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Pete Visclosky's Issue Positions (Political Courage Test)

Office: U.S. House (IN) - District 1, Democratic
On The Ballot: Running, Democratic for U.S. House - District 1
Project Vote Smart does not permit the use of its name or programs in any campaign activity, including advertising, debates, and speeches.
Pete Visclosky is currently being tested through the 2016 Political Courage Test.

What is the Political Courage Test?

Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These issue positions, from the year 2016, are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Pro-choice Inferred Answer Abortion: Do you generally support pro-choice or pro-life legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Rated 100% by NARAL Pro-Choice America http://votesmart.org/interest-group/1016/rating/7720#.VgGQsnUViko (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 0% by National Right to Life Committee http://votesmart.org/interest-group/252/rating/7227#.VgGQ9HUViko (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Budget: In order to balance the budget, do you support an income tax increase on any tax bracket? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "That is why any serious proposal to reduce the deficit must be comprehensive, and address all spending programs, including domestic discretionary spending, defense spending, as well as entitlement spending, such as Social Security and Medicare, and the other half of the equation, taxes and the inequalities in the tax code." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/629526/budget-control-act-of-2011/?search=taxes#.VXm99nUViko (votesmart.org)
  • "[...] I share Sen. Harkin's concern that the passage of H.R. 8 may put pressure on achieving deficit reductions through spending programs that Americans have earned. As Sen. Harkin stated, 'Every dollar that wealthy taxpayers do not pay under this deal, we will eventually ask Americans of modest means to forgo in Social Security, Medicare, or Medicaid benefits.'" http://votesmart.org/public-statement/771479/opposing-the-american-taxpayer-relief-act/?search=wealthy#.VXm7cnUViko (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Crime: Do you support mandatory minimum sentences for non-violent drug offenders? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Despite exhaustive research, Project Vote Smart was unable to find information about this candidate's position.
Yes Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "The difficulty in this process is that every spending program and tax credit created by previous Administrations and Congresses was initiated to provide a positive benefit to individuals, communities, and the economy. That is why all spending and tax programs must be included in a global solution to our deficit crisis. Without a comprehensive approach involving the many, the Obama Administration and Congress cannot balance the budget, and will only magnify the burden of the few." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/632046/issue-position-the-budget/?search=spending#.VXm5xHUViko (votesmart.org)
  • "As we rebuild our nation's economy, we must defend our existing industries, invest in our public infrastructure, and address the problem of our massive federal debt." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/582924/visclosky-responds-to-state-of-the-union-address/#.VYMEWXUVhHw (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Economy: Do you support lowering taxes as a means of promoting economic growth? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "We need to have expanded South Shore service so that young, talented people realize that Northwest Indiana, with our affordable housing and low tax rates, and with access to the economy, culture, sports, and entertainment of Chicago, is the place to live, raise a family, and yes – invest in new jobs." http://visclosky.house.gov/media-center/press-releases/visclosky-speaks-in-favor-of-local-infrastructure-investment (visclosky.house.gov)
  • "The solution must be a balanced approach, beginning with a smart reduction in federal spending combined with appropriate revenue increases." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/632046/issue-position-the-budget/?search=spending#.VYMD8XUVhHx (votesmart.org)
  • "President Bush’s 2001 tax cuts will have resulted at the end of 2012 in total lost revenues of $2.7 trillion. Those tax cuts were intended to create jobs and stimulate the economy, Visclosky noted, but compare 2001’s economy to 2011’s. 'Was it worth borrowing $2.7 trillion? No.'" http://www.chestertontribune.com/Northwest%20Indiana/110121%20visclosky_addresses_war_debt_tax.htm (www.chestertontribune.com)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Education: Do you support requiring states to implement education reforms in order to be eligible for competitive federal grants? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Despite exhaustive research, Project Vote Smart was unable to find information about this candidate's position.
Yes Inferred Answer Energy: Do you support building the Keystone XL pipeline? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Voted against S.1 "A Bill to Approve the Keystone XL Pipeline" http://votesmart.org/bill/votes/50944#.VXm4M3UViko (votesmart.org)
  • Signed a letter stating "It is time to act in our nation's best interest and approve the Keystone XL pipeline." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/761081/letter-to-barack-obama-president-of-the-united-states-keystone-xl-pipeline/?search=Keystone#.VYMMT3UVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • "As part of his 'all-of-the-above' energy strategy, he supports the construction of the entire Keystone XL pipeline. The Keystone project will give U.S. refineries improved access to crude oil shipped from Canada, and it is estimated that the project could create tens of thousands of good-paying American jobs in the energy sector." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/828001/issue-position-energy/?search=Keystone#.VXm5X3UViko (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Energy: Do you support funding for the development of renewable energy (e.g. solar, wind, thermal)? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed letter stating "Reduce our dependence on fossil fuel through investments in renewable energy and energy conservation. By moving toward energy conservation and investing in renewable and alternative energy sources such as biofuels, hydrogen fuel cells, ethanol, solar and wind we can eliminate our reliance on Middle East oil by 2020 [...]" http://votesmart.org/public-statement/174972/#.VXnATXUViko (votesmart.org)
