Representative James Lankford's Political Positions

Biographical

Full Name: James Lankford
Current Office: U.S. House - District 5, Republican
First Elected: 11/02/2010
Last Elected: 11/06/2012
Next Election: 2014
On The Ballot: Running, Republican for U.S. Senate
General Nov. 4, 2014
Primary June 24, 2014
Gender: Male
Family: Wife: Cindy; 2 Children: Hannah, Jordan
Birth Date: 03/04/1968
Birth Place: Dallas, TX
Home City: Edmond, OK
Religion: Baptist
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Issue Positions

In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These are provided below as a courtesy to voters.

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. Protect Life Act. 13 October 2011. "We are a Nation that values all life. When a bridge is under construction and a migratory bird's nest with eggs is discovered, the Fish and Wildlife Migratory Bird Treaty Act forces the delay of construction until the birds have hatched and flown away. Why? Because life is important to us. When a baby is born prematurely, we spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to save that child because each life is important to us. We have one glaring and obvious exception to this passion for life: abortion. For some reason, we see the life of a duck and its egg as more valuable than an infant in the womb. For some reason, we think that a baby born 5 weeks early is worthy of hundreds of thousands of dollars of medical technology to save; but if that same mother wanted to hire a doctor to reach in the womb and kill that child with scissors 5 weeks before delivery, some would demand her choice must be protected." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. HR 3. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Taxpayer Funding of Abortion. James Lankford voted Yea on 05/04/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Issue Position: Family. 23 January 2010. "The most basic principle in our country is the right to life. We must have a culture that promotes life from conception to natural death. Every child should be protected, especially in the womb. Abortion causes the death of a human being and must be stopped as unjust and inhumane. Life begins when a cell is dividing and self-replicating. The difference between a baby in the womb and an adult is time." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Acceptable Bigotry: Prejudice Against the Child in the Womb. 19 January 2011. "This truth that all people have the right to life is so obvious, so clear that they called it 'self-evident.' But in America, millions of people cannot pursue happiness and they cannot appreciate liberty because their first God-given right was denied"life. In recent days, discussion from the left has turned to reducing the numbers of abortions. I applaud this line of thinking because it admits one thing--abortion is wrong. It destroys a life and it devastates a future of a mom. I ask: Why should abortion be reduced if it is just another medical procedure to remove some unwanted tissue from a woman? If it is just tissue, what does it matter? No one is saying that we need to reduce the number of skin moles being removed or reduce the number of warts that are removed, that that is unconscionable. Why? Because we know that a wart is unwanted tissue. But a fetus, that is a baby." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Abortion Debate “ H.R. 3. 4 May 2011. "The debate about life will not be resolved today, though for the sake of millions of children who will die in the womb in abortion clinics, I wish it could have been resolved yesterday." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. H Amdt 95. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Use of Federal Funds For Planned Parenthood. James Lankford voted Yea on 02/18/2011. (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. H Con Res 28. 112th Congress. Removing Troops from Afghanistan. James Lankford voted Nay on 03/17/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Lankfod Travels to Afghanistan to Visit the Troops, Assess Current Situation on the Ground. 13 December 2011. "We are a nation that is ready for the end of a long conflict. Our military warriors are equally ready to return home, but they are committed to finishing the fight so that the next generation does not have to return to this remote nation. I am extremely proud of their courage and dedication. I know many Oklahomans have family members and friends serving, and I pray with everyone each day for their safe and speedy return home." (votesmart.org)
  • Chris Casteel. The Oklahoman: U.S. Rep. James Lankford learns a lot on weekend trip to Afghanistan. 14 December 2011. "Though the war has been going on for 10 years, Lankford said he had yet to hear administration officials "clearly articulate the mission in Afghanistan.'' What he learned over the weekend, he said, is that the mission is to "kill the Taliban that are trying to kill us or civilians" and to train security forces in Afghanistan so they can fight the battles themselves." (newsok.com)

