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Bill Johnson has refused to provide voters with positions on key issues covered by the 2014 Political Courage Test, despite repeated requests. Bill Johnson is still welcome to submit the test at any time.
What is the Political Courage Test?
This candidate has demonstrated 0% courage during the test.
*Note: This percentage is calculated based on the number of issue areas addressed by the candidate on the Political Courage Test at the conclusion of the testing period. It does not indicate support or lack of support by Project Vote Smart.
In response to the increasing unwillingness of candidates to answer issue questions, Project Vote Smart has researched Presidential and Congressional candidates' public records to determine candidates' likely responses on certain key issues. These are provided below as a courtesy to voters.
Vote Smart's Research
- Bill Johnson. H Amdt 95. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Use of Federal Funds For Planned Parenthood. Bill Johnson voted Yea on 02/18/2011. (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. HR 3. 112th Congress. Prohibiting Taxpayer Funding of Abortion. Bill Johnson voted Yea on 05/04/2011. (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Washington Times: Bill Johnson. "I'm pro-life, pro-gun, and for smaller government, lower taxes, less government intrusion, sticking to the Constitution, and I'm for God and family values - that's what I stand for." (www.washingtonpost.com)
- Bill Johnson. Johnson Statement on Ohio Right to Life Endorsement. 26 May 2010. "I'm honored by the Ohio Right to Life PAC endorsement. The group works tirelessly to defend the rights of unborn children, and I look forward to working with them in Washington. I'm proudly pro-life and was deeply disappointed that Charlie Wilson chose loyalty to his President -- in voting for the health care bill -- over protecting the unborn." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Bill Johnson Stands Up For Innocent Life. 31 May 2012. "Every American, both born and unborn, is entitled to the inalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The Prenatal Nondiscrimination Act is an important step forward to protecting innocent life in America. Not only are babies being aborted but they are being aborted simply because of their gender. It's unconscionable that America is the only advanced country that does not restrict gender-selection abortions. In fact, victims of gender-selection abortions are overwhelmingly female, and such despicable procedures should be outlawed immediately," (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. National Right to Life PAC Endorses Johnson in Ohio's 6th Congressional Race. 29 September 2010. "This endorsement is very meaningful; it's an honor to be recognized by National Right to Life. I look forward to working with them to stand up for pro-life values across our nation." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. 2010. Vindicator.com: 2010 Ohio Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded: "I am pro-life, and I oppose abortion except in the case of rape, incest, and when the mother's life is in danger. Additionally, I support parental notification and a ban on partial birth abortions." to the question: "Positions on the Issues." (www.vindy.com)
Vote Smart's Research
- Bill Johnson signed the Americans for Tax Reform Taxpayers Protection Pledge. "I will: ONE, oppose any and all efforts to increase the marginal income tax rate for individuals and business; and TWO, oppose any net reduction or elimination of deductions and credits, unless matched dollar for dollar by further reducing tax rates." (atr.org)
- Bill Johnson. Letter to Representative Hensarling, Senator Murray, and Members of the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction. 17 November 2011. "Cutting back the national debt will require stronger private sector job growth and less government spending. Raising taxes would just take us further away from both goals." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Statement on The Budget Control Act. 29 July 2011. "President Obama seems to be the only one in town still talking about tax hikes. Our debt crisis is a result of Washington spending too much, not taxing or borrowing too little. Raising taxes on job creators will cause even more harm - controlling spending must be the solution." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Make the Right Choice. 20 December 2011. "Enough of these Washington gimmicks. The House already voted to extend the payroll tax holiday for a full year for all hardworking Americans, but the Senate Democrats opposed our bipartisan bill. Senate Democrats have a clear choice to make: continue the game of Washington politics as usual or join with House Republicans to stop a tax increase on 160 million Americans. I urge them to make the right choice." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Letter to The Honorable John Boehner Speaker, U.S. House of Representatives and The Honorable Eric Cantor Majority Leader, U.S. House of Representatives. 