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How To Interpret These Evaluations

Business and Consumers

2012 National Association of Manufacturers - Positions of 112th Congress 14% 2012 National Electrical Contractors Association - Positions 50% 2012 United States Chamber of Commerce - Positions 17% 2012 United States Chamber of Commerce - Lifetime Score 15% 2011-2012 American Council of Engineering Companies - Positions 64 2011-2012 Independent Electrical Contractors - Positions (House) 0% 2011-2012 National Association of Manufacturers - Positions 8% 2011-2012 National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 0% 2011-2012 National Retail Federation - Positions: International Trade 0% 2011-2012 National Stone, Sand & Gravel Association - Positions 28% 2011-2012 Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors-National Association - Positions 20% 2011-2012 Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council - Positions 20% 2011 National Electrical Contractors Association - Positions (House Only) 100% 2011 National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 0% 2011 National Retail Federation - Positions 0% 2011 National Small Business Association - Positions 66% 2011 National Stone, Sand & Gravel Association - Positions 25% 2011 The National Lumber and Building Material Dealers Association - Positions 0% 2011 United States Chamber of Commerce - Positions 13% 2009-2010 Michigan Chamber of Commerce - Positions 9% 2009-2010 Michigan National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 30% 2007-2008 Michigan Chamber of Commerce - Positions 29% 2007-2008 Michigan National Federation of Independent Business - Positions on Pro-Small Business Policy 30 2005-2006 Michigan Chamber of Commerce - Positions 38% 2005-2006 Michigan National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 33% 2003-2004 Michigan Chamber of Commerce - Positions 21% 2003-2004 Michigan National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 40% 2001-2002 Michigan Chamber of Commerce - Positions 25% 2001-2002 Michigan National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 25% 2000 Michigan Chamber of Commerce - Positions 0% 1999-2000 Michigan National Federation of Independent Business - Positions 40%

Environment

2012 League of Conservation Voters - Lifetime Score 96% 2012 League of Conservation Voters - Positions 91% 2012 Sierra Club - Positions on Clean water (House Only) 100% 2011-2012 Clean Water Action - Positions 100% 2011-2012 Defenders of Wildlife Action Fund - Positions 100% 2011-2012 Environment America - Positions 100% 2011-2012 Food Policy Action - Positions 93% 2011-2012 League of Conservation Voters - Session Score 96% 2011-2012 National Parks Conservation Association - Positions (House Only) 86% 2011 Environment America - Positions 100% 2011 League of Conservation Voters - Lifetime Score 100% 2011 League of Conservation Voters - Positions 100% 2011 Sierra Club - Positions on Clean Water (House Only) 100% 2011 Women's Action for New Directions (WAND) and-WILL - Positions (House Only) 85 2010-2011 Defenders of Wildlife Action Fund - Positions 100% 2009-2010 Michigan League of Conservation Voters - Positions 100% 2009-2010 Michigan League of Conservation Voters - Lifetime Score 93% 2007-2008 Michigan League of Conservation Voters - Positions on Environmental Conservation 100 2006-2012 Global Exchange - Percent Loyalty to Finance, Insurance, Real Estate Lobby 0% 2005-2006 Clean Water Action Michigan - Positions 100% 2005-2006 Environment Michigan - Positions on Environmental Conservation 100 2005-2006 Michigan League of Conservation Voters - Positions 100% 2003-2006 The Mackinac - Sierra Club Michigan Chapter - Positions 100% 2003 Michigan League of Conservation Voters - Positions 71% 2001-2002 The Mackinac - Sierra Club Michigan Chapter - Positions 89% 1999-2002 Michigan League of Conservation Voters - Positions 88%

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

Socially Conservative

2012 Catholic Advocate - Positions 0% 2012 Catholic Advocate - Positions 0% 2012 Eagle Forum - Positions 0% 2012 Eagle Forum - Positions 0% 2012 Family Research Council - Positions 0% 2012 Family Research Council - Positions 0% 2012 National Journal - House Conservative (Social) 0% 2012 National Journal - House Conservative (Social) 0% 2012 The John Birch Society - Positions 31% 2012 The John Birch Society - Positions 31% 2011-2012 Campaign for Working Families - Positions 0% 2011-2012 Campaign for Working Families - Positions 0% 2011-2012 Concerned Women for America - Positions 3% 2011-2012 Concerned Women for America - Positions 3% 2011-2012 Heritage Action for America - Positions 13% 2011-2012 Heritage Action for America - Positions 13% 2011-2012 National Right to Life Committee - Positions 0% 2011-2012 National Right to Life Committee - Positions 0% 2011 Christian Coalition of America - Positions 0% 2011 Christian Coalition of America - Positions 0% 2011 Concerned Women for America - Positions 3% 2011 Concerned Women for America - Positions 3% 2011 Eagle Forum - Positions 38% 2011 Eagle Forum - Positions 38% 2011 Family Research Council - Positions 10% 2011 Family Research Council - Positions 10% 2011 Heritage Action for America - Positions (House Only) 0% 2011 Heritage Action for America - Positions (House Only) 0% 2011 National Journal - Conservative on Social Policy Score 20% 2011 National Journal - Conservative on Social Policy Score 20% 2011 National Right to Life Committee - Positions 0% 2011 National Right to Life Committee - Positions 0% 2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Spring-Summer) 20% 2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Summer-Fall) 25% 2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Summer-Fall) 25% 2011 The John Birch Society - Positions (Spring-Summer) 20%

How to Interpret these Evaluations

Project Vote Smart displays all known interest group ratings for each candidate and official, regardless of issue or bias.

Keep in mind that ratings done by special interest groups often do not represent a non-partisan stance. In addition, some groups select votes that tend to favor members of one political party over another, rather than choosing votes based solely on issues concerns. Nevertheless, they can be invaluable in showing where an incumbent has stood on a series of votes in the past one or two years, especially when ratings by groups on all sides of an issue are compared. Website links, if available, and descriptions of the organizations offering performance evaluations are accessible by clicking on the name of the group.

Most performance evaluations are displayed in a percentage format. However, some organizations present their ratings in the form of a letter grade or endorsement based on voting records, interviews, survey results and/or sources of campaign funding. For consistency and ease in understanding, Project Vote Smart converts all scores into a percentage when possible. Please visit the group's website or call 1-888-VOTESMART for more specific information.