office review whether the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality's process to permit new power plants complies with the Clean Air Act. If the legislation passes, Edwards intends to ask the GAO to conduct a cumulative impact study on a host of emissions known to foul the air and cause health problems." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Energy. "Reducing America's dependence upon foreign energy must be a top national priority--our economic future and even our military security depend upon it. There is no one silver bullet to ensure more energy independence. It will require a concerted, long-term effort that includes more domestic production, research on renewable energy and clean coal technology, robust expansion of America's nuclear power and sensible conservation." --Chet Edwards To encourage development of a robust private enterprise effort in energy, I've outlined several actions in which the the federal government should play a supporting role." (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Gun Issues: Do you support restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Thomas Edwards. HR 4296. 103rd Congress. To make unlawful the transfer or possession of assault weapons. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted YES on 5 May 1994. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 6842. 111th Congress. To restore Second Amendment rights in the District of Columbia. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted YES on 17 September 2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Gun Owners of America. 2010. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. In 2010 Gun Owners of America gave Thomas Edwards a grade of D. (votesmart.org)
  • Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. 2003. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence 55 percent from 1991 and 2003. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 1025. 103rd Congress. To provide for a waiting period before the purchase of a handgun, and for the establishment of a national instant criminal background check system to be contacted by firearms dealers before the transfer of any firearm. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted NO on 10 November 1993. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. In Another Blow to Taylor Campaign, NRA Refuses to Endorse Him. 29 September 2006. "As a lifelong gun owner and hunter, I have great respect for the Second Amendment and the rights of gun owners. I am proud to have voted with the NRA 100% of the time on gun issues in the last five years, including protecting gun manufacturers from civil liability and opposing gun registration." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: 2nd Amendment Rights. "Chet Edwards is a strong supporter of 2nd Amendment rights. He has been a hunter since he was 10 years old, and Chet frequently takes his two young sons out to learn how to shoot and handle firearms. For the last few years, Chet has sponsored a hunt for the Texas Wildlife Association's Youth Hunting Program. During these hunts, Chet has brought young people together from all across the district to share in the Texas heritage of hunting." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Protecting the Second Amendment. "Chet believes that the 2nd Amendment guarantees the right of individual citizens to own and use firearms. As a member of the Congressional Sportsmen's Caucus and throughout his 18 years in Congress, Chet has strongly supported the Second Amendment. Chet has voted with the NRA 100% on gun rights issues for the last six years and supported the NRA position on gun rights 100% on the NRA's 2004 and 2006 congressional questionnaires. As a hunter and firearms owner, Chet values the right of citizens to lawfully own firearms for sport and self-defense. As a husband and a father, Chet believes the level of youth gun violence in our country is a serious concern, but Congress must continue to focus its efforts on cracking down on criminals who use or buy guns illegally instead of the our law abiding citizens." (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Health Issues: Do you support a publicly-administered health insurance option? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • American Public Health Association. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of the American Public Health Association 78 percent in 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 3962. 111th Congress. To provide affordable, quality health care for all Americans and reduce the growth in health care spending, and for other purposes. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted NO on 7 November 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Edwards Opposes House Health Care Reform Bill. 12 November 2009. "I also have concerns about a government-run "public option" insurance company and question whether this bill goes far enough in actually reducing health care costs for working families and businesses... I believe most people in our district recognize that health care reform is needed to hold down costs and to make health care more affordable and dependable, but they want any reform bill to be fiscally responsible. I agree." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Health Care. "Congressman Edwards believes we must maintain our quality health care system in the United States while reducing costs. He has fought to ensure coverage for children of working families and our senior citizens. Chet is a member of the Rural Healthcare Caucus, and works to make certain that those living in rural areas have access to the providers and specialists that they need." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Health Care. "Congressman Edwards believes we must lower the out of control health care costs, increase competition and choice of private health insurance, and prevent insurance companies from denying coverage because of pre-existing conditions. He voted against the health reform legislation recently passed by Congress because after reading the bill and hearing from thousands of constituents, he concluded it added too much new spending and regulations while cutting over $500 billion from Medicare." (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Immigration Issues: Do you support a pathway to citizenship for illegal immigrants? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Federation for American Immigration Reform. 2007-2008. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of the Federation for American Immigration Reform 15 percent in 2007-2008. (votesmart.org)