6 June 2011. "To fundamentally and permanently reform the way that Washington budgets and spends, we must send to the states a Balanced Budget Amendment (BBA) with strong protections against federal tax increases and including a Spending Limitation Amendment (SLA) like the statutory spending caps described above. Rep. Joe Walsh has introduced a BBA with a spending limit provision (H.J.Res. 56) that has already earned the support of 47 Republican senators." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Johnson Vows No Debt Vote Without Cuts. 18 May 2011. "Whenever he is presented with legislation, Johnson said he asks two simple questions: How much is it going to cost and who is going to pay for it. 'And if I don't get some answers that indicate to me that we're going to cut spending and stop this building of this massive debt that's mortgaging the future of our children and our grandchildren, my vote is no and I've been very consistent with that,' he said. He also opposes tax increases as 'the right way to get there.'" (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Government Overspending. 20 January 2011. "But how do we increase the revenue? That is what you've been talking about here for the last few minutes. And you're exactly right, it does not come through tax increases; it comes through letting Americans and businesses keep more of their money because that builds economic buying power, that builds confidence. They invest; they spend." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. 2010. Vindicator.com: 2010 Ohio Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded: "Reducing taxes is essential to ensure America's economic recovery. This means balancing the budget and reducing the size of government. When Americans are allowed to keep more of their hard earned money, confidence will be restored, wealth will accumulate, businesses will flourish, and jobs will be created. I founded a tax reform organization the Ohio Sales Tax Reform Incentive - that resulted in legislation that would create two sales tax holidays to benefit working families." to the question: "Positions on the Issues." (www.vindy.com)
Vote Smart's Research
- Bill Johnson. Congressman Bill Johnson: Washington Establishment Now Understands We Mean Business When We Say "The Days of Outrageous Spending Are Over". 9 April 2011. "House Republicans have fought hard to change the culture in Washington to one that puts a priority on cutting spending instead of increasing it. The measure that Senate Democrats and the White House agreed to shows the real change we're forcing to Washington's status quo. The Washington establishment now understands that we mean business when we say, 'The days of outrageous spending are over.'" (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Congressman Bill Johnson Statement Regarding President Obama's Visit to Cleveland State University. 22 February 2011. "President Obama's event at Cleveland State University today shows that the White House remains clueless on how to create an environment in which entrepreneurs are willing to take risks that will lead to job creation. The recipe for this is straightforward -- and it's the exact opposite of the failed stimulus of 2009: stop the out-of-control spending in Washington that is mortgaging future generations and creating an uncertain business climate." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Congressman Bill Johnson Statement on 2nd Anniversary of Failed Economic Stimulus. 17 February 2011. "After two years of massive government spending that's added nearly a trillion dollars to the national debt, President Obama's so-called economic stimulus has failed. In fact, our economy continues to sputter. We've lost 2.5 million jobs since the failed stimulus was signed into law, and unemployment rates in eastern and southeastern Ohio remain dangerously high. Reckless government spending does not create jobs; it grows government. Small business and vital industries are facing an uncertain future with higher taxes and more burdensome regulations. We need smart fiscal policies that reduce the size of government and let the private sector do what it does best: create jobs." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Rep. Bill Johnson: "If Last Year's Slogan Was "Recovery Summer,' Then Sadly, This Year's Is 'Recovery Bummer.'" 17 June 2011. "It's been one year since President Obama launched his 'recovery summer tour' hoping that a public relations stunt would change opinions of his bloated stimulus boondoggle that's created a mountain of debt instead of the private sector jobs needed to move America out of this recession. If last year's slogan was 'recovery summer,' then sadly, this year's is 'recovery bummer.'" (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Herald-Dispatch - Candidate Johnson Tours Lawrence County Business Before Town Meeting. 8 September 2010. "Johnson said the nearly $1 trillion stimulus provided $238 million to the 6th District, yet created only 230 jobs. 'Is that value for American taxpayers? I don't think so.'" (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Congressman Bill Johnson Statement on Short-Term Budget Measure. 