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William 'Bill' R. Keating's Ratings and Endorsements

Business and Consumers

2013-2014 Associated General Contractors of America - Lifetime Scores 43%
2013-2014 Associated General Contractors of America - Lifetime Scores (Taxes) 100%
2013-2014 Associated General Contractors of America - Lifetime Scores (Other) 50%
2013-2014 Associated General Contractors of America - Lifetime Scores (Infrastructure) 86%
2013-2014 Associated General Contractors of America - Lifetime Scores (Environment) 0%
2013-2014 Associated General Contractors of America - Positions 36%
2013-2014 Associated General Contractors of America - Lifetime Scores (Labor) 0%
2013-2014 International Warehouse Logistics Association - Positions 100%
2013-2014 Metals Service Center Institute - Positions (113th Congress, full session) 26%
2013-2014 Metals Service Center Institute - Positions 25
2013-2014 National Association of Manufacturers - Positions 17%
2013-2014 National Electrical Contractors Association - Positions (Interim Mid-Year) 74%
2013-2014 National Federation of Independent Business - Positions (113th Congress) 0%
2013-2014 National Retail Federation - Positions: Budget/Tax 0%
2013-2014 National Retail Federation - Lifetime Score: Legal Reform (House Only) 13%
2013-2014 National Retail Federation - Positions: Labor 50%
2013-2014 National Retail Federation - Positions: Legal Reform (House Only) 0%
2013-2014 National Retail Federation - Positions: Healthcare (House Only) 0%
2013-2014 National Small Business Association - Positions 40
2013-2014 Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council - Positions 15%
2013-2014 The National Lumber and Building Material Dealers Association - Positions (113th Congress, full session) 16%
2013-2014 The National Lumber and Building Material Dealers Association - Positions (113th Congress, first session) 20
2013 National Electrical Contractors Association - Positions 88%
2013 National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 0%
2013 The National Lumber and Building Material Dealers Association - Positions 0%
2013 United States Chamber of Commerce - Positions 33%
2013 United States Chamber of Commerce - Lifetime Score 30%
2012 National Association of Manufacturers - Positions of 112th Congress 19%
2012 National Electrical Contractors Association - Positions 60%
2012 United States Chamber of Commerce - Lifetime Score 28%
2012 United States Chamber of Commerce - Positions 25%
2011-2012 American Council of Engineering Companies - Positions 69
2011-2012 Independent Electrical Contractors - Positions (House) 25%
2011-2012 International Warehouse Logistics Association - Positions 0
2011-2012 National Association of Manufacturers - Positions 20%
2011-2012 National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 15%
2011-2012 National Retail Federation - Positions: International Trade 0%
2011-2012 National Stone, Sand & Gravel Association - Positions 38%
2011-2012 Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors Association - Positions 30%
2011-2012 Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council - Positions 35%
2011 National Electrical Contractors Association - Positions (House Only) 100%
2011 National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 9%
2011 National Retail Federation - Positions 14%
2011 National Small Business Association - Positions 66%
2011 National Stone, Sand & Gravel Association - Positions 25%
2011 The National Lumber and Building Material Dealers Association - Positions 20%
2011 United States Chamber of Commerce - Positions 31%
1996 Massachusetts National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 50%

