This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.
Indicate all principles you support concerning abortion.
|a) Abortions should always be legally available.|
|b) Abortions should be legal in all circumstances as long as the procedure is completed within the first trimester of pregnancy.|
|X||c) Abortions should be legal only when the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape or when the life of the woman is endangered.|
|d) Abortions should be legal only when the life of the woman is endangered.|
|X||e) Abortions should be limited by waiting periods and notification requirements as decided by each state government.|
|f) Abortions should always be illegal.|
Indicate your position concerning affirmative action programs.
|a) The federal government should consider preferences to minority-owned businesses in granting government contracts.|
|b) The federal government should prosecute cases of discrimination in the public sector.|
|c) The federal government should prosecute cases of discrimination in the private sector.|
|X||d) The federal government should provide affirmative actions programs as long as such programs do not include quotas.|
|X||e) The federal government should not provide any affirmative action programs.|
|Yes||Do you support amending the US Constitution to require an annual balanced federal budget?|
1) Indicate what changes you support (if any) concerning levels of federal funding for the following categories. Select one number only.
|Slightly Increase||a) AIDS Programs|
|Greatly Decrease||b) Arts funding|
|Slightly Increase||c) Education (K-12)|
|Slightly Increase||d) Environmental programs|
|Maintain Status||e) Housing projects|
|Greatly Decrease||f) Job training programs|
|Slightly Increase||g) Law enforcement|
|Slightly Increase||h) Medicaid|
|Slightly Increase||i) Medicare|
|Slightly Decrease||j) NASA|
|Slightly Increase||k) Student loan programs|
|Slightly Increase||l) Welfare (AFDC)|
2) Do you support the use of block grants given to states, rather than federal spending, in the following areas?
|Yes||c) Farm subsidies|
|Yes||d) Food stamps|
|Yes||e) Law enforcement|
|Yes||h) School lunches|
Indicate which principles you support regarding campaign finance reform.
|a) Prohibit Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions to candidates for federal office.|
|b) Establish spending limits on congressional campaigns and provide public funding for complying candidates.|
|c) Support legislation that would increase the federal limits on individual contributions.|
|d) Pass legislation that would encourage full and timely disclosure of campaign finance information.|
|e) Remove all legislative limits on campaign financing.|
Congress needs to adopt a comprehensive campaign reform package.
Indicate which principles you support to address crime.
|X||a) Broaden use of the death penalty for federal crimes.|
|X||b) Increase spending to build more federal prisons.|
|X||c) Impose "truth in sentencing" for violent criminals so they serve full sentences with no chance of parole.|
|X||d) Support the use of "boot camps" as alternative sentencing for adult first-time felons.|
|X||e) Limit the number of appeals allowed to inmates on death row.|
|f) Fund programs to provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related skills and job-placement assistance when released.|
|g) Expand funding for community policing programs.|
|X||h) Increase penalties for the possession of any illegal firearms.|
|X||i) Prosecute youths accused of murder as adults.|
|X||j) Increase funding for local Boys & Girls Clubs and other independent organizations in communities with at-risk youth.|
|k) Reduce prison sentences for those who commit non-violent crimes.|
|X||l) Deport all permanent resident aliens convicted of a felony.|
Indicate what changes you support (if any) regarding funding for the following categories. Select one number only.
|Maintain Status||1) CIA appropriations|
|Maintain Status||2) Defense plant conversion|
|Slightly Increase||3) Military hardware|
|Maintain Status||4) Military space shuttle missions|
|Slightly Increase||5) Pay for active duty personnel|
|Slightly Increase||6) Development of new weapons|
|Slightly Increase||7) Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)|
|Slightly Increase||8) Armed Forces personnel training|
|Yes||1) Do you support amending the United States Constitution to allow voluntary prayer and/or moment of silence in public schools?|
|No||2) Do you support funding the National Service Program (Ameri-Corps) in which young people receive money from the federal government for college in return for performing community service?|
3) Indicate which principles you support concerning education.
|a) Maintain the national standards and goals set forth in "Goals 2000".|
|X||b) Provide parents with vouchers to send their children to any publicly funded school.|
|X||c) Provide parents with vouchers to send their children to any participating school: public, private or religious.|
|d) Implement charter schools where teachers and professionals receive authorization and funding to establish new schools.|
|e) Eliminate the Department of Education, thereby giving state and local government greater control over educational issues.|
Indicate which principles or programs you support regarding America's environment and natural resources.