15 March 2011. "I'm disappointed that we're still having to negotiate short-term budget solutions when we should be moving forward on a responsible federal budget that achieves our goals of defunding Obamacare, reducing the national debt and slashing federal spending. Instead, we're forced to clean up the mess left by Democrats' refusal last year to bring forth a full budget. House Republicans pledged to cut federal spending, and in the two stopgap measures, we've cut more than $10 billion in federal spending, including eliminating 33 federal programs. We've slashed earmark slush funds and are holding government accountable to the tax payers." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Government Overspending. 20 January 2011. "Since the giant stimulus bill was passed in the previous session of Congress, only three States have lost more jobs than the State I come from, from the great State of Ohio. Unemployment in the district that I represent is another symptom of that disease. We cannot continue down this track of spending and borrowing and punishing job creators and expect America to pull through this economic crisis that we find ourselves in." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Letter to the Honorable John Boehner, Speaker, U.S. House of Represenatitves, and the Honorable Eric Cantor, Majority Leader, U.S. House of Representatives. 6 June 2011. "To ensure that spending cuts continue, we need statutory, enforceable total-spending caps to reduce federal spending to 18% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), with automatic spending reductions if the caps are breached--an approach taken in a bill by Rep. Mack and in another bill by Reps. Kingston, Flake, and Graves." (votesmart.org)
Vote Smart's Research
- Despite exhaustive research, Project Vote Smart was unable to find information about this candidate's position.
Vote Smart's Research
- Bill Johnson. Congressman Bill Johnson Statement in Response to President Obama Halting Proposed EPA Air-quality Regulations. 3 September 2011. "The Obama Administration's decision to not move forward at this time with some of its most onerous job-killing EPA regulations is an important first step in recognizing that their policies are hurting the economy. I will continue to work with my colleagues in the House to keep the pressure on this Administration to stop its other regulatory policies that have cost American jobs and created an uncertain environment for job creators." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Bill Johnson Fights to Protect Jobs in Natural Gas Development. 9 December 2011. "Rather than continuing with their job-killing policies by attacking domestic energy production, the President should be directing his regulatory agencies like the EPA to partner with American industries and businesses to create jobs and put us back on the path to real economic recovery." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Coal Residuals Reuse and Management Act. 14 October 2011. "Madam Chair, I rise in strong support of H.R. 2273, the Coal Residuals Reuse and Management Act of 2011. Unfortunately, this legislation is necessary because last June the Obama administration proposed two new rules in its ongoing war on coal that could cost tens of thousands of jobs and tens of billions of dollars to our GDP. The two new rules are a departure from decades of accepted practice of allowing States to regulate coal ash. [¦] Now, keep in mind these new rules will not only negatively effect the coal and the utility industries but also will lead to job losses and increased cost for the infrastructure and construction industries. Furthermore, coal residuals are a key component of many of the materials used by these trades. If the EPA is successful in classifying coal residuals as a hazardous material, the cost of the raw goods in these vital industries would skyrocket." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Rep. Bill Johnson Statement Regarding the Federal EPA's "Scorched-Earth Campaign" Against Job Creators. 15 June 2011. "The Obama Administration's War on Coal is one more battle in their War on Jobs. With the EPA pursuing a scorched-earth campaign against job creators and the White House's denial that their misguided policies are driving our economy over the cliff, a direct assault against the coal industry will be the death knell for too many of our communities. The EPA's 'train wreck' of rules coming down the track will result in higher electric rates for working families who are already struggling to make ends meet in this fragile economy." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. HR 910. 112th Congress. Energy Tax Prevention Act. Bill Johnson voted Yea on 04/07/2011. (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Obama's EPA Must STOP Its Assault on Coal Jobs. 21 December 2011. "This disastrous new regulation will also cost indirect jobs related to the coal mining industry. It's pretty simple -- if there are fewer coal-fired power plants -- there is less demand for coal. The Obama Administration's contempt for the coal industry and the jobs that go with it is deeply troubling. It's clear that President Obama and his activist EPA are motivated by a radical environmental ideology -- the same ideology that is standing in the way of the Keystone XL Pipeline and the thousands of jobs that it would create. We can all agree that we want clean air, but at what cost. How about common sense regulations that DON'T cost our economy jobs." (votesmart.org)