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. H Amdt 13. 112th Congress. Reducing Navy and Air Force Aircraft Procurement. James Lankford voted Nay on 02/15/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Issue Position: National Security. 23 January 2010. "Currently, the federal government seems to argue about everything that is NOT its job while ignoring what is its job. Border protection, national defense, national security, FBI, CIA, relationships with allies, etc. are all key aspects of what an efficient federal government should do well. I come from a proud military family, and I understand that we have the best trained, best equipped, and most moral fighting force in the history of the world. I understand the contributions to freedom as well as the sacrifices made by the men and women who have served --and continue to serve--this nation's armed forces and security agencies. America's preeminence as the greatest superpower in the world will be maintained through what President Ronald Reagan called "peace through strength." As a nation we must recognize, honor, and equip the men and women who voluntarily lay their lives on the line every day to protect our borders, our families, and our liberty. Without security and defense, there is no freedom. As your Congressman I will work to protect our bases, prioritize national security in the budget, and create practical ways to honor the individuals who serve and protect our freedoms at home and abroad." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Sequester Replacement Reconciliation Act of 2012. 10 May 2012. "This is a first step. This is a beginning point to say we've got to get in balance. And this is a real, practical way to begin to deal with fraud and abuse and waste in our system and duplication in government so we do not have the across-the-board sequestration, so we do not have a big hit on our defense. We've got to solve this. And we should be able to come together and say this is waste, abuse, and fraud. Let's settle that before we deal with taxes." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. HR 1363. 112th Congress. 2011 Department of Defense Budget and Additional Continuing Appropriations. James Lankford voted Yea on 04/07/2011. (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. Fox News-A Tax Hike Will Not Pass the House. 23 June 2011. "This is not a tax problem. This is a spending problem. There are plenty of options that are still at the table. What Democrats have to decide is 'are we going to solve America's problems by raising taxes?' The perception that I have is this: for years, Congress has been overspending and has been irresponsible with their money, and now we want to go and raise taxes on Americans because we have been irresponsible. That's the wrong way to go." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Issue Position: Taxes. 23 January 2010. "I propose changing our system from taxing income to taxing consumption with a simple system like the FairTax. The FairTax eliminates the income tax, estate tax, corporate tax, and payroll tax and replaces it with a simple system of an across-the-board consumption tax for all Americans. If you are wealthy and buy more products, you pay more tax. If you purchase very few products, you pay very little tax." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Our Fiscal Problems. 5 April 2011. "Raising taxes on Americans to fund more government would be like a family running up a huge credit card bill and then going to their boss at work to tell them they need a raise to pay off their credit card. Their boss would most likely respond, You don't need a raise. You'll just spend more. You need to get your family on a budget and you need to cut your spending to what's absolutely necessary. That's what we must do." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Issue Position: Spending. 23 January 2010. "Taking money from one family through taxes and debt spending and distributing it to another family is redistribution of wealth, not economic stimulus. Federal government policies should not encourage more personal or national debt." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. Lankford on Fox Business: We Need Low-Cost and No-Cost Economic Proposals. 13 September 2011. "There are lots of low-cost and no-cost options out there. I am focusing on things that are slowing down the economy. There are two perspectives: one says Washington creates jobs, and the other one says that the reason jobs are not created is because of Washington. What banking regulations have slowed down community bank lending? What is happening in the energy sector and what effects are moratoriums and the EPA having on it? I am looking at free trade agreements. We want companies to invest in the U.S., where their headquarters are located, and not overseas. The way we can do that is to not be punitive when they bring those dollars back. These are things we can do that do not cost us a dime but then dramatically increase our economic activity and the velocity of money moving around. Until we do those things, I am not interested in raising taxes." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2012. "We cannot spend our way to prosperity. We have to get back to getting a handle on our debt and deficit and our basic spending. The reason the House budget has gained so much traction is that it does what Americans know in their gut must be done. It cuts spending." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Issue Position: Spending. 23 January 2010. "Stop spending so much money! Stop spending what we do not have! The reason the federal government does not have enough money is because it is doing too many things. We cannot keep spending money we do not have for things that we want to do. Just like your family, my family has to make choices about what we can and cannot afford. We prioritize what is essential. Congress must do the same thing. Our national debt will not recover until we cut the size and scope of the federal government. Stimulus spending? My grandparents would NEVER have said, 'Things are tough, so I think I will make it easier on me by making it tougher on my grandchildren.' But that is exactly what current Washington leaders are doing. They don't like today, so they make their life easier by making it tougher on my kids. Taking money from one family through taxes and debt spending and distributing it to another family is redistribution of wealth, not economic stimulus. Federal government policies should not encourage more personal or national debt." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Lankford Letter: Encouraging Job Creation and a Balanced Budget. 23 September 2011. "The bottom line is that the government does not create long-term jobs. Government can certainly encourage job creation by building a stable and healthy economic environment, but business is the engine that fuels our economy." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Lankford Statement on May Unemployment Report. 3 Jun 2011. "President Obama claimed that the stimulus was a success because of the jobs that were 'saved.' But it has been more than two years since the plan was enacted, and the time [h]as long since passed to claim that maintaining the size of government is a successful economic policy. To continue to prop up the public sector as a replacement for a lack of private sector job growth only covers up the problem and is not a sustainable path back to a robust economy." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Still Waiting on "Recovery Summer". 17 June 2011. "The argument against stimulus spending and expanded regulations has been sealed. The only question that remains is when will Washington embrace free-market principles instead of a centrally-planned economy?" (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. The Time for Spending Cuts Has Arrived. 19 February 2011. "For far too long, Congress has delayed the hard decisions of cutting spending while promising tomorrow would be different. Tomorrow has arrived in the House of Representatives. Republicans have fulfilled our pledge to cut wasteful spending such as defunding ObamaCare, rescinding unspent stimulus funds and cutting old earmarks like whaling education in Mississippi. Real leadership requires sacrifices for the sake of our children's future. This vote sends a clear message that the status quo will no longer be accepted and the future for fiscal responsibility is now." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Lankford Statement on State of the Union Address. 26 January 2011. "The President's call for new 'investments' is simply a guise for more of the same old stimulus spending which has done nothing to jumpstart the economy, and will surely lead to future tax increases. Initiatives that create alternative energy jobs at the expense of traditional energy jobs is a zero sum game. They will not put more people to work and it will not achieve energy independence. The combination of new spending with the proposed budget freeze will only maintain an unsustainable status quo. We need serious cuts, not a continuation of the trillion dollar deficits that are jeopardizing our nation's fiscal stability." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. Edmund Sun “ Government Should Encourage Private-Sector Job Creation. 15 September 2011. "Now the president has presented another multi-billion dollar stimulus plan that relies on the same spending and government-centric tax incentives. These are temporary tax cuts paid for by permanent tax increases. While I applaud the president for making the economy the central focus, I am disappointed that the solutions proposed are the same policies that brought us record-high deficits and protracted economic stagnation." (www.edmondsun.com)
  • James Lankford. Lankford Letter: Encouraging Job Creation and a Balanced Budget. 23 September 2011. "Last week, President Obama delivered the American Jobs Act to Congress. I commend the President for keeping the focus on our economy. With unemployment stuck at 9.1%, addressing the economy should be one of our highest priorities. Several of us in Congress are working to find common ground with the President in order to advance economic reforms. The difficult part is finding agreement in a plan that contains many of the same spending and tax incentives presented to the nation in the larger stimulus package of 2009." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Despite exhaustive research, Project Vote Smart was unable to find information about this candidate's position.