|a) Transfer public lands, such as federal forests and range lands, to the jurisdiction of state and local governments.|
|X||b) Require the federal government to reimburse citizens when environmental regulations limit use of privately owned lands.|
|X||c) Strengthen the Clean Water Act.|
|d) Change the Endangered Species Act of 1973 to limit the number of habitats eligible to be designated as endangered.|
|X||e) Utilize cost-benefit analysis to determine economic impacts of proposed environmental protection and cleanup legislation.|
|X||f) Increase fees charged to ranchers who graze cattle on federal lands.|
|X||g) Revise the 1872 mining law to increase the amounts charged to mining companies using federal lands.|
|h) Encourage development of alternative fuels and electric cars to reduce pollution.|
|i) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel powered engines, including cars and trucks.|
|j) Increase federal taxes on gasoline and diesel fuels to promote conservation and alternative fuel development.|
|k) Require that a percentage of purchases made by federal agencies include recycled components.|
|l) Promote the selling of pollution credits to encourage industries to decrease amount of pollution.|
Indicate which level of government should have primary responsibility for the following services. Select one level only.
|Federal||1) Border security|
|2) Civil rights enforcement|
|4) Environmental cleanup|
|5) Job training|
|6) Law enforcement|
|7) Low-income housing|
|10) Welfare (AFDC)|
|No||1) Should the US have diplomatic relations with the government of Cuba?|
|No||2) Should the US have diplomatic relations with the government of Vietnam?|
|Undecided||3) Should the US recognize and extend full diplomatic relations to Taiwan?|
|No||4) Should the US continue funding for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty?|
|Yes||5) Should the US continue funding for Radio Marti and TV Marti?|
|Yes||6) Should the US continue funding for Radio Free Asia?|
|No||7) Do you support the deployment of US troops to the former Yugoslavia?|
8) Indicate your position concerning economic aid to Russia and the former Soviet republics.
|a) Economic aid to Russia and the former republics should be increased to facilitate democracy and market reforms.|
|b) Economic aid to Russia and the former republics should be continued unless Russia exports nuclear weapons or related technology.|
|c) Economic aid to Russia and the former republics should be decreased and/or eliminated.|
Economic aid to Russia should be gradually phased out.
9) Indicate which principles you support regarding US economic aid to foreign countries.
|a) Foreign aid should only be given when extraordinary circumstances and disaster threaten the lives of civilian populations.|
|X||b) Foreign aid should be given to countries only when it is in the security interests of the United States.|
|c) Foreign aid should be eliminated from any nation with documented human rights abuses.|
|d) Foreign aid should be maintained at current levels.|
10) Indicate which principles you support regarding the United States - United Nations relationship.
|a) The US should contribute more funding and troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions.|
|X||b) The US should participate in UN peacekeeping missions only when vital US interests are directly threatened.|
|c) The US should use military force only when the US border or territories are attacked or American citizens are in danger.|
|d) The US should pay the money it owes to the United Nations.|
|e) The US should withdraw from the UN completely.|
Indicate which principles you support concerning gun issues.
|a) Expand the nationwide ban on the sale or transfer of assault weapons to include all forms of semi-automatic weapons.|
|b) Increase restrictions on the purchase and possession of firearms.|
|X||c) Maintain all federal registration procedures and restrictions on possessing firearms.|
|d) Ease procedures on the purchase and registration of firearms.|
|e) Repeal all bans and measures that restrict law-abiding citizens from owning legally-obtained firearms.|
|f) Allow law-abiding citizens to carry concealed firearms that are legally owned and registered.|
Indicate which principles you support regarding America's health care system.
|a) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income.|
|b) Provide vouchers to the working poor so they can buy into a private health care plan.|
|c) Implement a government-financed, single-payer national health care system similar to that of Canada.|
|X||d) Support a "managed competition" health care plan to contain costs and improve access that does not include mandated health alliances, government cost control powers, or employer/employee mandates.|
|X||e) Provide tax incentives for small businesses to help provide health care to their employees.|
|f) Allow middle and low income families to deduct yearly health care costs from their taxable income.|
|X||g) Establish limits on the amount of damages awarded in medical malpractice lawsuits.|
|X||h) Encourage tax-free medical savings accounts, which would be taxed if used for any purpose other than medical costs.|
|i) The federal government has no responsibility in providing health care.|
Indicate which principles you support concerning illegal drugs.
|X||a) Increase penalties for selling illegal drugs.|
|X||b) Impose mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.|
|c) Impose capital punishment for convicted international drug traffickers.|
|X||d) Require drug testing for federal employees in sensitive positions (Air Traffic Control, National Park Police, Secret Service, etc.).|
|e) Strengthen current laws dealing with non-controlled substances, including inhalants and commercially available pills.|
|f) Increase funding of federally-sponsored drug education and drug treatment programs.|
|g) Decriminalize the possession and private use of marijuana.|
Indicate which principles you support regarding issues relating to immigration.