Vote Smart's Research
- Bill Johnson. 2010. Vindicator.com: 2010 Ohio Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded: "I am a firm believer in the Constitution's 2nd Amendment right of Americans to bear arms. I am a lifetime member of the National Rifle Association. Our justice system should punish those who abuse their rights, but we shouldn't restrict one of law-abiding citizens' most fundamental rights as expressed in the US Constitution. I believe that the 2nd Amendment is behind only free speech because our founding fathers felt it was that important." to the question: "Positions on the Issues." (www.vindy.com)
- National Rifle Association. Project Vote Smart: Interest Group Endorsements. 04/18/2012. National Rifle Association endorsed Bill Johnson in the 2012 general election. (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Issue Position: Gun Rights. 23 January 2012. "Second amendment gun rights are a fundamental right that should and must be protected. Over the last two years, the U.S. Supreme Court has protected gun rights in two substantial cases, but those decisions were close 5-4 victories. We must be unrelenting in our defense of law-abiding citizens to own guns. Furthermore, for Ohioans, we should protect concealed carry laws and expand state-to-state reciprocity." (votesmart.org)
Vote Smart's Research
- Bill Johnson. Creating Economic Certainty. 22 September 2011. "Today I rise to outline five specific actions we must accomplish to create economic certainty, give job creators the confidence they need to begin hiring again, and make American companies more competitive both here at home and globally. They are: require the Federal Government to balance its budget annually; scrap the current Federal Tax Code and implement a flatter, fairer tax code; eliminate all pending Federal regulations not directly tied to public health or national security; establish a clear national energy policy; and repeal the President's health care law." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. HR 2. 112th Congress. Repealing the Health Care Bill. Bill Johnson voted Yea on 01/19/2011. (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Column: Strengthening And Protecting Medicare. 3 June 2011. "What is the Democrats' plan for Medicare? Their plan is the new healthcare law that I've been fighting to defund and repeal. Their plan raids Medicare to fund the President's new health-care law and rations Medicare, empowering unelected bureaucrats to decide which treatments won't be covered." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Repealing the Job-Killing Health Care Law Act. 19 January 2011. "Today, we can right a serious wrong and still achieve the goals we share, like ensuring access to quality, affordable health care for all Americans; real health care reforms that control costs; and ensuring that Americans with preexisting conditions get the care they need at a price they can afford. In my district in eastern and southeastern Ohio, more than 26,000 senior citizens currently enrolled in Medicare Advantage are at risk of losing this program because of the $200 billion in cuts to Medicare required by this job-destroying health care law. Later today we will vote to repeal the government takeover giving us the opportunity to start over and enact real patient-focused health care reforms." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Statement Regarding 11th Circuit Court Ruling on Democrats' Healthcare Law. 12 August 2011. "This ruling is further proof that President Obama's sweeping healthcare reform law goes too far. While we need to significantly reform our healthcare delivery system to make health care more affordable and accessible without sacrificing quality, forcing people to buy insurance is unconstitutional and cannot stand. This unwelcome expansion of federal powers will do nothing to improve the quality and portability of health care. This law should be fully repealed and Congress should get to work on real healthcare reform based on common-sense patient-centered solutions." (votesmart.org)
- Bil Johnson. Congressman Bill Johnson Applauds Senate Repeal of Harmful 1099 Provision in Healthcare Law. 5 April 2011. "I'm glad to see U.S. Senators join with the U.S. House to repeal the harmful 1099 provision in the Democrats' job-destroying healthcare law. The 1099 rule created onerous burdens of paperwork on small businesses that are struggling to make ends meet in a difficult economy. This provision was a clear example of how government intrusion in the private sector can hamper economic recovery. I hope the President will sign this repeal into law immediately to show small business owners and working families that Washington is committed to spurring job creation in the private sector instead of grounding it to a halt with burdensome rules and regulations." (votesmart.org)
Vote Smart's Research