Civil Liberties and Civil Rights

2014 American Civil Liberties Union - Positions (captured June 17, 2014) 85%
2014 American Civil Liberties Union - Positions (captured January 3, 2014) 80%
2014 Friends Committee on National Legislation - Positions 100%
2014 Hispanic Federation, LCLAA, LULAC, Mi Familia Vota, NCLR, and Voto Latino - National Immigration Scorecard 100%
2014 Human Rights Campaign - Positions on Marriage 100%
2014 Liberty for All - Positions 39%
2014 Liberty Guard - Positions 0%
2014 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) - Positions 93%
2014 National Council of La Raza - Positions (Preliminary) 100%
2014 Stand Against Spying - Positions 100%
2013-2014 Human Rights Campaign - Positions 100%
2013-2014 Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights - Positions 100%
2013 Friends Committee on National Legislation - Positions 79%
2013 Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights - Positions 100%
2013 Republican Liberty Caucus - Personal Liberties 53%
2013 Venn Institute - Scorecard for International Religious Freedom 17%
2012 Americans for Democratic Action - Positions 85%
2012 Drum Major Institute - Positions 71%
2012 Friends Committee on National Legislation - Positions 73%
2012 Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights - Positions on Civil Rights 100%
2012 Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights - Total Score 95%
2011-2012 American Civil Liberties Union - Positions 69%
2011-2012 Human Rights Campaign - Positions 100%
2011-2012 United States Campaign to End the Israeli Occupation - Positions on International Middle East Human Rights 44%
2011 American Civil Liberties Union - Positions (House Only) 50%
2011 Americans for Democratic Action - Positions 85%
2011 Drum Major Institute - Positions 89%
2011 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 95%
2006-2012 Global Exchange - Percent Loyalty to Finance, Insurance, Real Estate Lobby 0%

Conservative

2014 Americans for Prosperity - Lifetime Score (June 23, 2014) 14%
2014 Americans for Prosperity - Positions (June 23, 2014) 17%
2014 Americans for Prosperity - Positions (Jan. 7, 2014) 10%
2014 Americans for Prosperity - Lifetime Score 10%
2014 Conservative Review - Positions 6
2014 Heritage Action for America - Positions (Jan. 9, 2014) 16%
2014 Heritage Action for America - Positions (113th Congress) 12%
2014 The John Birch Society - Lifetime Score 24%
2014 The John Birch Society - Positions 26%
2013-2014 Campaign for Working Families - Positions 0%
2013-2014 Eagle Forum - Positions 0%
2013-2014 Faith and Freedom Coalition - Positions 9
2013-2014 Irregular Times/Progressive Patriots/That's My Congress - Conservative Action Score 11
2013-2014 The John Birch Society - Positions (113th Congress, full session) 33%
2013 American Conservative Union - Lifetime Score 5%
2013 American Conservative Union - Positions 16%
2013 Concerned Women for America - Positions 0%
2013 Eagle Forum - Positions 0%
2013 National Journal - Conservative (Composite) 23%
2013 National Journal - Conservative on Economic Policy 20%
2013 National Journal - Conservative on Foreign Policy 14%
2013 The John Birch Society - Positions 0%
2012 American Conservative Union - Lifetime Score 0%
2012 American Conservative Union - Ratings of Congress 0%
2012 Eagle Forum - Positions 0%
2012 National Journal - House Conservative (Foreign) 17%
2012 National Journal - House Conservative (Composite Score) 20%
2012 The Club for Growth - Positions 13%
2012 The John Birch Society - Positions 23%
2011-2012 Americans for Prosperity - Positions 10%
2011-2012 Americans for Prosperity - Lifetime score 5%
2011-2012 Campaign for Working Families - Positions 0%
2011-2012 Concerned Women for America - Positions 7%
2011-2012 Heritage Action for America - Positions 8%
2011-2012 Irregular Times/Progressive Patriots/That's My Congress - Conservative Action Score 15%
2011 American Conservative Union - Lifetime Score 0%
2011 American Conservative Union - Positions 0%
2011 Concerned Women for America - Positions 8%
2011 Eagle Forum - Positions 25%
2011 Heritage Action for America - Positions (House Only) 15%
2011 National Journal - Conservative on Foreign Policy Score 25%
2011 National Journal - Conservative Composite Score 28%
2011 National Journal - Liberal on Foreign Policy Score 74%
2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Summer-Fall) 20%
2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Spring-Summer) 20%
1997-1998 Citizens for Limited Taxation and Government - Positions 10%