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. Issue Position: Jobs & Economy. 1 January 2011. "Maximize Domestic Energy Production to Ensure an Energy Policy for the 21st Century: Promote lower energy prices through increased domestic production. Encourage all forms of energy production." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Issue Position: Energy. 23 January 2010. "For the security and prosperity of our country, we must allow more drilling, refining and distribution of American oil and natural gas. It is time to stop regulating like it is 1970 and start producing our own energy." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Oklahoma Delegation United Against Obama Backdoor Energy Tax. 3 March 2011. "It is in the best interest of our state and our country for Congress to reclaim its authority from unelected bureaucracies and begin to craft a domestic energy policy that utilizes all the tremendous resources our nation possesses." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Video: Weekly Republican Address 4/30/11: Rep. James Lankford (R-OK). 29 April 2011. "Republicans are focused on expanding all American energy production [...]" (youtu.be)
  • James Lankford. HR 1230. 112th Congress. Offshore Leasing Act. James Lankford voted Yea on 05/05/2011. (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. HR 910. 112th Congress. Energy Tax Prevention Act. James Lankford voted Yea on 04/07/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Americans for Prosperity: No Climate Tax. 16 September 2010. "I, James Lankford, pledge to the taxpayers of the State of Oklahoma to the American people that I will oppose any legislation relating to climate change that includes a net increase in government revenue." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Oklahoma Delegation United Against Obama Backdoor Energy Tax. 3 March 2011. "We cannot penalize traditional energy sources while we wait more than 20 years for sufficient quantities of alternative energy sources to come online, yet the EPA seems to think that depriving American oil and natural gas producers of jobs and more capital will somehow help power our cars and heat our homes. These back door cap-and-trade regulations and taxes are not the key to prosperity. It is in the best interest of our state and our country for Congress to reclaim its authority from unelected bureaucracies and begin to craft a domestic energy policy that utilizes all the tremendous resources our nation possesses." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • National Rifle Association. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. National Rifle Association endorsed James Lankford in the 2010 general election. (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Issue Position: Second Amendment: 23 January 2010. "To ensure domestic tranquility" is an idea as old as the Republic. This phrase was wisely placed in the Preamble to the Constitution. When we think of the kind of society we want, our goal must be a nation in which law-abiding citizens are safe and feel safe. Our Second Amendment rights as Americans make this possible. "the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed." Some would argue that the ownership of guns increases crime in America, but during 2009, when the sale of guns and ammunition increased dramatically, the violent crime rate declined. If more guns lead to more crime, why didn't we see a huge jump in crime in 2009? Hunting, sport shooting, collecting guns, and defending our homes are all part of the American and Oklahoma culture. Owning and carrying a gun does not mean you are a radical; it means you are an American. We need to maintain the rights of individuals to keep and bear arms. It is basic to our Constitutional freedom." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. Lankford Joins Amicus Brief to Overturn Individual Mandate, Repeal ObamaCare. 28 March 2011. "Since its passage last year, the constitutional case against ObamaCare has only grown stronger as more people see the dire effects of the law. I am encouraged to see momentum has remained strong for overturning the individual mandate and I join the ACLJ in full support as the court continues to consider the constitutional facts. Overturning the entire law will truly be a positive step in restoring individual freedom. We must restart the solution process to solve the rising costs of health care and begin building a health care system that will work for people, not Washington." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. The Time for Spending Cuts Has Arrived. 19 February 2011. "Tomorrow has arrived in the House of Representatives. Republicans have fulfilled our pledge to cut wasteful spending such as defunding ObamaCare [¦]" (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Budget Committee GOP: Health Care Law a Fiscal Train Wreck. 18 January 2011. "We need to deal with the root causes of health care costs, and not just move the costs to the states, and put in price controls on doctors and hospitals. Shared pain is not what America was looking for. America was looking for solutions. The new health care law will create long-term budget issues in the days to come. From a budget perspective, you can cook the numbers all you want, but this bill will dramatically increase our federal debt. We need answers, not bigger problems. This is the United States of America. I believe we can do better than this. It's time to repeal this law, and start the hard work of solving the cost issues of health care delivery." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. House Republicans Vote to Repeal ObamaCare. 19 January 2011. "I vowed to repeal this vastly unpopular law and today I joined more than 240 members of the House of Representatives to honor that commitment." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. HR 2. 112th Congress. Repealing the Health Care Bill. James Lankford voted Yea on 01/19/2011. (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Lankford Joins House Push to Repeal 1099 Provision. 3 March 2011. "I have yet to find anyone who was happy that this provision was in the original bill. It shows again that the more we find out about ObamaCare, the less we like it. This is a starting point for a step-by-step repeal of this onerous law and move towards a health care system that works for patients and our economy." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Lankford on Fox Business: We Need Low-Cost and No-Cost Economic Proposals. 13 September 2011. "I believe that reforming Medicare and those kinds of things is part of the issue, the whole healthcare debate. No one knows what the cost of an employee will be because of the Affordable Care Act. If we can start getting reforms in that; that will help. I would like to repeal the Affordable Care Act in its entirety." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Pledge to America... 24 September 2010. "The 'Pledge' priorities are simple: jobs, cut spending, repeal and replace ObamaCare, reform how Congress works and focus on national security." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. The Time for Spending Cuts Has Arrived. 19 February 2011. "Tomorrow has arrived in the House of Representatives. Republicans have fulfilled our pledge to cut wasteful spending such as defunding ObamaCare [...]" (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. Campaign Ad: 2010 James Lankford Campaign Ad “ Illegal Immigration. 15 November 2010. "We need to do some simple things like securing our borders, by setting a policy of saying we will not give amnesty to anyone thats here illegal they must get in line like every other person that wants to legally immigrate to our great melting pot." (youtu.be)
  • James Lankford. Issue Position: Immigration. 23 January 2010. "There should be NO amnesty for illegal immigrants. Justice demands that we do not give preferential treatment to someone who broke our laws over someone who has been waiting to legally immigrate to the United States. We should be a nation of legal immigrants and native-born Americans. We must also clarify the 14th Amendment to confirm that the children of illegal aliens are not given automatic citizenship." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Letter to President Obama. 9 September 2011. "Members of the bipartisan Immigration Reform Caucus along with member of the House vehemently oppose your August 18 2011 announcement to bypass Congress and use prosecutorial discretion to achieve amnesty to individuals who are illegally residing in the US. The manner with which your administration has introduced this policy not only robs the public of a thorough betting, but it also fails to appreciate the negative consequences of this policy shift." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. Issue Position: Family. 23 January 2010. "Forty years ago, if I asked you, 'What is a marriage?' you would say, 'It is a husband and wife committed to each other for life, of course.' But now every part of the family structure is under attack. Marriage should be defended as an institution between one man and one woman." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Letter to Majority Leader Harry Reid and Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell. 2 November 2011. "As you know, the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was passed by Congress with bipartisan support and signed into law by President Clinton in 1996. The law of the land is the federal government defines marriage as between one man and one woman. Unfortunately, the Department of Defense seems intent on circumventing this law." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. The Imperial President. 1 March 2011. "Many in this Chamber are well aware of my traditional view of marriage and my Biblical world view. I am unashamed of my personal faith in Jesus Christ. I believe that words have meaning, though, and that the meaning of marriage is the union of a man and a woman. The Defense of Marriage Act codified that definition in law, representing the belief of a majority of Americans." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Letter to the Honorable Barack H. Obama, President of the United States. 22 March 2011. "We are writing to express our great concern and disapproval over your recent announcement to no longer defend the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Your decision casts doubt on the trust the American people place in our government as a whole, and in the authority of the Constitution specifically." (votesmart.org)

