Representative Sander 'Sandy' M. Levin's Political Positions

Biographical

Full Name: Sander 'Sandy' M. Levin
Current Office: U.S. House - District 9, Democratic
First Elected: 11/02/1982
Last Elected: 11/06/2012
Next Election: 2014
On The Ballot: Running, Democratic for U.S. House - District 9
Primary Aug. 5, 2014
General Nov. 4, 2014
Gender: Male
Family: Wife: Pamela; 4 Children
Birth Date: 09/06/1931
Birth Place: Detroit, MI
Home City: Royal Oak, MI
Religion: Jewish
Project Vote Smart does not permit the use of its name or programs in any campaign activity, including advertising, debates, and speeches.
Sandy Levin's processing deadline has not passed. The result of Sandy Levin's Political Courage Test will be released in upcoming weeks.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Vote Smart's Research

  • Planned Parenthood. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of Planned Parenthood 100 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • NARAL Pro-Choice America. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the NARAL Pro-Choice America 100 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • National Right to Life Committee. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the National Right to Life Committee 16 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 509. 111th Congress. Prohibiting Federally Funded Abortion Services. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 11/07/2009. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. S 403. 110th Congress. Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 09/26/2006. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 436. 104th Congress. Overseas Military Abortion Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 06/15/1995. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 6099. 110th Congress. Abortion Pain Bill. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 12/06/2006. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H AMDT 209. 109th Congress. Overseas Military Facilities Abortion Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 05/25/2005. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 1017. 106th Congress. Abortion Funding Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 07/20/2000. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 95. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Use of Federal Funds For Planned Parenthood. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 02/18/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • National Organization for Women. 04/18/2012. "On the votes used to calculate its ratings, the National Organization for Women attaches more value to those votes it considers more important. For 2008, the National Organization for Women gave Sandy Levin a rating of 100 percent." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "Congress should eliminate federal funding for clinics and medical facilities that provide abortion services."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "Congress should eliminate abortion services from any federally funded health care plan."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "f) Eliminate public funding for abortions and public funding of organizations that advocate or perform abortions."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Abortions should always be illegal."
  • Sandy Levin. HR 670. 103th Congress. Abortion Counseling Bill. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 03/25/1993. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 187. 105th Congress. Overseas Military Facilities Abortion Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 06/19/1997. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 643. 106th Congress. Abortion Private Funding Restoration Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 05/20/1998. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 748. 109th Congress. Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 04/27/2005. (votesmart.org)
  • Family Research Council. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Family Research Council 6 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "b) Abortions should always be legally available."
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 156. 106th Congress. Overseas Military Abortion Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 06/09/1999. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 722. 106th Congress. Oversea Military Abortions Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 05/18/2000. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 185. 103th Congress. Hyde Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 06/30/1993. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 3. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Taxpayer Funding of Abortion. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 05/04/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 882. 106th Congress. Prison Abortion Funding Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 06/22/2000. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 3682. 106th Congress. Child Custody Protection Act. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 07/15/1998. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 3660. 106th Congress. Ban on Partial-Birth/Late Term Abortion. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 04/05/2000. (votesmart.org)
  • Planned Parenthood. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. Planned Parenthood endorsed Sandy Levin in the 2010 general election. (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Sander Levin. Levin Statement On President Obama's Address On Afghanistan. 2 December 2009. "I agree that key to the success of the new plan is that increased U.S. and allied troop levels must focus on training adequate Afghan forces to take control of the security of their own nation and that to increase the pressure on Afghanistan to do that, the U.S. troop commitment must not be open-ended so that after 18 months, U.S. troops will begin to come home." (votesmart.org)
  • Peace Action. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Peace Action 25 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Con Res 28. 112th Congress. Removing Troops from Afghanistan. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 03/17/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Peace Action West. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of Peace Action West 25 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Issue Position: Foreign Affairs. 31 January 2012. "During the debate on the annual Defense policy bill [H.R. 1540] in the House of Representatives, I joined more than 200 House lawmakers voted for an amendment by Representative Jim McGovern of Massachusetts to direct the President to provide Congress with a plan and a timetable for the accelerated transition of military operations in Afghanistan from U.S. to Afghan authorities.  The amendment was narrowly defeated on a vote of 204-215, but it nevertheless sent a clear message that, with the death of Osama bin Laden, a growing number of House members want a plan to turn over security responsibilities in Afghanistan to Afghan forces and bring U.S. combat troops home." (levin.house.gov)
  • Sander Levin. Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2009. 14 May 2009. "A lot has changed since the last time Congress debated funding for the ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan eleven months ago. Earlier this year, President Obama stated that we will begin to draw down our forces in Iraq and complete the removal of combat troops by August 2010. Further, the President has also announced a new strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan. The plan acknowledges our national interest in combating terrorism and the Taliban in Pakistan and Afghanistan and the need for stability in the region, especially with regard to safeguarding Pakistan's nuclear arsenal. At the same time, the President's plan correctly recognizes that we need a comprehensive strategy that does not rely on U.S. military force alone." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 13. 112th Congress. Reducing Navy and Air Force Aircraft Procurement. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 02/15/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Selected "Maintain Status" for: "1. Please indicate the changes you will support (if any) concerning the level of funding for each of the listed issue areas. National Defense"
  • Sandy Levin. HR 2642. 110th Congress. Funding for Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 06/19/2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 4939. 110th Congress. Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2006. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 06/13/2006. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 4986. 110th Congress. Defense Authorizations Bill. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 01/16/2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 2561. 106th Congress. Defense Department Appropriations bill, FY2000. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 07/22/1999. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 1363. 112th Congress. 2011 Department of Defense Budget and Additional Continuing Appropriations. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 04/07/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 5631. 110th Congress. Defense Department FY2007 Appropriations Bill. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 06/20/2006. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 5631. 110th Congress. Department Defense Appropriations Act, FY 2007. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 09/26/2006. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 4200. 108th Congress. Defense Department FY2005 Authorization Bill. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 05/20/2004. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 5010. 108th Congress. Department of Defense Appropriations, Fiscal Year 2003. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 10/10/2002. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 3222. 110th Congress. Department of Defense Appropriations, Fiscal Year 2008. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 08/05/2007. (votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Levin Statement on Recommended Changes to Air National Guard Budget. 25 April 2012. "Sec. Panetta's recommended changes to the Air National Guard budget would retain overall funding for 24 C-130s and 2,200 personnel that were scheduled to be cut. This is a positive step in the battle for equitable treatment of the Guard, and I look forward to pressing the case that C-130s should be based at Selfridge, just as they were prior to the 2005 BRAC round." (votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Blog: Saving the Abrams Tank Project. 14 July 2012. "The House of Representatives approved a Defense funding bill last Friday that includes an additional $272 million for tank production, bringing total funding for the Abrams program to $453 million, which is enough to continue building 70 tanks in 2013. The House approved the Defense bill on a vote of 336 to 87. The defense measure must now be approved by the U.S. Senate. Seventy-one year ago, Franklin Roosevelt invoked the Arsenal of Democracy and Michigan answered. Today, in Macomb County and all across Southeastern Michigan, we design and build the most advanced and effective technologies to protect our troops in the field. Michigan has a lot at stake in the defense industry and the defense industry has a lot at stake in Michigan." (votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. The Republican Misinformation Mission. 