Environment

2014 Environment America - Positions 93%
2014 Food Policy Action - Positions 79%
2014 League of Conservation Voters - Lifetime Score 97%
2013-2014 Clean Water Action - Positions 100%
2013-2014 League of Conservation Voters - Positions (113th Congress, full session) 97%
2013 Defenders of Wildlife Action Fund - Positions 83%
2013 Environment America - Positions 100%
2013 Food Policy Action - Positions 92%
2013 League of Conservation Voters - Positions 96%
2013 League of Conservation Voters - Lifetime Score 97%
2012 League of Conservation Voters - Positions 97%
2012 League of Conservation Voters - Lifetime Score 97%
2012 Sierra Club - Positions on Clean water (House Only) 93%
2011-2012 Clean Water Action - Positions 100%
2011-2012 Defenders of Wildlife Action Fund - Positions 100%
2011-2012 Environment America - Positions 88%
2011-2012 Food Policy Action - Positions 79%
2011-2012 League of Conservation Voters - Session Score 97%
2011-2012 National Parks Conservation Association - Positions (House Only) 100%
2011 Environment America - Positions 93%
2011 League of Conservation Voters - Lifetime Score 97%
2011 League of Conservation Voters - Positions 97%
2011 Sierra Club - Positions on Clean Water (House Only) 92%
2011 Women's Action for New Directions (WAND) and WILL - Positions (House Only) 80
2010-2011 Defenders of Wildlife Action Fund - Positions 100%
2006-2012 Global Exchange - Percent Loyalty to Finance, Insurance, Real Estate Lobby 0%
1997 Massachusetts Audubon Society (Legislative Affairs) - Positions 67%

Fiscally Conservative

2014 Americans for Prosperity - Positions (June 23, 2014) 17%
2014 Americans for Prosperity - Positions (Jan. 7, 2014) 10%
2014 Americans for Prosperity - Lifetime Score (June 23, 2014) 14%
2014 Americans for Prosperity - Lifetime Score 10%
2014 Competitive Enterprise Institute - Positions 0
2014 Heritage Action for America - Positions (113th Congress) 12%
2014 Heritage Action for America - Positions (Jan. 9, 2014) 16%
2013-2014 National Tax Limitation Committee - Positions 0%
2013 Competitive Enterprise Institute - Workplace Choice (August, 2013) 0%
2013 FreedomWorks - Positions 24%
2013 National Taxpayers Union - Positions 20%
2013 Republican Liberty Caucus - Personal Liberties 53%
2013 Republican Liberty Caucus - Economic Liberties Score 5%
2013 Republican Liberty Caucus - Liberty Index 29%
2013 The Club for Growth - Positions (lifetime) 9%
2013 The Club for Growth - Positions 12%
2012 FreedomWorks - Positions 15%
2012 National Journal - House Conservative (Economic) 33%
2012 National Taxpayers Union - Positions on Tax and Spending 19%
2011-2012 Americans for Prosperity - Lifetime score 5%
2011-2012 Americans for Prosperity - Positions 10%
2011-2012 Heritage Action for America - Positions 8%
2011 FreedomWorks - Positions 3%
2011 Heritage Action for America - Positions (House Only) 15%
2011 National Journal - Conservative on Economic Policy Score 26%
2011 National Taxpayers Union - Positions on Tax and Spending 14%
2011 The Club for Growth - Positions 2%