Vote Smart's Research

  • Despite exhaustive research, Project Vote Smart was unable to find information about this candidate's position.

Vote Smart's Research

  • James Lankford. Social Security. 25 October 2010. "For decades candidates have said that Social Security needs to be protected. But, for decades elected politicians have said that there is a problem with the funding of Social Security and it needs reform. By 2016, Social Security will start spending more than it receives each year. Any worker born after 1970, will pay into the system, but will not receive the full benefits promised when they reach 65. We must stop politicking Social Security and start solving Social Security. The 60 Plus Association (with over five million senior adult members) has awarded James Lankford the Honorary Guardian of Seniors' Rights award which is given to those running for office based on their views on seniors' issues. Pat Boone, spokesman for 60 Plus, states,' James Lankford can always be counted on to protect Social Security and Medicare. He will be a tax cutter, protecting the pocket books of senior citizens. Clearly, seniors will have no finer friend in Congress than James Lankford.' If everyone sees the problem, why isn't Social Security fixed? Politicians spend all their energy attacking anyone who talks about Social Security, instead of working toward solutions. It is time to start working on solutions before the next generation suffers under the debt and arrogance of this generation of leaders. We need to establish a plan of action for Social Security: Protect the promise: We must guard Social Security benefits for those who are currently in and approaching retirement. Deal with Fraud: Establish clear and immediate punishment for anyone defrauding the Social Security system. Any person or organization that steals from the benefits of our retired or disabled Americans deserves the full strength of the punishment of our nation. Establish a 'Bi-Partisan Commission' to make proposals for reform: A panel of Republicans and Democrats should be formed to develop solutions for the next generation of Social Security. The question must be answered, 'How do we protect the future of our nation by protecting Social Security?' The commission report should lead to clear legislation with full buy in from both parties. This is not a Democrat or Republican issue, this is an American issue and we should solve it with American innovation." (votesmart.org)
  • James Lankford. Social Security. 25 October 2010. "For decades candidates have said that Social Security needs to be protected. But, for decades elected politicians have said that there is a problem with the funding of Social Security and it needs reform. By 2016, Social Security will start spending more than it receives each year. Any worker born after 1970, will pay into the system, but will not receive the full benefits promised when they reach 65. We must stop politicking Social Security and start solving Social Security. The 60 Plus Association (with over five million senior adult members) has awarded James Lankford the Honorary Guardian of Seniors' Rights award which is given to those running for office based on their views on seniors' issues. Pat Boone, spokesman for 60 Plus, states, ' James Lankford can always be counted on to protect Social Security and Medicare. He will be a tax cutter, protecting the pocket books of senior citizens. Clearly, seniors will have no finer friend in Congress than James Lankford.' If everyone sees the problem, why isn't Social Security fixed? Politicians spend all their energy attacking anyone who talks about Social Security, instead of working toward solutions. It is time to start working on solutions before the next generation suffers under the debt and arrogance of this generation of leaders. We need to establish a plan of action for Social Security: Protect the promise: We must guard Social Security benefits for those who are currently in and approaching retirement. Deal with Fraud: Establish clear and immediate punishment for anyone defrauding the Social Security system. Any person or organization that steals from the benefits of our retired or disabled Americans deserves the full strength of the punishment of our nation. Establish a 'Bi-Partisan Commission' to make proposals for reform: A panel of Republicans and Democrats should be formed to develop solutions for the next generation of Social Security. The question must be answered, 'How do we protect the future of our nation by protecting Social Security?' The commission report should lead to clear legislation with full buy in from both parties. This is not a Democrat or Republican issue, this is an American issue and we should solve it with American innovation." (votesmart.org)

Key

Candidate Answer Official Position

Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.

Inferred Answer Inferred Position

Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.

Unknown Answer Unknown Position

Candidate refused to address this issue.

 Project Vote Smart's Research

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