  • National Latino Congreso. 2007-2010. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of the National Latino Congreso 71 percent in 2007-2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: Immigration. "Chet also believes that Congress should work together in a bipartisan manner to craft a comprehensive immigration reform plan that grants undocumented immigrants the opportunity to earn citizenship if they: learn English, pay fines if an individual initially came here illegally, maintain employment and pay taxes, get in line behind those who came here legally and are applying for citizenship." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position:Border Security & Immigration. "Protecting our nation's security has always been and must always be our federal government's first priority. Far more must be done to protect our borders from potential terrorists and to end the flood of illegal immigration, which puts a financial strain on our local schools, hospitals and communities. Those who want to work and live in the United States should come here legally and should respect our laws." --Chet Edwards As a Member of the House Appropriations Committee, Chet has actively worked to increase the number of border patrol agents by 7,814 agents, or 63%, over the past several years. He has also worked hard to build physical walls at key points on the U.S.-Mexico border and to significantly increase border protection technology. As a result of these efforts, the number of illegal immigrants in 2009 was the lowest since 1970, but more must be done." (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer International Policy Issues: Do you support United States military action in Afghanistan? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Thomas Edwards. HR 4899. 111th Congress. Supplemental Appropriations Act. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted NO on Requiring Timetable for Withdrawal from Afghanistan on 1 July 2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Obama's Afghan policy: Texas Democrats Chet Edwards and Charlie Gonzalez react. 2 December 2009. "I will support sending more troops to Afghanistan, because we must defeat al-Qaeda and those who led the terrorist attacks against our country on September 11th 2001. It is in America's national security interests to prevent Islamic extremists from taking control of Afghanistan or a nuclear armed Pakistan. The decision on when to remove U.S. troops from Afghanistan should be based on conditions on the ground there and on the advice of U.S. military leaders in the field rather than on any preset deadline. The July 2011 date for the beginning of a U.S. draw down could be used to pressure Afghanistan's political leaders to take more responsibility for their own country's future security, but it should not be an arbitrary, inflexible deadline." (trailblazersblog.dallasnews.com)
  • Peace Action West. 2009. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Ratings. Thomas Edwards supported the interests of Peace Action West 46 percent in 2009. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 4899. 111th Congress. Supplemental Appropriations Act. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted NO on Limiting Afghanistan Military Funding to Withdrawal and Other Specified Purposes on 1 July 2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Issue Position: National Defense. "Defending our nation is the first and most important responsibility of the federal government. To maintain the strongest military force the world has ever seen requires that we respect and support the magnificent servicemen and women who are the heart and soul of our national defense. We should support them, our veterans and their families, not just with our words, but with our deeds." --Chet Edwards "Our military, our veterans and our families of past and present have no better friend in Congress than Chet Edwards"--George Lisicki, National Commander of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, January 24, 2008. At the national level, Chet is respected on a bipartisan basis as an advocate for a strong national defense and as a champion of veterans, military troops and their families. He has also played a key role in working to protect our homeland from the threat of nuclear terrorism." (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Social Issues: Should marriage only be between one man and one woman? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Thomas Edwards. H J Res 88. 109th Congress. Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relating to marriage. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted YES on 18 July 2006. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. HR 3396. 103rd Congress. To define and protect the institution of marriage. Project Vote Smart Summary: Thomas Edwards voted YES on 12 July 1996. (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Texas Straight Talk - The Imperial Judiciary. 4 October 2004. "If anything, the marriage amendment would have given the secular left an excuse to impose gay marriage on all of us in future years, as the issue would have been irrefutably federalized." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Edwards Supports Constitutional Amendment To Ban Gay Marriage. 18 July 2006. "As a husband and a father, I believe that marriage is a sacred union between a man and a woman and I will support efforts in Congress to protect the sanctity of this union." (votesmart.org)
  • Thomas Edwards. Statement by Congressman Chet Edwards on His Vote in Favor of the Marriage Protection Amendment. 30 September 2004. "I voted for the Marriage Protection Amendment, because I believe marriage is a sacred, time-honored union between a man and a woman. Marriage is a foundation of stability for our families and our nation and should always remain so. Considering the fundamentally important role marriage plays in our society, I believe the people of this country, not the federal courts, should have the final word. As a result of recent court decisions, anything short of a constitutional amendment would not protect the institution of marriage as we know it. We should respect the basic constitutional rights of all Americans, but I do not believe that requires us to redefine the institution of marriage, which has always been a fundamental part of our nation's values." (votesmart.org)

Key

Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Project Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Project Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

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