15 April 2011. "According to nonpartisan analysis, their proposal calls for spending on items other than Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid--but including defense--to fall from 12 percent of GDP last year to 6 percent in 2022 and just 3.5 percent of GDP in the long run. We are not going to shred defense. What their proposal means in shredding the safety net is that they have become radicals instead of conservatives." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • National Taxpayers Union. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported reasonable tax and spending policies as defined by the National Taxpayers Union 4 percent of the time in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • Citizens for Tax Justice. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Citizens for Tax Justice 100 percent in 2006." (votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. CRS Report: 94,500 Millionaires Pay Lower Tax Rate Than Many Middle Class Families. 13 October 2011. "Republicans refuse to ask the very wealthiest to contribute toward deficit reduction even in the face of this new report, which shows millions of middle class families are paying a higher tax rate than millionaires. This makes plain that there are tens of thousands like Warren Buffett out there, paying a lower tax rate than the middle class families whose incomes have stalled over the last three decades." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Levin: "Buffett Rule" Right on Target. 18 September 2011. "The President's proposed 'Buffett Rule' is right on target as overall the very wealthy in our country have seen their incomes skyrocket while middle class income has stalled and poverty has risen. We need an approach to deficit reduction that is balanced and a tax system that fairly represents today's reality and begins to get a handle on the dramatic income inequality in our nation." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Statement on Proposed Short-Term UI, Payroll Tax Cut Extension. 17 December 2011. "This is a result of the complete unwillingness of Republicans to ask the very wealthy to sacrifice some of their tax breaks to help get our economy back on a more stable footing. At every turn, whether it is jobs legislation or deficit reduction, the consistent priority of the Republican majority is protecting the tax cuts for millionaires and billionaires." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 1836. 107th Congress. Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act, 2001. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 05/16/2001. (votesmart.org)
  • Americans for Tax Reform. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Americans for Tax Reform 5 percent in 2007." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Sandy Levin. HR 1424. 110th Congress. Financial Asset Purchase Authority and Tax Law Amendments. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 10/03/2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 5297. 112th Congress. Small Business Lending Fund and Tax Law Amendments. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 09/23/2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Americans for Prosperity. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Americans for Prosperity 0 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • The Club for Growth. 04/18/2012. "On the votes used to calculate its ratings, The Club for Growth attaches more value to those votes it considers more important. For 2010, The Club for Growth gave Sandy Levin a rating of 0 percent." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Sander Levin. Chairman Levin Statement On Jobs Figures. 5 March 2010. "Today's numbers show that more is needed to help millions of unemployed Americans return to work. While some progress has been made, recovery is not coming quickly enough to families and communities who are still digging out from a recession in which 8.4 million jobs have disappeared. Yesterday the House passed legislation to give businesses tax incentives to hire new workers and expand successful financing tools that create jobs improving our cities and towns. We must move quickly to solicit ideas and craft legislation to further stabilize and grow employment opportunities across America." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 2. 108th Congress. Jobs and Economic Growth bill. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 05/23/2003. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "Create "empowerment zones" in urban areas with high unemployment by providing government grants and federal assistance, in addition to tax credits, to new and expanding businesses." 5. If elected to Congress, which of the following general principles or specific proposals will you support to address the problem of unemployment? Other or expanded principles: "I have co-sponsored legislation to extend the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit and the Reemployment Act to make unemployment into a reemployment system."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "Create "enterprise zones" in urban areas with high unemployment by providing tax credits for new and expanding businesses." 5. If elected to Congress, which of the following general principles or specific proposals will you support to address the problem of unemployment? Other or expanded principles: "I have co-sponsored legislation to extend the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit and the Reemployment Act to make unemployment into a reemployment system."
  • Sandy Levin. HR 2488. 106th Congress. Financial Freedom Act of 1999. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 08/05/1999. (votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Levin Statement On Job Creation In April. 7 May 2010. "Today's report offers us encouraging news-for the fourth consecutive month the economy has created jobs proving that we have indeed turned the corner toward real job growth. It is especially noteworthy that the manufacturing sector created 44,000 jobs last month, the highest in over a decade. However, while we have made progress, there is a significant amount of work left for us to do to address the 15 million Americans who remain unemployed. We are working to pass legislation this month to extend unemployment benefits and health assistance for unemployed workers and to stimulate further job creation through tax incentives for businesses and infrastructure financing for State and local governments." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Chairman Levin Statement On Jobs Figures. 2 April 2010. "Today's numbers show that while we have made some progress, much more is needed to help continue creating new jobs for hardworking Americans. Last month President Obama signed legislation to give businesses tax incentives to hire new workers and expand successful financing tools that create jobs improving our cities and towns. The House built on this important law by passing additional legislation to make it easier for small businesses to grow and for local governments to raise capital to fund important projects and hire new workers. The Senate should now take up this small business and infrastructure package so we can get it to the President's desk for his signature. The House will also soon begin discussions on additional measures to strengthen domestic energy production, particularly renewable energy, and create new green jobs. I look forward to leading this discussion in the Ways and Means Committee and working with my colleagues to continue our economic recovery." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. House Approves The "HIRE" Act. 4 March 2010. "Tax incentives for businesses to spur immediate job growth. A new payroll tax exemption to provide employers with incentives to hire and retain new employees. The bill provides businesses with an exemption from Social Security payroll taxes for every worker hired in 2010 who has been unemployed for at least 60 days. (The maximum value of this incentive is $6,621, which equals to 6.2 percent of wages paid in 2010 up to the FICA wage cap of $106,800.) The longer that a business has a new qualified worker on its payroll, the greater the tax benefit. The House amendments incorporate an IRS fix to make sure that small businesses can take advantage of the payroll tax holiday." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Stark, Ways and Means Democrats Introduce H.R. 6152: The Bring Jobs Home Act. 19 July 2012. "Ways and Means Committee Democrats today introduced legislation to provide tax credits to businesses that brings jobs and business operations back to America from another country. The Bring Jobs Home Act, H.R. 6152, provides a 20 percent tax credit for businesses that "insource" jobs back to the United States and is paid for by closing tax loopholes for companies that "outsource" jobs overseas and treat distributions of debt securities in a tax-free spin-off transaction in the same manner as distributions of cash or other property [¦] 'This bill rewards businesses that bring jobs back to the United States and ends preferences for companies that outsource American jobs,' said Ways and Means Ranking Member Sander Levin (D-MI). 'Surely Republicans can agree with Democrats that we should encourage businesses to bring jobs to the United States and discourage outsourcing. It is time for Republicans to stop putting politics first and start acting to help American workers.'" (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Sander Levin. Rep. Levin Opposes Harmful Republican Cuts to Children and Families, Public Broadcasting. 23 June 2005. "The appropriations bill cuts funding for programs included in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act by $806 million compared to current levels, a significant decrease in funds from figures promised to local schools facing rigorous academic and teacher certification standards next year. In total, the proposed bill would provide $13.2 billion less than originally promised by the Bush Administration when NCLB was signed into law in January 2002. Since that date, NCLB has suffered repeated cuts in funding, leaving a gap of more than $40 billion compared to original expectations." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 2300. 106th Congress. Academic Achievement for All Act. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 10/21/1999. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "i) Eliminate restrictions on federal education funding, giving educators or local school districts more flexibility to design and implement their programs."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "Eliminate the U.S. Department of Education."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "Establish a nationwide competency test for teachers and encourage states to adopt it."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "Establish "National Standards" for K-12 schools and encourage states to adopt them."
  • Sandy Levin. HR 1804. 104th Congress. Goals 2000: Educate America Act. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 03/23/1994. (votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Improving and Supporting Schools. 1 February 2012. "In addition to addressing resource needs, I also support re-examining the way we fund, measure and reward our schools.  We must find better ways to reward teacher excellence and innovation, expand access to technology in the classroom, and enhance curriculums to better prepare students for the demands of a globally competitive economy." (levin.house.gov)
  • Sander Levin. Issue Position: Education - Improving and Supporting Schools. 1 February 2012. "I believe we must set high standards for our students, demand accountability from our schools, and preserve local control of our schools. The federal government must also back them up with adequate resources for our schools and for targeted programs like those that help train teachers and reduce class size." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Support national standards and testing of public school students."