  • "[...] I am disappointed that renewable energy programs in this bill are drastically reduced. In providing critical research and development for those sectors that currently provide the bulk of our electricity generation, we cannot sacrifice the future. Renewable energy can achieve cost competitiveness, but a continued and sustained research and development program is necessary and appropriate in order to do so." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/691237/hearing-of-the-house-appropriations-committee-markup-of-energy-water-fy13-appropriations-bill/?search=Renewable%20energy#.VYMfAHUVhHw (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Environment: Do you support the federal regulation of greenhouse gas emissions? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "[...] I would also point out that energy consumption today by fossil fuel is represented by about 83 percent of our utilization. We do need to continue to be focused on that huge segment of current use to be more efficient and to reduce our carbon footprint." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/706374/energy-and-water-development-and-related-agencies-appropriation-act-2013/?search=carbon#.VYMgb3UVhHw (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 93% by Environment America http://votesmart.org/interest-group/1826/rating/7716#.VgHC8XUViko (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer Guns: Do you generally support gun-control legislation? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "I voted for this common-sense measure to make our streets and schools safe and to protect our law-abiding citizens from the terror of weapons designed, not for sport or protection, but solely to kill a large number of people as quickly as possible." http://www.nwitimes.com/uncategorized/visclosky-backs-buyer-opposes-assault-weapons-ban/article_da09baa4-bada-5591-a5f0-607082514f32.html (www.nwitimes.com)
  • Rated 10% by Gun Owners of America http://votesmart.org/interest-group/1226/rating/8555 (votesmart.org)
  • Rated 100% by Brady Campaign to End Gun Violence http://votesmart.org/interest-group/122/rating/7712#.VgHD13UViko (votesmart.org)
No Inferred Answer Health Care: Do you support repealing the 2010 Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare")? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act goes a long way toward improving a broken system by enacting reforms to protect those who have health insurance now and expanding access to quality, affordable coverage to nearly all Americans." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/632044/issue-position-healthcare-reform/?search=healthcare#.VXnBDXUViko (votesmart.org)
  • "Pete supported the Affordable Care Act because he believes that it will improve the quality and security of health insurance for individuals fortunate enough to already have coverage, while increasing access for the 14.5 percent of Northwest Indiana residents who do not." http://visclosky.house.gov/issues/understanding-the-affordable-care-act (visclosky.house.gov)
Yes Inferred Answer Immigration: Do you support requiring illegal immigrants to return to their country of origin before they are eligible for citizenship? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "I opposed the DREAM Act because, ultimately, this legislation would provide a benefit for those who have come to our country illegally." http://www.nwitimes.com/news/local/could-visclosky-dream-vote-threaten-hispanic-vote/article_96f1f502-306c-55d3-9fe7-1f47abf4fff3.html (www.nwitimes.com)
Yes Inferred Answer Marriage: Do you support same-sex marriage? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • "I support marriage equality for all couples and believe that every single American should be able to marry the person they love. I believe that it is unfair that, under current law, same-sex couples are legally prohibited from taking advantage of the federal laws that provide financial and legal benefits to married couples." http://visclosky.house.gov/media-center/statements/visclosky-statement-on-marriage-equality (visclosky.house.gov)
  • Rated 100% by the Human Rights Campaign http://votesmart.org/interest-group/1256/rating/7220#.VgHHHnUViko (votesmart.org)
Yes Inferred Answer National Security: Do you support targeting suspected terrorists outside of official theaters of conflict? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Signed a letter stating "Roughly 250 days have passed since the President ordered military action against the Islamic State in the Levant (ISIL). Since that time, the United States, along with our coalition allies, has undertaken thousands of strikes against ISIL targets in Syria and Iraq. Like you, we believe that the United States must confront and ultimately destroy the threat of ISIL, which has shown itself to be a barbaric terrorist group, destabilizing the region, killing thousands, and displacing millions more." http://votesmart.org/public-statement/973956/letter-to-john-boehner-speaker-of-the-house-of-representatives-debate-and-vote-on-isis-war#.VYMoVXUVhHw (votesmart.org)
Unknown Position Unknown Answer Social Security: Do you support allowing individuals to divert a portion of their Social Security taxes into personal retirement accounts? View Citations

Vote Smart's Research

  • Despite exhaustive research, Project Vote Smart was unable to find information about this candidate's position.