|X||a) Further limit the number of immigrants allowed into the country.|
|b) Prohibit states from passing laws that deny human services (medical care, education) to illegal immigrants or their children.|
|c) Ease citizenship requirements in order to make it easier for immigrants to become United States citizens.|
|X||d) Establish English as the official and recognized language of the United States.|
|e) Provide extra federal aid to states with higher numbers of immigrants for necessary medical and social services.|
|X||f) Restrict the eligibility of legal immigrants for certain social programs (i.e. AFDC, HUD housing, food stamps, etc.).|
|X||g) Children of illegal immigrants, born in the United States, should not automatically receive US citizenship.|
|Yes||Should the President be allowed to veto certain items of legislation while signing spending or tax bills into law?|
|The American people have consistently mentioned the decline of morals and ethics in America as a major problem facing the country. Explain what you will do as a member of Congress to address this concern.|
Indicate which principles you support regarding the poor and homeless.
|X||a) Provide tax incentives for companies to hire and train homeless people who want to work.|
|b) Increase funding of homeless shelters and low income housing projects.|
|c) Increase funding of programs that help alcoholics and drug addicts recover and find steady work.|
|d) Increase the minimum wage.|
|X||e) Provide homeless families with apartment vouchers they can use to supplement the cost of an apartment.|
|f) Provide government jobs for those who wish to work and cannot find a job in the private sector.|
|X||g) Increase the income tax deduction on individual contributions made to charities that help the poor and homeless.|
|h) Implement enterprise zones in communities with high unemployment.|
1) Indicate the changes you support (if any) concerning the tax levels for the following categories. Select one number only.
|a) Retiree income over $40,000|
|b) Family income less than $25,000|
|c) Family income $25-75,000|
|d) Family income $75-150,000|
|e) Family income over $150,000|
Other Tax Issues
|f) Alcohol taxes|
|g) Capital gains taxes|
|h) Charitable deductions|
|i) Cigarette taxes|
|j) Corporate income taxes|
|k) Earned income tax credit|
|l) Estate taxes|
|m) Medical expense deductions|
|n) Mortgage deductions|
|Undecided||2) Do you support replacing the US income tax structure with a flat income tax?|
|Undecided||3) Do you support replacing the US income tax structure with a broad-based consumption tax?|
|Yes||1) Do you support amending the Constitution to limit the number of terms which members of Congress can serve?|
2) If you support term limits, how many years should each serve?
Indicate which principles you support concerning terrorism.
|a) Relax current guidelines that forbid the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from investigating terrorist groups when there is a "reasonable indication" of terrorist activities.|
|b) Relax wiretapping restrictions to give the FBI broader authority to investigate terrorist suspects.|
|X||c) Require that chemical tracing agents be added to commercially-sold products that can be used to produce explosives.|
|d) Implement tighter restrictions on firearm sales in an effort to hinder terrorist groups from stockpiling weapon arsenals.|
|X||e) Grant broader authority to the US Immigration and Naturalization Service to deny entrance visas to terrorist suspects.|
|X||f) Maintain limits on the authority of federal agencies investigating suspected terrorists.|
|g) Restrict the investigative authority of the FBI and other governmental agencies.|
|Yes||1) Do you support the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?|
|Yes||2) Do you support broadening NAFTA to include other countries?|
|Yes||3) Do you support the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)?|
|Undecided||4) Do you support the World Trade Organization (WTO)?|
|No||5) Do you support lifting the trade embargo imposed against Cuba?|
|Yes||6) Do you support imposing tariffs on products imported from nations that maintain restrictive trade barriers on American products?|
|Undecided||7) Should a nation's human rights record affect its "most favored nation" trading status with the United States?|
Indicate which principles you support regarding unemployment.
|a) Provide tax credits for companies that move job-creating industries into areas with high unemployment.|
|b) Increase funding for national job-training programs.|
|c) Increase funding for public works projects such as the repair of roads and bridges.|
|d) Eliminate government regulations of the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion.|
|e) Establish enterprise zones in areas with large numbers of unemployed people.|
|f) Overhaul the current unemployment system by focusing on training and education in skills needed in certain industries.|
|g) Eliminate any governmental programs designed to reduce unemployment.|
Indicate which principles you support regarding the US welfare system.
|X||a) Strengthen child support collection procedures and increase penalties for parents who do not pay child support.|
|X||b) Impose a two-year limit on welfare benefits for recipients who are able to work.|
|c) Require welfare recipients to accept some form of government-sponsored job after two years if unemployed in the private sector.|
|X||d) Require that unwed teenage mothers live with a parent or guardian (if possible) and attend school to receive benefits.|
|X||e) Limit the benefits given to single women if they have additional children while receiving welfare benefits.|
|X||f) Provide child care services to welfare recipients who work or attend school.|
|X||g) Provide rent or housing supplement vouchers for low-income families.|
|h) Make no substantial changes at this time.|
|i) Increase funding of programs that prevent teen pregnancy and family break-up.|
|X||j) Support programs that give incentives for employers to hire and train welfare recipients.|
|1) Explain your two main legislative priorities if elected to Congress.|
|2) Should your priorities require additional government funding, please explain how you intend to obtain the additional funding.|