Vote Smart's Research

  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "c) Support opening a select portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge for oil exploration."
  • Sandy Levin. HR 3534. 112th Congress. Offshore Drilling Regulations and Other Energy Law Amendments. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 07/30/2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Environment America. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of Environment America 100 percent in 2009." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 1230. 112th Congress. Offshore Leasing Act. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 05/05/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 773. 112th Congress. Ending Moratorium on Deepwater Drilling Rigs that Meet Certain Safety Standards. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 07/30/2010. (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Sierra Club. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. Sierra Club endorsed Sandy Levin in the 2006 general election. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "Consider further increasing federal taxes on gasoline and diesel fuels."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "Pass stronger clean water and clean air legislation." 7. If elected to Congress, which of the following general principles or specific proposals will you support concerning the environment? Other or expanded principles: "Re-allocate federal spending on energy away from conventional fossil fuels and nuclear toward renewable energy and conservation."
  • Sandy Levin. HR 910. 112th Congress. Energy Tax Prevention Act. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 04/07/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Environment America. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of Environment America 100 percent in 2009." (votesmart.org)
  • Sierra Club. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. Sierra Club endorsed Sandy Levin in the 2004 general election. (votesmart.org)
  • Sierra Club. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. Sierra Club endorsed Sandy Levin in the 2010 general election. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "Encourage further market based strategies to clean up the environment such as pollution credits." 7. If elected to Congress, which of the following general principles or specific proposals will you support concerning the environment? Other or expanded principles: "Re-allocate federal spending on energy away from conventional fossil fuels and nuclear toward renewable energy and conservation."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "Tax high-level energy users (businesses and individuals) to discourage excessive energy use and pay for environmental cleanup."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "d) Support the U.S. re-entering the current Kyoto treaty process to limit global warming." Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding America's environment and natural resources. Other or expanded principles: "Congress should also prohibit logging in roadless areas of our national forests; ban oil drilling in the Great Lakes, and allow give states and allow local governments to limit or prohibit unwanted shipments of out-of-state garbage. With regard to international efforts to curb greenhouse gases, I do not believe the U.S. should agree to the Kyoto treaty in its present form. One key shortcoming of the Kyoto treaty is that it does not set any binding targets on developing nations such as China and India. With that said, most of the scientific community - and the Bush Administration itself - now accept the view that human activities are contributing to climate change. It would be prudent for the U.S. to take the lead in calling for new international negotiations on steps to deal with greenhouse emissions."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "Phase in a prohibition of pollution causing products such as gas powered autos and lawn mowers."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "g) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "Eliminate government regulations to encourage investment and economic expansion of the private sector."
  • League of Conservation Voters. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the League of Conservation Voters 100 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 2454. 111th Congress. Energy and Environmental Law Amendments ("Cap and Trade"). Sandy Levin voted Yea on 06/26/2009. (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence endorsed Sandy Levin in the 2008 general election. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 1025. 103th Congress. Brady Handgun Bill. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 11/10/1993. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. S 397. 109th Congress. Firearms Manufacturers Protection Bill. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 10/20/2005. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H Amdt 390. 103th Congress. Instant Background Checks for Gun Purchase Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 11/10/1993. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 125. 104th Congress. Gun Ban Repeal Act of 1995. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 03/22/1996. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H AMDT 1156. 110th Congress. Trigger Lock Amendment. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 06/28/2006. (votesmart.org)
  • Gun Owners of America. 04/18/2012. "In 2010 Gun Owners of America gave Sandy Levin a grade of 18." (votesmart.org)
  • Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence endorsed Sandy Levin in the 2010 general election. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 6842. 110th Congress. Repealing Portions of the D.C. Firearm Ban. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 09/17/2008. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "b) Maintain and strengthen the enforcement of existing federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "i) Raise the minimum age for ownership of handguns from 18 to 21."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "c) Ease federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "Impose a national ban on the public sale of assault weapons." 1. If elected to Congress, which of the following general principles or specific proposals will you support to address the problem of crime? Other or expanded principles: "Ensure that local governments have control over federal resources to fight crime in ways they have found most effective."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "Impose a national ban on the sale of handguns to minors." 1. If elected to Congress, which of the following general principles or specific proposals will you support to address the problem of crime? Other or expanded principles: "Ensure that local governments have control over federal resources to fight crime in ways they have found most effective."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Checked SUPPORT for: "g) Require background checks on gun sales between private citizens at gun shows."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "e) Allow citizens to carry concealed guns."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "h) Require a license for gun possession."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Ban the sale or transfer of semi-automatic guns, except those used for hunting."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "d) Repeal federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns."
  • Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence 100 percent from 1988-2003 (Senate) or 1991-2003 (House)." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 2122. 106th Congress. Mandatory Gun Show Background Check Act. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 06/18/1999. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 4296. 104th Congress. Regulation of Semi-Automatic Assault Weapons. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 05/05/1994. (votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Comprehensive Approach to Gun Violence. 30 March 2009. "President Obama has called for a comprehensive approach to the growing level of violence in Mexico. However, unless existing gun laws are strengthened, drug cartels and criminals in Mexico and the United States will continue to build their arsenals. We must act to close the gun show loophole, reinstate the assault weapons ban and enact other commonsense gun safety legislation." (www.votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • American Public Health Association. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the American Public Health Association 100 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 2. 112th Congress. Repealing the Health Care Bill. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 01/19/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 1994 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "Support President Clinton's position for a "comprehensive health care plan for all Americans.""
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "b) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Providing health care is not a responsibility of the federal government."
  • Sander Levin. 1-Year Anniversary of Health Reform Patient's Bill of Rights: More Americans Insured, Better Care, Better Value. 23 September 2011. "Today we are able to see the tangible results of greater access to health coverage and lower costs because of the new health care law. Nearly one million additional young adults are covered. Over one million seniors and people with disabilities are seeing discounts on their prescription drugs. Millions of seniors are finding lower premiums for Medicare Advantage programs. And millions of families are sleeping easier knowing that their children will not be kicked off their insurance because of pre-existing conditions. We will fight all Republican efforts to repeal or chip away these benefits." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. CDC Report: 2.5 Million Young Adults Now Insured Thanks to Health Reform. 14 December 2011. "This is further proof that the new health law is benefiting American families, ensuring that millions of young adults aren't without critical health coverage. Many of the 2.5 million young adults who have gained coverage under the new law would be uninsured if Republican repeal attempts hadn't failed. I will continue to fight those repeal attempts at every turn so that Americans have access to affordable and quality health care, now and in the future." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Health Reform Repeal Hurts Seniors. 22 March 2011. "Health care reform is reducing seniors' out-of-pocket prescription drugs costs and putting Medicare on more solid ground by extending the life of the program by twelve years. Make no mistake: Republican attempts to take away these benefits come at seniors' expense." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Historic Health Reform Approved. 21 March 2010. "We come to this floor for thousands of votes each year, but no single vote comes with so many personal stories," said Sander M. Levin (D-MI), the chair of the House Ways and Means Committee. "Within our families and our districts, people have spoken out about the need for real health insurance reform that gives every American access to quality, affordable care. Republicans have turned their backs on the problem, claiming our nation would somehow be better off without reform -- this is not the case. Today, in the tradition of America, we will pass health care reform and we will make our beloved country a still better nation." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Stark, Levin Criticize Republicans' Nocare Proposal. 4 January 2011. "As new Republican Members of Congress sign up for their own taxpayer-funded health care insurance they are rushing to jeopardize health care for millions of Americans. Without one single hearing they are turning the clock back on our health care system and turning their back on Americans already benefitting from reform." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Two Million Michiganders Have a Pre-Existing Health Condition. 28 May 2010 "Ending discrimination based on pre-existing conditions was a vital element of health care reform and this report demonstrates how important reform is to Michiganders," said Rep. Levin. "The idea that someone could be refused health care because they are diabetic or have high-blood pressure is simply unconscionable." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Repealing the Job-Killing Health Care Law Act. 19 January 2011. "Madam Speaker, health care reform is an American family law. Repealing it would hurt families all across our Nation. Repeal would mean rescission, taking away benefits from millions of Americans, giving power back to health insurance." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Stark, Levin on Supreme Court Decision to Consider Health Reform. 14 November 2011. "The fact that millions of Americans have already benefited under the new health law -- including children with a preexisting condition, seniors paying for prescription drugs, employees of small businesses and young adults under 26 -- is persuasive evidence that health coverage is a national issue needing national action. There is every reason to believe that the Supreme Court will uphold the constitutionality of the health law. It is time for Republicans to turn their focus away from repealing a law that is already benefiting millions of Americans of all ages and join with Democrats on a real jobs agenda." (www.votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • National Latino Congreso/William C. Velásquez Institute. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of National Latino Congreso/William C. Velásquez Institute 83 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • Federation for American Immigration Reform. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Federation for American Immigration Reform 0 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 5281. 112th Congress. DREAM Act. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 12/08/2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 4437. 109th Congress. Border Security Bill. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 12/16/2005. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "g) Allow legalization for certain illegal immigrants working in the U.S."