- Bill Johnson. Immigration Debate Requires Real Leadership From Congress. 12 August 2010. "There must be a process that balances America's legacy as a beacon for freedom for the rest of the world and the very real need to protect our homeland and citizens; it's a necessary discussion, but securing the border and enforcing our immigration laws must be the first priority," Johnson said. "When I travel across the district, I hear this over and over. Ohioans and all Americans are beyond frustrated with Democrats and federal government refusing to enforce immigration laws already on the books." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. 2010. Vindicator.com: 2010 Ohio Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded: "There must be a process that balances America's legacy as a beacon of freedom for the rest of the world, and the very real need to protect our homeland and our citizens. We must secure, protect, and control our borders it's a matter of national security. Those having a legitimate claim for permanent citizenship must pursue it in timely fashion. But, until immigrants are naturalized, they shouldn't be entitled to the same rights as citizens." to the question: "Positions on the Issues." (www.vindy.com)
- Bill Johnson. Ironton Tribune Johnson's RV Tour Makes Stop in Ironton. 9 September 2010. "Johnson said in favor of the new Arizona immigration laws, 'We have to figure out what to do with our borders. It starts with protecting our borders.'" (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Bill Johnson Statement on the Supreme Court's Immigration Decision. 25 June 2012. "Congressman Bill Johnson (R-Marietta) released the following statement today reacting to the Supreme Court's ruling to uphold a key provision of Arizona's immigration law (S.B. 1070) that allows Arizona's law enforcement to check a person's legal status in the course of enforcing other laws. 'Today's Supreme Court decision to uphold a key part of Arizona's immigration law is an important step forward in enforcing America's immigration law, and highlights President Obama's failure to lead on this critical issue. Because of the President's failure, Arizona had to step up and do what the federal government won't do -- take steps toward securing America's borders and protecting our citizens. The Supreme Court's decision to uphold the rule of law is a major step toward an immigration policy that protects Americans and begins the process of fixing what President Obama chooses to neglect.'" (votesmart.org)
Vote Smart's Research
- Bill Johnson. 2010. Vindicator.com: 2010 Ohio Primary Election Candidate Survey. Responded: "From a personal view, I believe in a traditional definition of marriage being between one man and one woman. I believe the gay marriage movement undermines the integrity of the American family. That said, it is a states' rights issue and not one that the federal government is responsible or qualified to administer. I would oppose any effort to repeal Ohio's constitutional amendment that outlaws gay marriage." to the question: "Positions on the Issues." (www.vindy.com)
- Bill Johnson. Letter to Majority Leader Harry Reid and Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell. 2 November 2011. "As you know, the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) was passed by Congress with bipartisan support and signed into law by President Clinton in 1996. The law of the land is the federal government defines marriage as between one man and one woman. Unfortunately, the Department of Defense seems intent on circumventing this law." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Wilson Sides with the Liberals on "Don't Ask Don't Tell" Vote. 4 June 2010. "Republican candidate for Congress Bill Johnson today stated his dismay with Charlie Wilson's vote to repeal the military's 'Don't Ask Don't Tell' policy. Johnson said that this vote is another example of Charlie Wilson being out of touch with the values and priorities of Eastern and Southern Ohio citizens. [¦] The 'Don't Ask Don't Tell' policy was enacted under President Bill Clinton. The policy has been subject to little controversy in the military. Instead the issue has been kept alive by politicians and the radical homosexual lobby." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Letter to the Honorable Barack Obama, President of the United States of America. 22 July 2011. "We are writing to express our great concern and disapproval over your recent announcement to no longer defend the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). Your decision casts doubt on the trust the American people place in our government as a whole, and in the authority of the Constitution specifically. As President, you and the Department of Justice (DOJ) have a duty and a responsibility to defend the laws of the United States. While it may be inevitable that you, or any other administration, may disagree with a bill signed into law by previous Presidents, that does not negate your responsibility to uphold those laws." (votesmart.org)
Vote Smart's Research