Foreign Affairs

2014 Friends Committee on National Legislation - Positions 100%
2014 Peace Action West - Positions (June 3, 2014) 81%
2013-2014 Council for a Livable World - Positions (House) 100%
2013-2014 Massachusetts Peace Action - Positions 50%
2013 Arab American Institute - Positions on Arab-American Issues 78%
2013 Friends Committee on National Legislation - Positions 79%
2013 National Journal - Conservative on Foreign Policy 14%
2013 National Journal - Liberal on Foreign Policy 86%
2013 Peace Action West - Positions (Nov. 20, 2013) 81%
2012 Arab American Institute - Positions on Arab-American Issues 13%
2012 Armenian National Committee of America - Positions 69%
2012 Citizens for Global Solutions - Global Issues Score 92%
2012 Friends Committee on National Legislation - Positions 73%
2012 National Journal - House Liberal (Foreign) 81%
2012 Peace Action - Positions 86%
2011-2012 ACT! for America - Positions 8%
2011-2012 American Security Council Foundation - Positions 10%
2011-2012 PeacePAC - Positions (PeacePAC is sister organization of Council for a Livable World rating House Only) 100%
2011-2012 United States Campaign to End the Israeli Occupation - Positions on International Middle East Human Rights 44%
2011-2012 USA Engage - Positions 38%
2011-2012 Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (WRMEA) - Positions 60%
2011 American Security Council Foundation - Positions 30%
2011 Arab American Institute - Positions on Arab-American Issues 0%
2011 Citizens for Global Solutions - Global Issues Score 91%
2011 Friends Committee on National Legislation - Positions 40%
2011 National Journal - Liberal on Foreign Policy Score 74%
2011 National Journal - Conservative on Foreign Policy Score 25%
2011 Peace Action West - Positions 64%
2006-2012 Global Exchange - Percent Loyalty to Finance, Insurance, Real Estate Lobby 0%

Health and Health Care

2014 Alzheimer's Impact Movement - Positions 50%
2014 American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists - Positions (House Only) 0
2014 American Veterinary Medical Association - Positions on Professional Advocacy 67%
2014 Food Policy Action - Positions 79%
2014 National Right to Life Committee - Positions (June 4, 2014) 0%
2014 Planned Parenthood Action Fund - Positions (June 27, 2014) 100%
2014 Planned Parenthood Action Fund - Positions captured January 9, 2014 (reflect past 6 years' voting record) 100%
2013-2014 National Breast Cancer Coalition - Positions 100%
2013 American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists - Positions (House Only) 0
2013 American Public Health Association - Positions 100%
2013 American Veterinary Medical Association - Positions on Professional Advocacy 67%
2013 Food Policy Action - Positions 92%
2013 National Right to Life Committee - Positions (Jan. 14, 2014) 0%
2013 Planned Parenthood Action Fund - Positions captured February, 2013 (reflect voting records of past 6 years) 100%
2012 AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) Advocacy Association - Positions 25%
2012 Planned Parenthood Action Fund - Positions captured June, 2012 (reflect voting records of past 6 years) 100%
2011-2012 Food Policy Action - Positions 79%
2011-2012 National Right to Life Committee - Positions 0%
2011 AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) Advocacy Association - Positions 67%
2011 American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists - Positions (House Only) 100%
2011 American Nurses Association - Positions 100%
2011 American Veterinary Medical Association - Positions on Professional Advocacy 100%
2011 Association of University Centers on Disabilities - Positions 75%
2011 National Right to Life Committee - Positions 0%
2011 The Children's Health Fund - Positions (House Only) 100%