Vote Smart's Research

  • Human Rights Campaign. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Human Rights Campaign 91 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • American Civil Liberties Union. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the American Civil Liberties Union 95 percent in 2006." (votesmart.org)
  • Family Research Council. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Family Research Council 0 percent in 2006." (votesmart.org)
  • American Family Association. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the American Family Association 5 percent in 2010." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 2965. 112th Congress. Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act. Sandy Levin voted Yea on 12/15/2010. (votesmart.org)
  • Traditional Values Coalition. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Traditional Values Coalition 14 percent in 2006" (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. HR 3685. 110th Congress. Sexual Orientation Employment Nondiscrimination Act (ENDA). Sandy Levin voted Yea on 11/07/2007. (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. H J Res 88. 110th Congress. Same-Sex Marriage Resolution. Sandy Levin voted Nay on 07/18/2006. (votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Pelosi, 132 House Members File Amicus Brief in Landmark Court Challenge to DOMA. 2 November 2011. "The brief makes it clear that the House is not united on this issue, that the BLAG lawyers do not speak for the entire institution, and that there is no legitimate federal interest in denying married gay and lesbian couples the legal security, rights and responsibilities that federal law provides to couples who are married under state law. Section 3 does not affect married heterosexual couples and their children, who are recognized regardless of DOMA. And this law affirmatively harms married gay and lesbian couples and their children." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Twitter: @repsandylevin. 10 May 2012. "President made an important statement about equality yesterday. I agree that same sex couples should be able to marry legally." (twitter.com)
  • Sander Levin. Pelosi, Nadler, 130 House Members File Amicus Brief on Federal Case Against DOMA. 10 July 2012. "Denying recognition to couples already married under state law does not further an interest in 'procreation and responsible child-rearing.' DOMA does not prevent same-sex couples from marrying and an estimated 132,000 couples have now done so, with many of these couples raising children together. There is no logical connection between the denial of federal recognition to these same-sex couples, who already are married, and the marital or parenting behavior of different-sex couples. It is irrational to claim that Congress needs to or should harm these families in order to benefit others, particularly as those families receive federal recognition regardless of DOMA [¦] Congress has no legitimate federal interest that is rationally served by treating married gay and lesbian couples as unmarried for all federal purposes. Section 3 is unconstitutional and should be struck down." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Sander Levin. Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2009. 14 May 2009. "Further, the President has also announced a new strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan. The plan acknowledges our national interest in combating terrorism and the Taliban in Pakistan and Afghanistan and the need for stability in the region, especially with regard to safeguarding Pakistan's nuclear arsenal. At the same time, the President's plan correctly recognizes that we need a comprehensive strategy that does not rely on U.S. military force alone." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Alliance for Retired Americans. 04/18/2012. "Sandy Levin supported the interests of the Alliance for Retired Americans 100 percent in 2008." (votesmart.org)
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "b) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts managed by private firms contracted by the government."
  • Sandy Levin. Project Vote Smart: 2002 Michigan Congressional Political Courage Test. Did Not Check SUPPORT for: "a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts which they manage themselves."
  • Sander Levin. Levin on Bush: First Bipartisanship, Now Privatization? 7 February 2006. "The President's budget represents more of the same wrong priorities for American families," said U.S. Rep. Levin. "More efforts to privatize Social Security when he just last week called for a bipartisan commission; this week he is back on his partisan drum to privatize Social Security. Let's remember that the American public solidly rejected the President's plan to privatize Social Security. The defeat of privatization and protecting Social Security's guaranteed benefits was a major victory for unified Democrats and for the American public." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Warning for 2006: Privatizing Social Security Tops Republican Agenda for 2007. 6 June 2006. "Last year, Jim McCrery introduced legislation to divert Social Security funds into private accounts and then cut guaranteed benefits to offset the accounts. Today he tells reporters that Social Security is first in a logical order of business for Congress in 2007. This is a reminder that, given the chance, Republicans will privatize Social Security. It's also an illustration of the upside-down priorities that have led them to ignore real issues facing working families, like gas prices, health care, and job insecurity." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. DeMint Plan is Privatization, Plain and Simple. 22 June 2005. "This is privatization, plain and simple," cautioned Rep. Levin. "Just like President Bush's plan, this proposal would take money from Social Security to set up private accounts. The plan outlined today is riddled with uncertainty for everyone: for those who are counting on a guaranteed benefit it would bring uncertainty by making Social Security's shortfall worse; for those who might hold a private account, it would bring uncertainty about how the accounts would be funded after the surplus is exhausted." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Defending Social Security. 8 March 2005. "So carry on with more letters. We are going to keep reading the letters to get this message across as to what the diversion of monies from Social Security to private accounts would really mean for the people of this country. And I think another time we will be reading letters from younger people because they have so much at stake and would be hurt so badly by the effort of the President to take monies out of Social Security, put them into private accounts, making the shortfall worse, not less, and undercutting a program that has meant so much in terms of independence for those on Social Security and will mean so much for my children and my grandchildren." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. House Republican Privatization Bill Cuts Guaranteed Benefits, Increases Debt and Does Not Stop Their Raid on Social Security. 13 September 2005. "A quick look at the text of the House Republican privatization bill offers proof that much of the rhetoric surrounding it is simply false," stated Rep. Levin. "This bill would not, as its authors claim, prevent an irresponsible Republican Congress from continuing to spend Social Security funds on other things. What it would do is create private accounts and then cut people's guaranteed benefits when they retire, just like the plan President Bush put forward and the American people have rejected." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. Levin Hosts Birthday Party for Social Security. 14 August 2006. "Following the American people's sound rejection of President Bush's plan to privatize Social Security earlier this year, Levin joined the local leaders and seniors in signing a birthday card to reiterate their commitment to preserving Social Security as a guaranteed benefit for all Americans. The card will be delivered to President Bush when Congress returns to session in September as a reminder that the American people do not want Social Security's guaranteed benefits replaced by risky private accounts." (www.votesmart.org)
  • Sander Levin. The Macomb Daily. Op-Ed - Social Security at 75: Congress shouldn't mess with successful program. 15 August 2010. "Yet every few years, some politicians in Washington decide that Social Security needs to be dismantled and privatized. The last person to try that was President Bush, who, in 2005, proposed cutting traditional Social Security benefits and diverting substantial sums from the Social Security trust funds into private accounts. Democrats fought the Bush plan with everything we had, but the effort to turn back privatization wasn't truly won until Americans themselves came forward and demanded that Social Security be protected. Privatization turned out to be the New Coke of retirement plans. Had President Bush's dream of replacing Social Security with private accounts succeeded, millions of Americans would have been left exposed to even greater losses on Wall Street during the economic collapse at the end of President Bush's term. Over the last 18 months of the Bush presidency, the stock market (as measured by the S7P 500) lost nearly half its value. Trillions of dollars of Americans' retirement savings were wiped out." (www.votesmart.org)

Key

Candidate Answer Official Position

Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer Inferred Position

Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer Unknown Position

Candidate refused to address this issue.

 Project Vote Smart's Research

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Congressional Election 2002 National Political Awareness Test

This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.

The Political Courage Test asks candidates which items they will support if elected. It does not ask them to indicate which items they will oppose. Through extensive research of public polling data, we discovered that voters are more concerned with what candidates would support when elected to office, not what they oppose. If a candidate does not select a response to any part or all of any question, it does not necessarily indicate that the candidate is opposed to that particular item.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning abortion.

a) Abortions should always be illegal.
b) Abortions should always be legally available.
c) Abortions should be legal only within the first trimester of pregnancy.
d) Abortions should be legal when the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape.
e) Abortions should be legal when the life of the woman is endangered.
f) Eliminate public funding for abortions and public funding of organizations that advocate or perform abortions.
g) Other or expanded principles

I favor a woman's ability to choose. In the case of late-term abortions, I support restrictions except in cases when the procedure is needed to preserve the life of the mother or avert serious health consequences to the woman.