Key

Candidate Answer

Official Position: Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer

Inferred Position: Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer

Unknown Position: Candidate refused to address this issue.

Project Vote Smart's Research: Click on this icon to reveal more information about this candidate's position.

Other or Expanded Principles & Legislative Priorities are entered exactly as the candidate has submitted it. Project Vote Smart does not edit for misspelled words, punctuation or grammar.

Indiana Congressional Election 2008 Political Courage Test

This candidate has responded to a Political Courage Test in a previous election. As a continued effort to provide the American public with factual information on candidates running for public office, these archived responses are made available here.

The Political Courage Test asks candidates which items they will support if elected. It does not ask them to indicate which items they will oppose. Through extensive research of public polling data, we discovered that voters are more concerned with what candidates would support when elected to office, not what they oppose. If a candidate does not select a response to any part or all of any question, it does not necessarily indicate that the candidate is opposed to that particular item.
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding abortion.
a) Abortions should always be illegal.
b) Abortions should always be legal.
c) Abortions should be legal only within the first trimester.
Xd) Abortions should be legal when the pregnancy resulted from incest or rape.
Xe) Abortions should be legal when the life of the woman is endangered.
f) Dilation and extraction or "partial-birth" abortion procedures should be legal.
Xg) Medicare, Medicaid, and federal subsidies should be prohibited from being used on abortion procedures.
h) Other or expanded principles.
Indicate what federal funding levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category, you can use a number more than once.
1) Budget Priorities
Maintain Statusa) Agriculture
Maintain Statusb) Arts
Slightly Increasec) Defense
Greatly Increased) Education
Greatly Increasee) Environment
Slightly Increasef) FEMA
Greatly Increaseg) Homeland security
Greatly Decreaseh) International aid
Greatly Increasei) Law enforcement (Federal)
Greatly Increasej) Law enforcement (State)
Slightly Increasek) Medical research
Slightly Increasel) National parks
Slightly Increasem) Public health services
Greatly Increasen) Scientific research
Maintain Statuso) Space exploration programs
Greatly Increasep) Transportation and highway infrastructure
Maintain Statusq) United Nations
Maintain Statusr) Welfare
s) Other or expanded categories
2) Defense Spending
Greatly Increasea) Armed forces personnel training
Greatly Increaseb) Intelligence operations
Greatly Increasec) Military hardware
Greatly Increased) Modernization of weaponry and equipment
Eliminatee) National missile defense
Greatly Increasef) Pay for active duty personnel
Slightly Increaseg) Programs to improve troop retention rates
Greatly Increaseh) Research and development of new weapons
Greatly Increasei) Troop and equipment readiness
j) Other or expanded categories

Greatly Decrease - Iraq War

3) Taxes
Indicate what federal tax levels (#1-6) you support for the following general categories. Select one number per category, you can use a number more than once.
Family Income Taxes
Slightly Decreasea) Less than $12,000
Slightly Decreaseb) $12,001-$40,000
Slightly Decreasec) $40,001-$100,000
Maintain Statusd) $100,001-$180,000
Slightly Increasee) $180,001-$350,000
Greatly Increasef) $350,001 and above
g) Other or expanded categories
Other Taxes
Maintain Statusa) Alcohol taxes
Maintain Statusb) Capital gains taxes
Greatly Increasec) Cigarette taxes
Slightly Increased) Corporate taxes
Maintain Statuse) Gasoline taxes
Slightly Decreasef) Inheritance taxes
g) Other or expanded categories
Deductions/Credits
Maintain Statusa) Charitable contribution deduction
Greatly Increaseb) Child tax credit
Maintain Statusc) Earned income tax credit
Maintain Statusd) Medical expense deduction
Maintain Statuse) Mortgage deduction
Maintain Statusf) Student loan credit
g) Other or expanded categories
No4) Do you support the permanent repeal of the federal estate tax?
Yes5) Do you support requiring the federal budget to be balanced each year?
6) Other or expanded principles