Immigration

2014 Federation for American Immigration Reform - Positions 0%
2014 Hispanic Federation, LCLAA, LULAC, Mi Familia Vota, NCLR, and Voto Latino - National Immigration Scorecard 100%
2014 National Council of La Raza - Positions (Preliminary) 100%
2014 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Overall Score (Jan. 7, 2014) 29%
2013-2014 National Hispanic Leadership Agenda - Positions on Immigration Reform 100%
2013-2014 National Hispanic Leadership Agenda - Positions on Economic Empowerment 100%
2013-2014 National Hispanic Leadership Agenda - Positions 100%
2013-2014 National Iranian American Council - Positions 50%
2013 Arab American Institute - Positions on Arab-American Issues 78%
2012 Arab American Institute - Positions on Arab-American Issues 13%
2012 The American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association - Legislation Evaluation (House Only) 35%
2011-2012 Americans for Better Immigration - Positions 35%
2011-2012 The American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association - Positions 68%
2011-2012 The Public Affairs Alliance of Iranian Americans - Positions 17%
2011 Arab American Institute - Positions on Arab-American Issues 0%
2009-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Positions - Reduce Unnecessary Foreign Workers (Feb 11, 2013) 0%
2009-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Positions - Reduce Illegal Immigration at the Border (Feb 11, 2013) 33%
2009-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Positions - Overall (Feb 11, 2013) 18%
2009-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Positions - Reduce Illegal Jobs and Presence (Feb 11, 2013) 42%
1989-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Reduce Chain Migration - Career (Feb 11, 2013) %
1989-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Reduce Anchor Baby Citizenship - Career (Feb 11, 2013) %
1989-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Reduce Illegal Immigration at the Border - Career (Feb 11, 2013) %
1989-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Reduce Illegal Immigration Rewards - Career (Feb 11, 2013) %
1989-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Reduce Illegal Jobs and Presence - Career (Feb 11, 2013) %
1989-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Reduce Visa Lottery - Career (Feb 11, 2013) %
1989-2013 NumbersUSA [Americans for Better Immigration] - Overall - Career (Feb 11, 2013) 18%

Labor Unions

2014 United Food & Commercial Workers - Positions 100%
2013-2014 International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers - Positions (House) 100%
2013-2014 Workplace Choice - Positions 0
2013-2014 Workplace Choice - Positions (113th Congress, full session) 13%
2013 American Federation of Government Employees - Positions 89%
2013 American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) - Lifetime Score 97%
2013 American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) - Positions 100%
2013 American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees (AFSCME) - Lifetime Score 100%
2013 American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees (AFSCME) - Positions 100%
2013 International Brotherhood of Boilermakers - Positions 92%
2013 International Foodservice Distributors Association - Positions 0%
2012 American Federation of Government Employees - Positions 84
2012 American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) - Lifetime Score 96%
2012 American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) - Positions 90%
2012 American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees (AFSCME) - Lifetime Score 100%
2012 American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees (AFSCME) - Positions 100%
2012 International Brotherhood of Boilermakers - Positions 94%
2012 Service Employees International Union (SEIU) - Positions 100%
2011-2012 American Federation of Teachers - Positions 100%
2011-2012 International Foodservice Distributors Association - Positions (House) 25%
2011-2012 United Food & Commercial Workers - Positions 100%
2011 American Federation of Government Employees - Positions 92%
2011 American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) - Positions 100%
2011 American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees (AFSCME) - Lifetime Score 100%
2011 American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees (AFSCME) - Positions 100%
2011 International Brotherhood of Boilermakers - Positions 71%
1995-1998 Massachusetts AFL-CIO - Positions 100%

Religion

2014 Americans United for the Separation of Church and State - Positions (House Only) 0%
2014 Friends Committee on National Legislation - Positions 100%
2014 The John Birch Society - Positions 26%
2014 The John Birch Society - Lifetime Score 24%
2013-2014 CitizenLink - Positions (House Only) 0%
2013-2014 Muslim Public Affairs Council - Positions 40%
2013-2014 The John Birch Society - Positions (113th Congress, full session) 33%
2013 Americans United for the Separation of Church and State - Positions 0%
2013 Bread for the World - Positions 90%
2013 Concerned Women for America - Positions 0%
2013 Family Research Council - Positions (113th Congress, first session) 0%
2013 Friends Committee on National Legislation - Positions 79%
2013 Secular Coalition for America - Congressional Positions 70%
2013 The John Birch Society - Positions 0%
2013 Venn Institute - Scorecard for International Religious Freedom 17%
2013 Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) - Positions 66%
2012 Bread for the World - Positions 100%
2012 Catholic Advocate - Positions 0%
2012 Friends Committee on National Legislation - Positions 73%
2012 NETWORK, A National Catholic Social Justice Lobby - Positions 100%
2012 Open Doors USA - Positions 50%
2012 The John Birch Society - Positions 23%
2011-2012 ACT! for America - Positions 8%
2011-2012 Concerned Women for America - Positions 7%
2011 Americans United for the Separation of Church and State - Positions (House Only) 100%
2011 Christian Coalition of America - Positions 0%
2011 Concerned Women for America - Positions 8%
2011 Family Research Council - Positions 0%
2011 Secular Coalition for America - Congressional Positions 50%
2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Summer-Fall) 20%
2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Spring-Summer) 20%