Budgetary Priorities

Using the key below, indicate what levels of federal funding you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category.

Slightly Decrease Fundinga) Agricultural
Maintain Funding Statusb) Arts
Maintain Funding Statusc) Defense
Greatly Increase Fundingd) Education
Maintain Funding Statuse) Environmental
Maintain Funding Statusf) International Aid
Slightly Increase Fundingg) Law Enforcement
Greatly Increase Fundingh) Medical Research
Slightly Decrease Fundingi) National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA)
Slightly Increase Fundingj) National Parks
Maintain Funding Statusk) Public Health Services
Slightly Increase Fundingl) Scientific Research
Greatly Increase Fundingm) Terrorism Prevention
Slightly Increase Fundingn) Transportation and Highway Infrastructure
Maintain Funding Statuso) Welfare
p) Other or expanded categories

Most of these areas need and deserve additional resources; however, the economic downturn and the irresponsible tax and budget policies of the Bush Administration and the Republican Majority in Congress have vaporized the hard-won budget surpluses of recent years and replaced them with large budget deficits for as far as the eye can see. As a direct consequence, critically needed priorities are being staved for resources, and my responses reflect that reality.

Defense Spending

Using the key below, indicate what levels of federal funding you support for the following categories. Select one number per category.

Slightly Increase Fundinga) Armed Forces personnel training
Greatly Increase Fundingb) Covert intelligence operations
Maintain Funding Statusc) Military hardware
Slightly Increase Fundingd) Pay for active duty personnel
Slightly Decrease Fundinge) National Missile Defense Program
Maintain Funding Statusf) Programs to improve military retention rates
Maintain Funding Statusg) Research and development of new weapons
Slightly Increase Fundingh) Troop and equipment readiness
i) Other or expanded categories

With regard to federal outlays for military hardware and R&D for new weapons, I supported the significant increases for both these functions included in the most recent defense funding legislation. At the same time, the Pentagon must do a much better job prioritizing the focus of our nation's procurement and R&D priorities. Simply put, we have too many weapons systems chasing too few dollars.

Taxes

Using the key below, indicate what levels you support concerning taxes, deductions, and tax credits in the following categories. Select one number per tax.

Income Taxes - Family Income

a) Less than $25,000
b) $25,000 - $75,000
c) $75,000 - $150,000
d) Over $150,000
e) Other or expanded categories

Income Taxes - Retiree Income

f) Over $40, 000
g) Other or expanded categories

Other Taxes

a) Alcohol taxes
b) Capital gains taxes
c) Cigarette taxes
d) Corporate taxes
e) Gasoline taxes
f) Inheritance taxes
g) Other or expanded categories

Deductions/Credits

a) Charitable deductions
b) Medical expense deductions
c) Mortgage deductions
d) Child tax credit
e) Earned income tax credit
f) Student loan tax credit
g) Other or expanded categories

Taxes

2) Should a married couple filing jointly pay the same taxes as if they were an unmarried couple filing separately?
No3) Would you use Social Security surpluses to balance the budget?
4) Other or expanded principles

We are currently in year two of a 9-year, $1.6 trillion tax cut. As many predicted during the debate on the President's tax cut last year, the sheer size of the tax cut has been a key factor in sending the federal budget back into deficit, to the point where Social Security and Medicare funds are being used to fund the tax cut. Congress should retain the tax cuts that have already taken place, but postpone most of the tax cuts scheduled for future years that are not yet in effect - the vast majority of which benefit only the very richest taxpayers. These funds should be reserved for Social Security and Medicare.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding campaign finance and governmental reform issues.

a) Support public taxpayer funding for congressional candidates who comply with campaign spending limits.
b) Increase the amount individuals are permitted to contribute to federal campaigns.
c) Prohibit Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions to candidates for federal office.
Xd) Provide free or low-cost television advertising to candidates who agree to voluntary campaign spending limits.
Xe) Ban unregulated soft money campaign contributions to political parties or committees.
Xf) Prohibit non-U.S. citizens from making soft money contributions to national parties or party committees.
Xg) Require full disclosure of funding sources of issue advocacy commercials which appear within 60 days of an election.
h) Remove all contribution limits to federal candidates and parties.
i) Require congressional candidates to raise over half of their campaign money from their home state.
j) Require that unions give members the option of not having membership dues used for political purposes.
Yesk) Support the federal government mandate that creates national voting system standards.
Nol) Do you support amending the Constitution to limit the number of terms that members of Congress can serve?
Nom) Do you support voting on-line?
n) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) to address crime.

a) Eliminate the use of the death penalty for federal crimes.
b) Increase spending to build more federal prisons.
c) Impose "truth in sentencing" for violent criminals so they serve full sentences with no chance of parole.
Xd) Support programs to provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related skills and job-placement assistance when released.
Xe) Support programs to provide prison inmates with drug and alcohol addiction treatment.
Xf) Increase funding for community policing programs.
g) Implement penalties other than incarceration for certain non-violent offenders.
Xh) Require that crimes based on gender, sexual orientation, and disability be prosecuted as federal hate crimes.
Xi) Enforcement of civil rights should primarily be the responsibility of the federal government.
j) Minors accused of a violent crime should be prosecuted as adults.
k) Support programs that provide job training and placement services for at-risk youth.
l) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning illegal drugs.