- Bill Johnson. Johnson Holding Line Against Defense Cuts. 5 January 2012. "'What a lot of folks might not be willing to accept yet is that America has become part of the battlefield. The continental United States became part of the battlefield in September 2001,' he added. 'The bad guys have demonstrated that they can come here, and that they can bring the fight to us.' America has few choices, 'but we can choose the time and place of the fight,' he continued. 'If we are going to provide for the nation's security, we are going to have to understand that the wars of the future aren't going to be like the wars of the past where we are fighting standing armies and occupied territory and setting up permanent facilities,' Johnson said. 'That's not what we're going to be doing.'" (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Lawmakers from region praise military's efforts. 3 May 2011. "'U.S. Rep. Bill Johnson of Marietta, R-6th, who served in the Air Force when "bin Laden started his reign of terror,' said the terrorist's 'death is a testament to the professionalism of our military and intelligence communities and brings an end to a dark chapter in our nation's history.' However, the nation's "fight against terrorism continues and dangers persist," Johnson said." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Issue Position: Homeland Security/National Defense. 1 January 2011. "In order for the United States to provide for its citizens and promote American ideals overseas, it must first guarantee protection against very real threats from those who would see our Nation fail. Having served over 26 years in the U.S. Air Force, I have experienced firsthand the strength and success of our Armed Forces in promoting the message of America abroad and at home. Our military plays a pivotal role in safeguarding not only the lives of individuals, but also the values we hold dear. I believe we must follow through with our commitments in Iraq and Afghanistan and not only work to transition responsibility to local government and law enforcement, but also make certain that citizens will enjoy the benefits of freedom and democracy moving forward. Our work to protect our homeland is no less important. I believe that America should have a rigorous policy that takes action on multiple fronts to prevent acts of terrorism. Increasing communication between law enforcement and the intelligence community and a strong, capable missile defense system are of the utmost importance in preventing another national tragedy from happening again." (votesmart.org)
Vote Smart's Research
- Bill Johnson. Issue Position: Seniors. 1 January 2012. "With more seniors than teens in the workforce for the first time in our nation's history, it's clearer than ever that our nation's retirement system is broken. Instead of retiring in good health to enjoy time with children and grandchildren, people are forced to work longer and harder than ever. That's the reason I firmly believe that social security should be protected and the retirement age shouldn't be raised. But we need to do more. The out-of-control spending by the Democratic Congress puts our entire nation -- seniors, hard working Ohioans, children, even those not yet born who will be asked to pick up the tab -- in danger. We must cut spending to protect social security. And we must strengthen what's offered to seniors, such as ensuring every senior is assured access to their doctor. Medicare policies are making a physician shortage worse, and we must work to ensure a high-quality, prepared, pool of physicians to advise and treat Medicare patients." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Column: Smart Fiscal Policies Today Will Benefit Us Tomorrow. 11 February 2011. "I know many people have differing and strong opinions about Social Security. Some want to blindly pretend that all is well and there will always be enough money to pay out all obligations of the fund. Those people are wrong. We must take corrective action to protect Social Security long-term. Others want to privatize Social Security. They want to take all of the money from government hands and force every account into Wall Street investments. Those people are wrong, too. Money paid into Social Security by current retirees and those approaching retirement should never be put at risk like that. And people who are just starting out should have more choices and more control over their own retirement dollars but they should never be forced to put their accounts into riskier investments." (votesmart.org)
- Bill Johnson. Democrats Use Scare Tactics in Last Ditch Effort to Save Incumbents. 17 August 2010. "It's understandable that Democrats would be concerned about retirement because many face the likelihood of forced retirement this November. Really, what they're doing is using scare tactics rather than focusing on real priorities like fixing the economy because of their failure to create jobs. Here's the truth -- we do need to cut spending and reform our government, but those reforms will help to ensure the long term stability, not the elimination of, programs like social security, medicaid and medicare." (votesmart.org)
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Candidate had the Political Courage to address this issue directly.
- Inferred Position
Candidate refused to address this issue directly, but Project Vote Smart inferred this issue position based on the candidate's public statements, voting record, and evaluations from special interest groups.
- Unknown Position
Candidate refused to address this issue.
- Project Vote Smart's Research
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