I strongly support pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) rules.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding campaign finance and government reform.
a) Support increasing the amount individuals are permitted to contribute to federal campaigns.
b) Prohibit Political Action Committee (PAC) contributions to candidates for federal office.
c) Allow unregulated soft money campaign contributions to political parties or committees.
d) Remove all contribution limits on federal campaigns and parties.
e) Support prohibiting ads containing candidates' name that are paid for by third parties from airing 60 days before a primary and 30 days before a general federal election.
f) Support instant run-off voting (IRV).
Xg) Support designating Election Day as a national holiday.
h) Support giving the President the power of the line item veto for items concerning appropriations.
Xi) Support limiting the President's use of signing statements in order to prevent an alternative interpretation of the bill.
j) Support a federal shield law to protect reporter-source privilege.
k) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding crime.
Xa) Support the use of the death penalty for federal crimes.
b) Eliminate the use of the death penalty for federal crimes.
Xc) Support programs to provide prison inmates with vocational and job-related skills and job-placement assistance when released.
Xd) Support programs to provide prison inmates with drug and alcohol addiction treatment.
e) Reduce prison sentences for those who commit non-violent crimes.
Xf) Support mandatory jail sentences for selling illegal drugs.
Xg) Support strict penalties for internet crime (e.g. hacking, identity theft, worms/viruses).
Xh) Require that crimes based on sexual orientation be prosecuted as federal hate crimes.
i) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding education.
Xa) Support the federal government funding universal pre-K programs.
b) Allow parents to use vouchers to send their children to any public school.
c) Allow parents to use vouchers to send their children to any private or religious school.
d) Allow teachers and professionals to receive federal funding to establish charter or magnet schools.
Xe) Increase funding for the Pell Grant program.
Xf) Decrease interest rates of Stafford Loans.
Xg) Support federal tax incentives to help families save for college.
Xh) Ban university financial aid officers from owning stock in or accepting gifts from student loan lenders.
Xi) Require universities to disclose financial relationships with lenders.
j) Support federal education standards and testing requirements for K-12 students (No Child Left Behind).
k) Eliminate all federal education standards and testing requirements for K-12 students (No Child Left Behind).
l) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding employment.
Xa) Increase funding for national job-training programs that retrain displaced workers or teach skills needed in today’s job market.
b) Reduce government regulation of the private sector.
Xc) Encourage employers to offer child care services, flex-time scheduling, comp-time, and unpaid leave for family emergencies.
Xd) Increase the federal minimum wage.
Xe) Support the right of workers to unionize.
f) Eliminate all federal programs designed to reduce unemployment.
Xg) Include sexual orientation in federal anti-discrimination laws.
h) Include gender identity in federal anti-discrimination laws.
i) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding the environment and energy.
Xa) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Water Act.
Xb) Strengthen the regulation and enforcement of the Clean Air Act.
Xc) Support increased development of traditional energy resources (e.g. coal, natural gas, oil).
Xd) Strengthen emission controls on all gasoline and diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles.
Xe) Strengthen fuel efficiency standards on all gasoline and diesel-powered engines, including cars, trucks, and sport utility vehicles.
f) Support domestic oil exploration in areas that are currently restricted.
Xg) Encourage further development and use of alternative fuels.
Xh) Support the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel.
Xi) Support research and development of nuclear reactors as an alternative energy source.
j) Allow energy producers to trade pollution credits under "cap and trade" laws.
Xk) Support international mandatory emission targets to limit global warming.
l) Support international voluntary emission targets to limit global warming.
m) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding guns.
a) Allow individuals to carry concealed guns.
b) Ban the sale, ownership or possession of handguns except by law enforcement and other government officials.
On (c) and (d), indicate what levels (#1-6) you support for the following categories.
Maintain Statusc) Enforcement of existing restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
Maintain Statusd) Restrictions on the purchase and possession of guns.
e) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding health.
Xa) Implement a universal healthcare program to guarantee coverage to all Americans, regardless of income.
b) Expand eligibility for tax-free medical savings accounts.
Xc) Allow the importation of prescription drugs into the United States.
Xd) Support expanding prescription drug coverage under Medicare.
Xe) Offer tax credits to individuals and small businesses to offset the cost of insurance coverage.
Xf) Support expanding child healthcare programs.
g) Providing healthcare is not a responsibility of the federal government.
h) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding immigration.
a) Decrease the number of legal immigrants allowed into the country.
b) Establish English as the official national language.
c) Support a temporary worker program.
Xd) Support harsher financial punishments for those who knowingly employ illegal immigrants.
e) Support amnesty for illegal immigrants already working in the United States.
Xf) Illegal immigrants should have to return to their countries of origin before being considered for citizenship.
g) Illegal immigrants should be given a pathway to citizenship.
h) Support merit-based visas over family-based visas.
i) Other or expanded principles
International Aid
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding international aid.
Xa) Support the United States granting aid to countries when extraordinary circumstances cause disaster and threaten civilian lives.
Xb) Support the United States granting aid to countries when it is in the security interests of the United States.
c) Eliminate United States aid for any nation with documented human rights abuses.
d) Aid granted by the United States should be scaled back and eventually eliminated.
e) Other or expanded principles
International Policy
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding international policy.
Yesa) Should the United States continue to provide leadership in the Israeli-Palestinian peace process?
Undecidedb) Should the United States support the creation of a Palestinian state?
Yesc) Should the United States impose greater international sanctions on Iran if it continues to defy United Nations mandates?
Yesd) Should the United States support the Lebanese government against insurgent forces?
Noe) Should the United States maintain its troop levels in Iraq?
Yesf) Should the United States withdraw its troops from Iraq?
g) Discuss your proposals for Iraq.