Xa) Increase penalties for selling illegal drugs.
b) Support mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
Xc) Expand federally sponsored drug education and drug treatment programs.
d) Decriminalize the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes.
Xe) Increase border security to stop the flow of illegal drugs into the U.S.
f) Eliminate federal funding for programs associated with the "war on drugs."
Xg) Other or expanded principles

I support stiff penalties for drug dealers, and also believe that the Michigan state legislature needs to address the problems arising from "mandatory-minimum" sentencing. I am the co-author of the Drug Free Communities law which provides federal grants to community anti-drug coalitions. These coalitions help to bring together all segments of our communities to combat drug use at the grassroots level. I also have actively supported the establishment of Drug Courts, including securing federal funds to start a new drug court in Warren, MI. The goal of these drug courts is to intervene early with non-violent offenders and use a combination of carrots and sticks to press individuals to address their substance abuse problems.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning education.

a) Support national standards and testing of public school students.
b) Allow parents to use vouchers (equal opportunity scholarships) to send their children to any publicly-funded school.
c) Allow parents to use vouchers (equal opportunity scholarships) to send their children to any participating school: public, private or religious.
Xd) Support charter schools where teachers and professionals receive authorization and funding to establish new schools.
Xe) Increase funding for block grants to states to help them hire additional teachers.
f) Support teacher testing and reward teachers with merit pay.
Xg) Increase funding for computers and computer training in public schools.
Xh) Increase funding for school capital improvements (e.g. buildings and infrastructure).
i) Eliminate restrictions on federal education funding, giving educators or local school districts more flexibility to design and implement their programs.
Xj) Increase funding of programs such as Pell grants and Stafford loans to help students pay for college.
Xk) Support federal tax incentives to help families save for college.
Xl) Other or expanded principles

Congress and the Bush Administration must honor the promises made last year to significantly increase federal resources to elementary and secondary education in this country.
I believe educational decisions are best left to parents, school boards and teachers at the state and local level. By the same token, the federal government has played a vital role in ensuring equality of educational opportunity in this country. Federal programs like Title I and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ensure that a public education is available to every child in America. I also believe the federal government should do more to help states and localities when it comes to providing the resources our schools need to meet high standards. I strongly supported the "No Child Left Behind Act" [H.R 1] approved by Congress last year. With regard to the testing requirement in the bill, H.R. 1 is designed to identify schools in which students are not meeting state academic standards and places its highest and first priority on providing resources and technical assistance to those schools. Fifteen states already test in math and reading in grades 3-8. More than half of the states test students annually in reading and math in at least three of these grades. The bill also provides funds to states to develop the new assessments or improve their existing assessments.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding employment and affirmative action.

Xa) Increase funding for national job-training programs that re-train displaced workers or teach skills needed in today's job market.
b) Reduce government regulation of the private sector in order to encourage investment and economic expansion.
Xc) Establish empowerment zones in areas with large numbers of unemployed people.
d) Provide tax credits for businesses that provide child care for their employees.
Xe) Encourage employers to offer flex-time scheduling, comp-time, and unpaid leave for family emergencies.
f) Eliminate any federal programs designed to reduce unemployment.
Xg) Increase the federal minimum wage.
h) Considering race and gender in government contracting decisions is appropriate for the federal government.
Xi) Include sexual orientation in federal anti-discrimination laws.
Xj) Continue federal affirmative action programs.
k) Discontinue federal affirmative action programs.
Xl) Other or expanded principles

Congress should take action to extend unemployment compensation benefits.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding America's environment and natural resources.

Xa) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Water Act.
Xb) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Air Act.
c) Support opening a select portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge for oil exploration.
Xd) Support the U.S. re-entering the current Kyoto treaty process to limit global warming.
e) Require states to fully compensate citizens when environmental regulations limit uses of privately owned land.
Xf) Promote increased use of alternative fuel technology.
g) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline or diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles.
h) Provide tax credits for state and local bonds to preserve open spaces, build parks, improve water quality and redevelop brownfields.
i) Support the National Forest Protection and Restoration Act prohibiting commercial logging in our national forests.
Xj) Provide states and local communities with more flexibility to address their respective environmental problems.
Xk) Other or expanded principles

Congress should also prohibit logging in roadless areas of our national forests; ban oil drilling in the Great Lakes, and allow give states and allow local governments to limit or prohibit unwanted shipments of out-of-state garbage. With regard to international efforts to curb greenhouse gases, I do not believe the U.S. should agree to the Kyoto treaty in its present form. One key shortcoming of the Kyoto treaty is that it does not set any binding targets on developing nations such as China and India. With that said, most of the scientific community - and the Bush Administration itself - now accept the view that human activities are contributing to climate change. It would be prudent for the U.S. to take the lead in calling for new international negotiations on steps to deal with greenhouse emissions.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) concerning gun issues.

a) Ban the sale or transfer of semi-automatic guns, except those used for hunting.
Xb) Maintain and strengthen the enforcement of existing federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
c) Ease federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
d) Repeal federal restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
e) Allow citizens to carry concealed guns.
Xf) Require manufacturers to provide child-safety locks on guns.
Xg) Require background checks on gun sales between private citizens at gun shows.
h) Require a license for gun possession.
i) Raise the minimum age for ownership of handguns from 18 to 21.
j) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding health issues.

a) Providing health care is not a responsibility of the federal government.
b) Implement a universal health care program to guarantee coverage to all Americans regardless of income.
Xc) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights to define and enforce the rights of insured patients, including greater access to specialists and emergency rooms, wider choice of health care providers, and appeal mechanisms when claims are denied.
Xd) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights which includes the right to sue when claims are denied.
Xe) Support a Patient's Bill of Rights which includes the right to appeal to an administrative board of specialists when services are denied.
Xf) Support legislation to provide prescription drug coverage under Medicare.
Xg) Increase research funding of the human genome to find cures for diseases such as cancer, AIDS/HIV, Alzheimer's, and heart disease.
Xh) Increase federal funding for training health workers to recognize and respond to the release of biological agents.
Xi) Prohibit the procedure of cloning human embryos.
j) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding immigration.

a) Decrease the number of legal immigrants allowed into the country.
b) Provide extra federal aid to states with higher numbers of immigrants for necessary medical and social services.
c) Prohibit states from passing laws that deny human services (medical care, education) to illegal immigrants or their children.
d) Increase the immigration quota for computer scientists and other information technology workers.
e) Establish English as the official U.S. language.
f) Collect fingerprint data from all U.S. visa applicants which would be accessible to all federal immigration-related agencies.
g) Allow legalization for certain illegal immigrants working in the U.S.
h) Other or expanded principles

International Aid

Indicate which principles (if any) you support regarding U. S. economic assistance.

Xa) Aid should be granted to countries when extraordinary circumstances cause disaster and threaten civilian lives.
Xb) Aid should be granted to countries when it is in the security interests of the U. S.
Xc) Aid should be granted to countries that are close allies of the U. S. and in need of financial/military assistance.
d) Aid should be eliminated for any nation with documented human rights abuses.
e) Aid programs should be scaled back and eventually eliminated except for extraordinary circumstances.
Xf) Other or expanded principles

I believe that a nation's human rights practices should be a major consideration in deciding whether or not to extend U.S. assistance. Obviously, it is not the only factor. Another factor is whether extending the assistance advances important U.S. interests.