Socially Conservative

2014 Heritage Action for America - Positions (Jan. 9, 2014) 16%
2014 Heritage Action for America - Positions (Jan. 9, 2014) 16%
2014 Heritage Action for America - Positions (113th Congress) 12%
2014 Heritage Action for America - Positions (113th Congress) 12%
2014 The John Birch Society - Positions 26%
2014 The John Birch Society - Positions 26%
2014 The John Birch Society - Lifetime Score 24%
2014 The John Birch Society - Lifetime Score 24%
2013-2014 Campaign for Working Families - Positions 0%
2013-2014 Campaign for Working Families - Positions 0%
2013-2014 Eagle Forum - Positions 0%
2013-2014 Eagle Forum - Positions 0%
2013-2014 The John Birch Society - Positions (113th Congress, full session) 33%
2013-2014 The John Birch Society - Positions (113th Congress, full session) 33%
2013 Concerned Women for America - Positions 0%
2013 Concerned Women for America - Positions 0%
2013 Eagle Forum - Positions 0%
2013 Eagle Forum - Positions 0%
2013 National Journal - Conservative on Social Policy 35%
2013 National Journal - Conservative on Social Policy 35%
2013 Republican Liberty Caucus - Liberty Index 29%
2013 Republican Liberty Caucus - Liberty Index 29%
2013 Republican Liberty Caucus - Personal Liberties 53%
2013 Republican Liberty Caucus - Economic Liberties Score 5%
2013 Republican Liberty Caucus - Personal Liberties 53%
2013 Republican Liberty Caucus - Economic Liberties Score 5%
2013 The John Birch Society - Positions 0%
2013 The John Birch Society - Positions 0%
2012 Catholic Advocate - Positions 0%
2012 Catholic Advocate - Positions 0%
2012 Eagle Forum - Positions 0%
2012 Eagle Forum - Positions 0%
2012 Family Research Council - Positions 16%
2012 Family Research Council - Positions 16%
2012 National Journal - House Conservative (Social) 0%
2012 National Journal - House Conservative (Social) 0%
2012 The John Birch Society - Positions 23%
2012 The John Birch Society - Positions 23%
2011-2012 Campaign for Working Families - Positions 0%
2011-2012 Campaign for Working Families - Positions 0%
2011-2012 Concerned Women for America - Positions 7%
2011-2012 Concerned Women for America - Positions 7%
2011-2012 Heritage Action for America - Positions 8%
2011-2012 Heritage Action for America - Positions 8%
2011-2012 National Right to Life Committee - Positions 0%
2011-2012 National Right to Life Committee - Positions 0%
2011 Christian Coalition of America - Positions 0%
2011 Christian Coalition of America - Positions 0%
2011 Concerned Women for America - Positions 8%
2011 Concerned Women for America - Positions 8%
2011 Eagle Forum - Positions 25%
2011 Eagle Forum - Positions 25%
2011 Family Research Council - Positions 0%
2011 Family Research Council - Positions 0%
2011 Heritage Action for America - Positions (House Only) 15%
2011 Heritage Action for America - Positions (House Only) 15%
2011 National Journal - Conservative on Social Policy Score 33%
2011 National Journal - Conservative on Social Policy Score 33%
2011 National Right to Life Committee - Positions 0%
2011 National Right to Life Committee - Positions 0%
2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Summer-Fall) 20%
2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Summer-Fall) 20%
2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Spring-Summer) 20%
2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Spring-Summer) 20%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Project Vote Smart displays all known interest group ratings for each candidate and official, regardless of issue or bias.

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.

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