1. Begin the redeployment of our troops from Iraq while taking measures along the way to keep our soldiers safe;
2. Maintain a rapid reaction force in the region; and
3. Pursue more aggressive diplomatic means to achieve security and stability in Iraq.

Yesh) Should the United States apply greater economic and diplomatic sanctions against North Korea if it fails to abide by its agreement to suspend its nuclear program?
Noi) Should the United States increase financial support for Afghanistan?
Noj) Should the United States increase military support for Afghanistan?
Yesk) Should the United States trade nuclear fuel to India for civilian purposes?
Yesl) Should the United States decrease financial support for Pakistan?
Yesm) Should the United States decrease military support for Pakistan?
Yesn) Should the United States be involved in bringing an end to the violence in Darfur, Sudan?
Yeso) Should the United States be involved in bringing an end to the violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo?
Nop) Should the United States provide economic and military support to the Transitional Government of Somalia?
Yesq) Should the United States use sanctions to encourage the government of Zimbabwe to end its human rights abuses?
Nor) Should the United States support the creation of an independent nation of Kosovo?
s) Other or expanded principles
International Trade
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding international trade.
Yesa) Do you support the United States imposing economic sanctions on China?
Undecidedb) Do you support the United States imposing trade sanctions on Venezuela?
Noc) Do you support the United States involvement in free trade agreements?
Nod) Do you support the United States involvement in intergovernmental organizations dedicated to trade?
e) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding national security.
Noa) Do you support using military tribunals to try suspected terrorists when ordinary civilian courts are deemed inappropriate or impractical?
Nob) Should law enforcement agencies have greater discretion to monitor domestic communications, to prevent future terrorist attacks?
Undecidedc) Should the United States hold foreign states accountable for terrorists who operate in their country?
Yesd) Should the federal government increase funding to states and cities for homeland security?
Yese) Do you support pre-emptive military strikes against countries deemed to be a threat to United States national security?
Nof) Do you support the creation of a federal identification card system?
Nog) Do you support long-term use of National Guard troops to supplement the armed forces in assignments overseas?
Noh) Should the United States expand its missile defense shield?
i) Other or expanded principles
Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding social issues.
a) Should same-sex couples be allowed to marry?
Nob) Do you support a federal constitutional amendment defining marriage as between a man and a woman?
Yesc) Do you support federal funding for research on existing embryonic stem cell lines?
Yesd) Do you support federal funding to create lines of stem cells from new embryos?
Yese) Should the federal government consider race and gender in government contracting decisions?
Yesf) Should the federal government continue affirmative action programs?
Yesg) Should the federal government regulate internet gambling?
h) Other or expanded principles

I believe laws regarding same-sex marriage should be decided at the state level, not by the federal government.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding Social Security.
a) Allow workers to invest a portion of their payroll tax in private accounts that they manage themselves.
b) Ensure the viability of Social Security by increasing the payroll tax.
c) Decrease benefits paid to retirees.
d) Support proportional increases of Social Security benefits based on the cost of living index.
e) Raise the retirement age for individual eligibility to receive full Social Security benefits.
f) Other or expanded principles

I support raising the taxable income limit for social security.

Indicate which principles you support (if any) regarding welfare and poverty.
Xa) Require welfare recipients to spend at least 40 hours a week in a combination of work and training programs.
b) Continue to give states and local governments flexibility in and responsibility for welfare programs through federal block grants.
Xc) Support housing assistance for welfare recipients.
d) Abolish all federal welfare programs.
e) Other or expanded principles
Please explain in a total of 100 words or less, your top two or three priorities if elected. If they require additional funding for implementation, please explain how you would obtain this funding.

Congressman Pete Visclosky opposes shipping American jobs to foreign countries, is working to bring down gas and energy prices by reducing our reliance on foreign oil, is pushing for a responsible redeployment of our troops from Iraq, and is working to make healthcare more affordable and accessible for every American.

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