International Policy

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the Middle East.

a) The U.S. should take military action against Iraq only as part of an international effort.
b) The U.S. should end the economic embargo against Iraq.
c) The U.S. should not continue to play a prominent leadership role in the peace process between Israel and the Palestine Authority.
d) The U.S. should support the formation of a Palestinian state.
Xe) Other or expanded principles

It's clear to most Americans that Saddam Hussein is not someone to be trusted. He has had a long history of attacking his neighbors and his own people as well. There is good reason to believe that Iraq retains some of its arsenal of chemical and biological weapons. The best option for dealing with this threat is for the Security Council to approve a strong resolution to require Iraq to allow arms inspectors to return promptly without any conditions or restrictions, and to provide for effective elimination of those weapons. At this writing, Congress will soon consider a resolution with respect to Iraq, although it is not yet clear what form this resolution will ultimately take.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the United States-United Nations relationship.

Xa) The U.S. should participate in United Nations peacekeeping missions only when vital U.S. interests are involved.
b) The U.S. should not commit military troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions.
c) The U.S. should withdraw completely from the United Nations.
d) Other or expanded principles
No3) Should the U.S. have full diplomatic relations with Cuba?
No4) Should the U.S. recognize and extend full diplomatic relations to Taiwan?
No5) Should the U.S. increase its financial support to Colombia for the "war on drugs?"
Yes6) Do you support the cooperative threat reduction programs with Russia to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons? ___ Yes ___ No ___ Undecided
No7) Do you support the recent withdrawal of the U.S. from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) treaty in order to deploy a national missile defense system?
Yes8) Should the U.S. hold nations accountable for terrorists who operate from their country?
9) Other or expanded principles

International Trade

No1) Do you support the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
Yes2) Do you support the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)?
Yes3) Do you support continued U.S. membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO)?
Yes4) Do you support China becoming a member of the World Trade Organization?
5) Should a nation's human rights record affect its normal trade relations (most favored nation) trading status with the United States? ___ Yes ___ No ___ Undecided
No6) Should the President have "fast-track" authority to negotiate trade agreements?
7) Do you support the trade embargo against Cuba?
X8) Other or expanded principles

I believe it is critical for any Fast Track to contain detailed, concrete negotiating objectives, address the issues of labor market and environmental standards and dramatically enhance the role of Congress in future negotiations. I have actively opposed Fast Track proposals, including those offered by the Republican Majority in the House, that have failed to live up to these principles.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding national security.

1. Do you support the President using military tribunals to try terrorist suspects when the President deems ordinary civil courts to be inappropriate or impractical?
2. Should the U.S. adopt higher qualification rules for student visa applications from nations known to sponsor terrorism?
3. Should law enforcement agencies be granted greater discretion to read mail and email, tap phones, and conduct random searches to prevent future terrorist attacks?
Yes4. Should federal law enforcement agencies share intelligence data with local law enforcement agencies?
Yes5. Should the federal government provide states with funding for homeland security?
X6. Other or expanded principles

In the aftermath of the September 11 strikes on New York and Washington, there is a clear imperative for the federal government to take the steps necessary to provide for homeland defense and prevent further attacks. Over the last 12 months, Congress has provided the Justice Department with extensive new tools and resources to proactively detect and combat terrorism, as well as beef up information sharing between intelligence and law enforcement. At the same time, fundamental constitutional principles must not be sacrificed. At the end of the day, we have to balance the requirements of preventing terrorism and preserving individual liberties. In a number of areas, the Justice Department's actions have gone too far, particularly in cases where American citizens are being held without charge and without adequate access to legal counsel. I am also troubled by the Justice Department's across-the-board zeal for secrecy. Most Americans understand that there are times when the government cannot divulge certain information because doing so might damage national security, but in order for our democratic system of government to work, the government's actions have to remain subject to meaningful judicial review by the courts as well as legislative review by Congress. Meaningful oversight cannot take place when the Justice Department stonewalls the courts and Congress on providing answers to basic questions about how it is implementing the law.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding Social Security.

a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts which they manage themselves.
b) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts managed by private firms contracted by the government.
c) The federal government should invest a portion of Social Security's assets collectively in stocks and bonds instead of U.S. Treasury securities.
d) Increase the payroll tax to better finance Social Security in its current form.
e) Lower Social Security's annual cost-of-living increases.
Xf) Support a "lock box" measure, limiting Congress's ability to spend Social Security and Medicare surpluses on any other federal programs except Social Security and Medicare, until each program's long-term solvency is guaranteed.
Xg) Other or expanded principles

I strongly oppose replacing the guarantee of Social Security with private investment accounts. Privatizing Social Security would mean that current and future benefits would depend upon the performance of private accounts subject to a variety of risks, including the ups and downs of the stock market. Privatization of Social Security would amount to playing roulette with people's retirement. Diversion of Social Security funds into private accounts would also undermine Social Security's financial solvency.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding technology.

Xa) Continue the moratorium on Internet sales taxes.
b) Implement regulation of Internet content by the federal government.
c) Regulation of the Internet should not be controlled by the federal government.
d) Support government mandates to curtail violent and sexual content on television.
e) Other or expanded principles

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding poverty and the welfare system.

Xa) Support housing assistance for welfare recipients.
b) Provide homeless families with apartment vouchers they can use to defray the cost of an apartment.
Xc) Continue to give states and local governments responsibility for welfare programs through TANF block grants.
Xd) Maintain current welfare-to-work requirements in order for states to qualify for block grants.
Xe) Restore food stamp programs to legal immigrants.
f) Transfer homeless housing programs to states through block grants.
Xg) Provide continued Medicaid benefits for those welfare recipients who have moved from welfare to work.
h) Require states to return any unused welfare block grant funding to the federal government.
i) Direct federal poverty aid through religious, community-based, or other non-profit organizations.
Xj) Provide states with additional funding for Medicaid programs to alleviate increasing state budget deficits.
Xk) Other or expanded principles

I believe we should maintain the current Welfare Reform law's requirement that welfare recipients participate in 30 hours a week of work or work preparation. Congress should also increase program flexibility and take additional steps to make sure people leaving welfare can get good jobs that move them up the economic ladder.

In a total of seventy-five (75) words or less, please explain what your top two or three priorities will be if elected. Please explain how you would obtain any additional funding needed to implement these priorities.